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Philipp Kickingereder, Ovidiu Cristian Andronesi
Magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of brain tumors. Novel imaging techniques that specifically interrogate aspects of underlying tumor biology and biochemical pathways have great potential in neuro-oncology. This review focuses on the emerging role of 2-hydroxyglutarate-targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as radiomics and radiogenomics in establishing diagnosis for isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant gliomas, and for monitoring treatment response and predicting prognosis of this group of brain tumor patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Jingjing Xu, Yanbin Tan, Minming Zhang
Tumor precision medicine is an emerging approach for tumor diagnosis, treatment and prevention, which takes account of individual variability of environment, lifestyle and genetic information. Tumor precision medicine is built up on the medical imaging innovations developed during the past decades, including the new hardware, new imaging agents, standardized protocols, image analysis and multimodal imaging fusion technology. Also the development of automated and reproducible analysis algorithm has extracted large amount of information from image-based features...
May 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Fabian Kiessling
ᅟ: KEY POINTS: • Radiomics and radiogenomics will merge radiology, nuclear medicine, pathology and laboratory medicine. • Automation of image data analysis will change the daily routine work. • Image-guided therapy and handling complex radiogenomic data will play a major role.
February 27, 2018: European Radiology
Gloria C Chiang, Ilhami Kovanlikaya, Changho Choi, Rohan Ramakrishna, Rajiv Magge, Dikoma C Shungu
Advances in metabolic imaging techniques have allowed for more precise characterization of gliomas, particularly as it relates to tumor recurrence or pseudoprogression. Furthermore, the emerging field of radiogenomics where radiographic features are systemically correlated with molecular markers has the potential to achieve the holy grail of neuro-oncologic neuro-radiology, namely molecular diagnosis without requiring tissue specimens. In this section, we will review the utility of metabolic imaging and discuss the current state of the art related to the radiogenomics of glioblastoma...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
J Lv, H Zhang, J Ma, Y Ma, G Gao, Z Song, Y Yang
AIM: To compare computed tomography (CT) radiogenomic and clinical characteristics between patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) mutations in lung adenocarcinomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of patients with histopathologically confirmed lung adenocarcinoma, who had complete clinical and imaging data, and were tested for EGFR and KRAS mutations. Of the 313 included patients, 116 had effective EGFR mutations (EGFR group), 31 had KRAS mutations (KRAS group), and 166 had no EGFR or KRAS mutations (control group)...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Jia Wu, Khin Khin Tha, Lei Xing, Ruijiang Li
Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of cancer, as well as in radiation treatment planning and evaluation of therapeutic response. Recently, there has been significant interest in extracting quantitative information from clinical standard-of-care images, i.e. radiomics, in order to provide a more comprehensive characterization of image phenotypes of the tumor. A number of studies have demonstrated that a deeper radiomic analysis can reveal novel image features that could provide useful diagnostic, prognostic or predictive information, improving upon currently used imaging metrics such as tumor size and volume...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Niha Beig, Jay Patel, Prateek Prasanna, Virginia Hill, Amit Gupta, Ramon Correa, Kaustav Bera, Salendra Singh, Sasan Partovi, Vinay Varadan, Manmeet Ahluwalia, Anant Madabhushi, Pallavi Tiwari
Hypoxia, a characteristic trait of Glioblastoma (GBM), is known to cause resistance to chemo-radiation treatment and is linked with poor survival. There is hence an urgent need to non-invasively characterize tumor hypoxia to improve GBM management. We hypothesized that (a) radiomic texture descriptors can capture tumor heterogeneity manifested as a result of molecular variations in tumor hypoxia, on routine treatment naïve MRI, and (b) these imaging based texture surrogate markers of hypoxia can discriminate GBM patients as short-term (STS), mid-term (MTS), and long-term survivors (LTS)...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wei Xia, Ying Chen, Rui Zhang, Zhuangzhi Yan, Xiaobo Zhou, Bo Zhang, Xin Gao
Our objective was to identify prognostic imaging biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) with biological interpretations by associating imaging features and gene modules. We retrospectively analyzed 371 patients who had gene expression profiles. For the 38 patients with CECT imaging data, automatic intra-tumor partitioning was performed, resulting in three spatially distinct subregions. We extracted a total of 37 quantitative imaging features describing intensity, geometry, and texture from each subregion...
February 6, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Rajat Thawani, Michael McLane, Niha Beig, Soumya Ghose, Prateek Prasanna, Vamsidhar Velcheti, Anant Madabhushi
Lung cancer is responsible for a large proportion of cancer-related deaths across the globe, with delayed detection being perhaps the most significant factor for its high mortality rate. Though the National Lung Screening Trial argues for screening of certain at-risk populations, the practical implementation of these screening efforts has not yet been successful and remains in high demand. Radiomics refers to the computerized extraction of data from radiologic images, and provides unique potential for making lung cancer screening more rapid and accurate using machine learning algorithms...
January 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
T Rattay, R P Symonds, S Shokuhi, C J Talbot, J B Schnur
AIMS: In the field of radiogenomics, several potential predictive genetic markers have been identified that are associated with individual susceptibility to radiation toxicity. Predictive models of radiation toxicity incorporating radiogenomics and other biomarkers are being developed as part of the ongoing multicentre REQUITE trial. The purpose of this study was to explore patient attitudes towards future predictive radiogenomics testing for breast radiation toxicity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with breast cancer patients taking part in the REQUITE study at one centre...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
D Leithner, G J Wengert, T H Helbich, S Thakur, R E Ochoa-Albiztegui, E A Morris, K Pinker
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established method in breast imaging, with manifold clinical applications, including the non-invasive differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions, preoperative staging, detection of scar versus recurrence, implant assessment, and the evaluation of high-risk patients. At present, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is the most sensitive imaging technique for breast cancer diagnosis, and provides excellent morphological and to some extent also functional information...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Radiology
Sizhe Chen, Zhenyuan Ning, Xiaoshun He, Xiaolong Qi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Radiology
C Le Fèvre, L Poty, G Noël
The many advances in data collection computing systems (data collection, database, storage), diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities are responsible for an increase and a diversification of available data. Big data offers the capacities, in the field of health, to accelerate the discoveries and to optimize the management of patients by combining a large volume of data and the creation of therapeutic models. In radiotherapy, the development of big data is attractive because data are very numerous et heterogeneous (demographics, radiomics, genomics, radiogenomics, etc...
November 14, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Katja Pinker, Fuki Shitano, Evis Sala, Richard K Do, Robert J Young, Andreas G Wibmer, Hedvig Hricak, Elizabeth J Sutton, Elizabeth A Morris
With the genomic revolution in the early 1990s, medical research has been driven to study the basis of human disease on a genomic level and to devise precise cancer therapies tailored to the specific genetic makeup of a tumor. To match novel therapeutic concepts conceived in the era of precision medicine, diagnostic tests must be equally sufficient, multilayered, and complex to identify the relevant genetic alterations that render cancers susceptible to treatment. With significant advances in training and medical imaging techniques, image analysis and the development of high-throughput methods to extract and correlate multiple imaging parameters with genomic data, a new direction in medical research has emerged...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Durgesh Kumar Dwivedi, Yonatan Chatzinoff, Yue Zhang, Qing Yuan, Michael Fulkerson, Rajiv Chopra, James Brugarolas, Jeffrey A Cadeddu, Payal Kapur, Ivan Pedrosa
OBJECTIVE: To implement a platform for colocalization of in vivo quantitative multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging features with ex vivo surgical specimens of patients with renal masses using patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D)-printed tumor molds, which may aid in targeted tissue procurement and radiomics and radiogenomic analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Volumetric segmentation of 6 renal masses was performed with 3D Slicer ( to create a 3D tumor model...
October 19, 2017: Urology
Paul Eichinger, Esther Alberts, Claire Delbridge, Stefano Trebeschi, Alexander Valentinitsch, Stefanie Bette, Thomas Huber, Jens Gempt, Bernhard Meyer, Juergen Schlegel, Claus Zimmer, Jan S Kirschke, Bjoern H Menze, Benedikt Wiestler
We hypothesized that machine learning analysis based on texture information from the preoperative MRI can predict IDH mutational status in newly diagnosed WHO grade II and III gliomas. This retrospective study included in total 79 consecutive patients with a newly diagnosed WHO grade II or III glioma. Local binary pattern texture features were generated from preoperative B0 and fractional anisotropy (FA) diffusion tensor imaging. Using a training set of 59 patients, a single hidden layer neural network was then trained on the texture features to predict IDH status...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniel Chow, Peter Chang, Brent D Weinberg, Daniela A Bota, Jack Grinband, Christopher G Filippi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to summarize advances in the molecular analysis of gliomas, the role genetics plays in MRI features, and how machine-learning approaches can be used to survey the tumoral environment. CONCLUSION: The genetic profile of gliomas influences the course of treatment and clinical outcomes. Though biopsy is the reference standard for determining tumor genetics, it can suffer diagnostic delays due to surgical planning and pathologic assessment...
January 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Hervé J Brisse, Thomas Blanc, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Véronique Mosseri, Pascale Philippe-Chomette, Isabelle Janoueix-Lerosey, Gaelle Pierron, Eve Lapouble, Michel Peuchmaur, Paul Fréneaux, Louise Galmiche, Nathalie Algret, Matthieu Peycelon, Jean Michon, Olivier Delattre, Sabine Sarnacki
PURPOSE: This study investigated relationships between neuroblastomas (NBs) imaging phenotypes, tumor genomic profile and patient outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This IRB-approved retrospective observational study included 133 NB patients (73 M, 60 F; median age 15 months, range 0-151) treated in a single institution between 1998 and 2012. A consensus review of imaging (CT-scan, MRI) categorized tumors according to both the primarily involved compartment (i.e., neck, chest, abdomen or pelvis) and the sympathetic anatomical structure the tumors rose from (i...
2017: PloS One
Bojiang Chen, Rui Zhang, Yuncui Gan, Lan Yang, Weimin Li
Since the discovery of X-rays at the end of the 19th century, medical imageology has progressed for 100 years, and medical imaging has become an important auxiliary tool for clinical diagnosis. With the launch of the human genome project (HGP) and the development of various high-throughput detection techniques, disease exploration in the post-genome era has extended beyond investigations of structural changes to in-depth analyses of molecular abnormalities in tissues, organs and cells, on the basis of gene expression and epigenetics...
September 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
Xiang Liu, Rajiv Mangla, Wei Tian, Xing Qiu, Dongmei Li, Kevin A Walter, Sven Ekholm, Mahlon D Johnson
The radiogenomics association of neovascularization is important for overall survival (OS) in glioblastoma patients and remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to assess the association between MR perfusion imaging derived parameters and genomic biomarkers of glioblastoma, and to evaluate their prognostic value. This retrospective study enrolled 41 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The mean and maximal relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) ratio (rCBVmean and rCBVmax ), derived from MR perfusion weighted imaging, of the enhancing tumor, as well as maximal rCBV ratio of peri-enhancing tumor area (rCBVperi-tumor ) were measured...
December 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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