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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156430/chromium-tolerance-bioaccumulation-and-localization-in-plants-an-overview
#1
REVIEW
Vibha Sinha, Kannan Pakshirajan, Rakhi Chaturvedi
In the current industrial scenario, chromium (Cr) as a metal is of great importance, but poses a major threat to the environment. Phytoremediation provides an environmentally sustainable, ecofriendly, cost effective approach for environmental cleanup of Cr. This review presents the current status of phytoremediation research with particular emphasis on cleanup of Cr contaminated soil and water systems. It gives a detailed account of the work done by different authors on the Cr bioavailability, uptake pathway, toxicity and storage in plants following the phytoextraction mechanism...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156285/modelling-spatial-and-temporal-variations-of-annual-suspended-sediment-yields-from-small-agricultural-catchments
#2
A Rymszewicz, M Bruen, J J O'Sullivan, J N Turner, D M Lawler, J R Harrington, E Conroy, M Kelly-Quinn
Estimates of sediment yield are important for ecological and geomorphological assessment of fluvial systems and for assessment of soil erosion within a catchment. Many regulatory frameworks, such as the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, derived from the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) require reporting of annual sediment fluxes. While they may be measured in large rivers, sediment flux is rarely measured in smaller rivers. Measurements of sediment transport at a national scale can be also challenging and therefore, sediment yield models are often utilised by water resource managers for the predictions of sediment yields in the ungauged catchments...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154098/generation-and-application-of-a-novel-transgenic-zebrafish-line-tg-cyp1a-mcherry-as-an-in-vivo-assay-to-sensitively-monitor-pahs-and-tcdd-in-the-environment
#3
Shao-Lin Xie, Muhammad Junaid, Wan-Ping Bian, Juan-Juan Luo, Jabir Hussain Syed, Chao Wang, Wen-Xu Xiong, Yan-Bo Ma, Aping Niu, Xiao-Jun Yang, Ji-Xing Zou, De-Sheng Pei
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are classified as human carcinogens, and can also cause serious health problems. To develop a convenient bio-monitoring tool for the detection of PAHs and TCDD in the environment, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line Tg(cyp1a:mCherry) with cyp1a promoter driving mCherry expression. Here, Tg(cyp1a:mCherry) embryos were treated with different concentrations of TCDD and five US EPA priority PAHs congeners. The results showed that the expressions of mCherry and endogenous cyp1a were consistent with the PAHs exposure concentrations and were largely induced by TCDD and ≥4-ring PAHs...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150255/effects-of-red-earthworms-eisenia-fetida-on-leachability-of-lead-minerals-in-soil
#4
Armin Kavehei, Grant C Hose, Damian B Gore
Contamination of soils by metals and metalloids is an important environmental problem in many residential and industrial sites around the world. Lead is a common contaminant, which enters the soil through mining, industrial activities and waste disposal. A range of technologies can be used to remediate soil lead, however most remediation technologies adversely affect the environment and particularly soil biota. We have assessed the efficacy of vermiremediation (the use of earthworms for remediation) to reduce water extractable lead concentrations in soil...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145144/pyrethroid-pesticide-residues-in-the-global-environment-an-overview
#5
REVIEW
Wangxin Tang, Di Wang, Jiaqi Wang, Zhengwen Wu, Lingyu Li, Mingli Huang, Shaohui Xu, Dongyun Yan
Pyrethroids are synthetic organic insecticides with low mammalian toxicity that are widely used in both rural and urban areas worldwide. After entering the natural environment, pyrethroids circulate among the three phases of solid, liquid, and gas and enter organisms through food chains, resulting in substantial health risks. This review summarized the available studies on pyrethroid residues since 1986 in different media at the global scale and indicated that pyrethroids have been widely detected in a range of environments (including soils, water, sediments, and indoors) and in organisms...
October 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144297/effect-of-reagents-used-during-detection-and-quantification-of-ascaris-suum-in-environmental-samples-on-egg-viability
#6
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Poovendhree Reddy, Thor Axel Stenström
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are a major health concern globally. Infection is mostly through contact with contaminated water, food or soil. Therefore to break the cycle of viable transmission STH eggs must be quantitatively detected in the environment. The effect of different reagents on the viability of Ascaris suum eggs during laboratory detection and quantification was assessed and different incubation solutions compared. Sulphuric acid gave a slightly higher recovery percentage of viable eggs (91...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144284/integrated-assessment-and-scenarios-simulation-of-urban-water-security-system-in-the-southwest-of-china-with-system-dynamics-analysis
#7
Su Yin, Guan Dongjie, Su Weici, Gao Weijun
The demand for global freshwater is growing, while global freshwater available for human use is limited within a certain time and space. Its security has significant impacts on both the socio-economic system and ecological system. Recently, studies have focused on the urban water security system (UWSS) in terms of either water quantity or water quality. In this study, water resources, water environment, and water disaster issues in the UWSS were combined to establish an evaluation index system with system dynamics (SD) and geographic information systems (GIS)...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143883/rooting-depth-varies-differentially-in-trees-and-grasses-as-a-function-of-mean-annual-rainfall-in-an-african-savanna
#8
Ricardo M Holdo, Jesse B Nippert, Michelle C Mack
A significant fraction of the terrestrial biosphere comprises biomes containing tree-grass mixtures. Forecasting vegetation dynamics in these environments requires a thorough understanding of how trees and grasses use and compete for key belowground resources. There is disagreement about the extent to which tree-grass vertical root separation occurs in these ecosystems, how this overlap varies across large-scale environmental gradients, and what these rooting differences imply for water resource availability and tree-grass competition and coexistence...
November 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141975/dietary-strategies-to-reduce-environmental-impact-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence-base
#9
REVIEW
Bradley G Ridoutt, Gilly A Hendrie, Manny Noakes
The food system is a major source of environmental impact, and dietary change has been recommended as an important and necessary strategy to reduce this impact. However, assessing the environmental performance of diets is complex due to the many types of foods eaten and the diversity of agricultural production systems and local environmental settings. To assess the state of science and identify knowledge gaps, an integrative review of the broad topic of environment and diet was undertaken, with particular focus on the completeness of coverage of environmental concerns and the metrics used...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138307/microdiversity-of-an-abundant-terrestrial-bacterium-encompasses-extensive-variation-in-ecologically-relevant-traits
#10
Alexander B Chase, Ulas Karaoz, Eoin L Brodie, Zulema Gomez-Lunar, Adam C Martiny, Jennifer B H Martiny
Much genetic diversity within a bacterial community is likely obscured by microdiversity within operational taxonomic units (OTUs) defined by 16S rRNA gene sequences. However, it is unclear how variation within this microdiversity influences ecologically relevant traits. Here, we employ a multifaceted approach to investigate microdiversity within the dominant leaf litter bacterium, Curtobacterium, which comprises 7.8% of the bacterial community at a grassland site undergoing global change manipulations. We use cultured bacterial isolates to interpret metagenomic data, collected in situ over 2 years, together with lab-based physiological assays to determine the extent of trait variation within this abundant OTU...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136830/a-review-of-the-identification-and-detection-of-heavy-metal-ions-in-the-environment-by-voltammetry
#11
REVIEW
Yuanyuan Lu, Xinqiang Liang, Christophe Niyungeko, Junjie Zhou, Jianming Xu, Guangming Tian
Currently, environmental pollution by heavy metals is a global problem. Therefore, it is crucial to develop effective detection techniques to determine the levels of heavy metal contamination in various mediums. Voltammetry is a highly sensitive electrochemical method used for the in situ detection of heavy metal ions. This study investigates the current trends related to electrode modification, developments in materials, and optimization of the experimental parameters. We discuss the sensing performance of four kinds of nanomaterials capable of inorganic modification (metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbonaceous nanomaterials, and their nanocomposites)...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131590/environmental-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-an-overview-and-a-primer
#12
Andre J Simpson, Myrna J Simpson, Ronald Soong
NMR spectroscopy is a versatile tool for the study of structure and interactions in environmental media such as air, soil, and water as well as monitoring the metabolic responses of living organisms to an ever changing environment. Part review, part perspective and part tutorial, this feature is aimed at non-specialists who are interested in learning more about the potential and impact of NMR spectroscopy in environmental research.
November 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129356/multilocus-sequence-analysis-of-homologous-recombination-and-diversity-in-arthrobacter-sensu-lato-named-species-and-glacier-inhabiting-strains
#13
Qing Liu, Yu-Hua Xin, Yu-Guang Zhou, Wen-Xin Chen
Members of the bacterial genus Arthrobacter sensu lato are Gram-positive actinomycetes distributed worldwide and found in numerous environments including soil, water, glacier ice, and sewage. Homologous recombination is an important driving force in bacterial evolution, but its impact on Arthrobacter sensu lato evolution is poorly understood. We evaluated homologous recombination among 41 Arthrobacter sensu lato named species, using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). A high level of recombination was found, associated with strong diversification and a reticulate evolutionary pattern of Arthrobacter sensu lato...
November 3, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128768/contaminated-land-in-colombia-a-critical-review-of-current-status-and-future-approach-for-the-management-of-contaminated-sites
#14
REVIEW
Victor Andres Arias Espana, Alfonso R Rodriguez Pinilla, Paul Bardos, Ravi Naidu
Environmental contaminants can have negative effects on human health and land, air and water resources. Consequently, there have been significant advances in regulation for protecting the environment in developed countries including the development of remediation frameworks and guidelines. On the other hand, fewer studies have been reported on the risks and health effects of contaminants in developing regions and there is scarce information regarding contaminated land assessment and environmental remediation...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127836/combined-use-of-microbial-consortia-isolated-from-different-agricultural-soils-and-cyclodextrin-as-a-bioremediation-technique-for-herbicide-contaminated-soils
#15
J Villaverde, M Rubio-Bellido, A Lara-Moreno, F Merchan, E Morillo
The phenylurea herbicide diuron is persistent in soil, water and groundwater and is considered to be a highly toxic molecule. The principal product of its biodegradation, 3,4-dichloroaniline, exhibits greater toxicity than diuron and is persistent in the environment. Five diuron degrading microbial consortia (C1C5), isolated from different agricultural soils, were investigated for diuron mineralization activity. The C2 consortium was able to mineralize 81.6% of the diuron in solution, while consortium C3 was only able to mineralize 22...
November 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126025/metallurgical-residues-reused-as-filler-after-35years-and-their-natural-weathering-implications-in-a-mountain-area
#16
Leticia Gómez-Nubla, Julene Aramendia, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Juan Manuel Madariaga
The natural weathering of EAF (Electric Arc Furnace) and LF (Ladle Furnace) steel slag was evaluated through changes in the mineralogical and elemental composition. For that purpose, black steel slag and mixture of black and white steel slag were collected from two forest tracks, where they had been used as filler 19 and 35years ago respectively in a protected mountain area. Primary/original and secondary/degradation compounds were identified by spectroscopic techniques (Raman Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS))...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126023/latitudinal-patterns-of-leaf-n-p-stoichiometry-and-nutrient-resorption-of-metasequoia-glyptostroboides-along-the-eastern-coastline-of-china
#17
Hui Zhang, Weihong Guo, Mukui Yu, G Geoff Wang, Tonggui Wu
Latitudinal patterns of leaf stoichiometry and nutrient resorption were not consistent among published studies, likely due to confounding effects from taxonomy (e.g., plant distribution and community composition), and environment, which is also influenced by altitude and longitude. Thus, the latitudinal patterns and environmental mechanism could be best revealed by testing a given species along a latitude gradient with similar altitude and longitude. We determined nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of green (leaf) and senesced leaves (litter) from eight Metasequoia glyptostroboides forests along the eastern coastline of China, with similar altitude and longitude...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122347/stable-and-radioactive-cesium-a-review-about-distribution-in-the-environment-uptake-and-translocation-in-plants-plant-reactions-and-plants-potential-for-bioremediation
#18
REVIEW
Anna Burger, Irene Lichtscheidl
Radiocesium in water, soil, and air represents a severe threat to human health and the environment. It either acts directly on living organisms from external sources, or it becomes incorporated through the food chain, or both. Plants are at the base of the food chain; it is therefore essential to understand the mechanisms of plants for cesium retention and uptake. In this review we summarize investigations about sources of stable and radioactive cesium in the environment and harmful effects caused by internal and external exposure of plants to radiocesium...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117584/environmental-and-health-effects-of-the-herbicide-glyphosate
#19
REVIEW
A H C Van Bruggen, M M He, K Shin, V Mai, K C Jeong, M R Finckh, J G Morris
The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, has been used extensively in the past 40years, under the assumption that side effects were minimal. However, in recent years, concerns have increased worldwide about the potential wide ranging direct and indirect health effects of the large scale use of glyphosate. In 2015, the World Health Organization reclassified glyphosate as probably carcinogenic to humans. A detailed overview is given of the scientific literature on the movement and residues of glyphosate and its breakdown product aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil and water, their toxicity to macro- and microorganisms, their effects on microbial compositions and potential indirect effects on plant, animal and human health...
November 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116778/black-carbon-biochar-in-water-soil-environments-molecular-structure-sorption-stability-and-potential-risk
#20
Fei Lian, Baoshan Xing
Black carbon (BC) is ubiquitous in the environments and participates in various biogeochemical processes. Both positive and negative effects of BC (especially biochar) on the ecosystem have been identified, which are mainly derived from its diverse physicochemical properties. Nevertheless, few studies systematically examined the linkage between the evolution of BC molecular structure with the resulted BC properties, environmental functions as well as potential risk, which is critical for understanding the BC environmental behavior and utilization as a multifunctional product...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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