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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727205/drivers-of-woody-canopy-water-content-responses-to-drought-in-a-mediterranean-type-ecosystem
#1
Tarin Paz-Kagan, Gregory P Asner
Severe droughts increase physiological stress in woody plant species, which can lead to mortality, fundamentally altering the composition, structure, and biogeography of forests in many regions. Little is known, however, about the factors determining the physiological response of woody plants to drought at landscape scales. Our objective was to understand woody plant species responses to ongoing changes in climate, using remotely sensed canopy water content (CWC) as an indicator of plant physiological and phenological status...
July 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727028/production-management-and-the-environment-symposium-measurement-and-mitigation-of-reactive-nitrogen-species-from-swine-and-poultry-production
#2
W Powers, M Capelari
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (NO)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH followed by NO. Excreta emissions are NH, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH production...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725573/determination-of-nitrogen-balance-in-agroecosystems
#3
Upendra M Sainju
Nitrogen balance in agroecosystems provides a quantitative framework of N inputs and outputs and retention in the soil that examines the sustainability of agricultural productivity and soil and environmental quality. Nitrogen inputs include N additions from manures and fertilizers, atmospheric depositions including wet and dry depositions, irrigation water, and biological N fixation. Nitrogen outputs include N removal in crop grain and biomass and N losses through leaching, denitrification, volatilization, surface runoff, erosion, gas emissions, and plant senescence...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725525/microbial-degradation-of-petrochemical-waste-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#4
M H Fulekar
BACKGROUND: Petrochemical industry is one of the fastest growing industries. This industry has immense importance in the growth of economy and manufacture of large varieties of chemicals. The petrochemical industry is a hazardous group of industry generating hazardous waste containing organic and inorganic compounds. In spite of the present treatment process, the hazardous waste compounds are found untreated to the acceptable level and found discharged at soil-water environment resulting into the persistent organic-inorganic pollutant into the environment...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725218/all-new-faces-of-diatoms-potential-source-of-nanomaterials-and-beyond
#5
REVIEW
Meerambika Mishra, Ananta P Arukha, Tufail Bashir, Dhananjay Yadav, G B K S Prasad
Nature's silicon marvel, the diatoms have lately astounded the scientific community with its intricate designs and lasting durability. Diatoms are a major group of phytoplanktons involved in the biogeochemical cycling of silica and are virtually inherent in every environment ranging from water to ice to soil. The usage of diatoms has proved prudently cost effective and its handling neither requires costly materials nor sophisticated instruments. Diatoms can easily be acquired from the environment, their culture requires ambient condition and does not involve any costly media or expensive instruments, besides, they can be transported in small quantities and proliferated to a desirable confluence from that scratch, thus are excellent cost effective industrial raw material...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724591/evidence-for-environment-dependent-introgression-of-adaptive-genes-between-two-red-oak-species-with-different-drought-adaptations
#6
Sudhir Khodwekar, Oliver Gailing
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Introgression of adaptive alleles between hybridizing species is likely an important mechanism to generate new genetic variation for adaptation to rapidly changing environmental conditions. Oaks provide a model for the study of adaptive gene introgression because environmental selection maintains high interspecific differentiation at a few outlier loci and species-specific adaptations despite recurrent interspecific gene flow. Previously, we identified a CONSTANS-like gene under strong divergent selection between drought-tolerant Quercus ellipsoidalis and drought-averse Quercus rubra...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724230/excessive-input-of-phosphorus-significantly-affects-microbial-fe-iii-reduction-in-flooded-paddy-soils-by-changing-the-abundances-and-community-structures-of-clostridium-and-geobacteraceae
#7
Lina Li, Zhi Qu, Rong Jia, Baoli Wang, Yuanyuan Wang, Dong Qu
Microbial Fe(III) reduction can make an excellent contribution to the bioremediation of contaminated environments and potentially reduce methanogenesis. Excessive input of phosphorus (P) by P fertilizer application and eutrophied irrigation water might have a substantial influence on the process of microbial Fe(III) reduction in flooded paddy soils. To evaluate the effect of P application on microbial Fe(III) reduction, the responses of Clostridium and Geobacteraceae communities to different concentrations of P addition (CK: 0mmolPkg(-1) soil; P1: 3...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724108/yellow-perch-perca-flavescens-mercury-unaffected-by-wildland-fires-in-northern-minnesota
#8
Charlotte E Riggs, Randall K Kolka, Edward A Nater, Emma L Witt, Trent R Wickman, Laurel G Woodruff, Jason T Butcher
Wildland fire can alter mercury (Hg) cycling on land and in adjacent aquatic environments. In addition to enhancing local atmospheric Hg redeposition, fire can influence terrestrial movement of Hg and other elements into lakes via runoff from burned upland soil. However, the impact of fire on water quality and the accumulation of Hg in fish remain equivocal. We investigated the effects of fire-specifically, a low-severity prescribed fire and moderate-severity wildfire-on young-of-the-year yellow perch () and lake chemistry in a small remote watershed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness in northeastern Minnesota...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724098/nitrogen-sulfur-and-oxygen-isotope-ratios-of-animal-and-plant-based-organic-fertilizers-used-in-south-korea
#9
Woo-Jin Shin, Jong-Sik Ryu, Bernhard Mayer, Kwang-Sik Lee, Insu Kim
Organic fertilizers are increasingly used in agriculture in Asia and elsewhere. Tracer techniques are desirable to distinguish the fate of nutrients added to agroecosystems with organic fertilizers from those contained in synthetic fertilizers. Therefore, we determined the nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds in animal- and plant-based organic fertilizers (ABOF and PBOF, respectively) used in South Korea to evaluate whether they are isotopically distinct. The δN values of total and organic nitrogen for ABOF ranged from +7 to +19‰ and were higher than those of PBOF (generally <+6‰)...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724080/qtls-associated-with-crown-root-angle-stomatal-conductance-and-maturity-in-sorghum
#10
Jose R Lopez, John E Erickson, Patricio Munoz, Ana Saballos, Terry J Felderhoff, Wilfred Vermerris
Three factors that directly affect the water inputs in cropping systems are root architecture, length of the growing season, and stomatal conductance to water vapor (). Deeper-rooted cultivars will perform better under water-limited conditions because they can access water stored deeper in the soil profile. Reduced limits transpiration rate () and thus throughout the vegetative phase conserves water that may be used during grain filling in water-limited environments. Additionally, growing early-maturing varieties in regions that rely on soil-stored water is a key water management strategy...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719840/environmental-and-human-health-challenges-of-industrial-livestock-and-poultry-farming-in-china-and-their-mitigation
#11
REVIEW
Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks...
July 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716743/low-level-exposure-to-manganese-from-drinking-water-and-cognition-in-school-age-children
#12
Maryse F Bouchard, Céline Surette, Pierre Cormier, Delphine Foucher
BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) is an element found in the environment and certain geographic areas have elevated concentrations in soil and water du to natural conditions or anthropic activities. A growing body of data suggests that exposure to manganese in drinking water could be neurotoxic. OBJECTIVE: Firstly, we aimed to examine the association between exposure to manganese from drinking water and cognition in children consuming well water. Secondly, we also aimed to examine the relation between cognition and manganese concentrations in children's hair, nail, and saliva...
July 14, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710125/visualization-of-extracellular-dna-released-during-border-cell-separation-from-the-root-cap
#13
Fushi Wen, Gilberto Curlango-Rivera, David A Huskey, Zhongguo Xiong, Martha C Hawes
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Root border cells are programmed to separate from the root cap as it penetrates the soil environment, where the cells actively secrete >100 extracellular proteins into the surrounding mucilage. The detached cells function in defense of the root tip by an extracellular trapping process that also requires DNA, as in mammalian white blood cells. Trapping in animals and plants is reversed by treatment with DNase, which results in increased infection. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of DNA in the structural integrity of extracellular structures released as border cells disperse from the root tip upon contact with water...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708321/dynamics-of-culturable-mesophilic-bacterial-communities-of-three-fresh-herbs-and-their-production-environment
#14
Maria-Theresia Gekenidis, Diane Gossin, Mathias Schmelcher, Ulrich Schöner, Mitja N P Remus-Emsermann, David Drissner
AIM: Investigate dynamics of culturable mesophilic bacteria and selected food contaminating bacteria from three herbs and their production environment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Marjoram, basil, and thyme were investigated during one growing season by sampling plants, organic fertilizers, soil, irrigation water, and marketed products. Mesophilic bacteria and selected food contaminating bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Bacillus cereus group) were cultured and identified by MALDI biotyping...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707352/hydraulic-redistribution-limitations-for-plants-in-saline-soils
#15
Nadia Bazihizina, Erik J Veneklaas, Edward G Barrett-Lennard, Timothy D Colmer
Hydraulic redistribution (HR), the movement of water from wet to dry patches in the soil via roots, occurs in different ecosystems and plant species. By extension of the principle that HR is driven by gradients in soil water potential, HR has been proposed to occur for plants in saline soils. Despite the inherent spatial patchiness and salinity gradients in these soils, the lack of direct evidence of HR in response to osmotic gradients prompted us to ask the question: are there physical or physiological constraints to HR for plants in saline environments? We propose that build-up of ions in the root xylem sap and in the leaf apoplast, with the latter resulting in a large predawn disequilibrium of water potential in shoots compared with roots and soil, would both impede HR...
July 13, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707247/reducing-as-availability-in-calcareous-soils-using-nanoscale-zero-valent-iron
#16
Prisa Azari, Abdol Amir Bostani
Different methods, including the use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI), have been used to treat arsenic (As)-contaminated environments, with much less data on the use of NZVI in arsenic-calcareous-polluted soils. Accordingly, two different experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of NZVI on the removal of As from three different calcareous-polluted soils. In the first experiment, the effects of soil type (differing in the rate of clay particles and organic carbon including S1 (8.0 and 0.05%), S2 (20 and 0...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704427/the-influence-of-human-exploration-on-the-microbial-community-structure-and-ammonia-oxidizing-potential-of-the-su-bentu-limestone-cave-in-sardinia-italy
#17
Stefan Leuko, Kaisa Koskinen, Laura Sanna, Ilenia M D'Angeli, Jo De Waele, Paolo Marcia, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Petra Rettberg
The bacterial diversity in the Su Bentu Cave in Sardinia was investigated by means of 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. This 15 km long cave, carved in Jurassic limestone, hosts a variety of calcite speleothems, and a long succession of subterranean lakes with mixed granite and carbonate sands. The lower level is occasionally flooded by a rising groundwater level, but with only scarce input of organic remains (leaves and charcoal fragments). On the quiet cave pools there are visible calcite rafts, whereas walls are locally coated with manganese deposits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702012/community-composition-of-nitrous-oxide-consuming-bacteria-in-the-oxygen-minimum-zone-of-the-eastern-tropical-south-pacific
#18
Xin Sun, Amal Jayakumar, Bess B Ward
The ozone-depleting and greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O), is mainly consumed by the microbially mediated anaerobic process, denitrification. N2O consumption is the last step in canonical denitrification, and is also the least O2 tolerant step. Community composition of total and active N2O consuming bacteria was analyzed based on total (DNA) and transcriptionally active (RNA) nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes using a functional gene microarray. The total and active nosZ communities were dominated by a limited number of nosZ archetypes, affiliated with bacteria from marine, soil and marsh environments...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699119/deposited-atmospheric-dust-as-influenced-by-anthropogenic-emissions-in-northern-china
#19
Yanli Lyu, Lianyou Liu, Lanlan Guo, Yanyan Yang, Zhiqiang Qu, Xia Hu, Guoming Zhang
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) from multinatural and anthropogenic sources poses serious risk to human health and contaminates soil and water resources as it settles back to ground environment and ecosystem. In this study, dust deposition flux (DDF), pollution load index (PLI) of heavy metals, enrichment factor (EF), and settling flux (SF) of eighteen chemical elements were investigated in comparison with crustal composition to assess the influence of anthropogenic emission on PM in major northern Chinese cities...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699005/study-of-chlordecone-desorption-from-activated-carbons-and-subsequent-dechlorination-by-reduced-cobalamin
#20
Ronald Ranguin, Axelle Durimel, Reeka Karioua, Sarra Gaspard
Since 1972, the French departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique have intensively used organochlorinated pesticides such as chlordecone (CLD) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers to prevent the proliferation of banana weevil (Cosmopolite sordidus). These molecules are stable in the environment, leading to a continuous contamination of soils, water, and food chain in the banana-producing areas. In these polluted areas, water treatment plants are equipped with activated carbon (AC) filters. In order to improve treatment of CLD-contaminated waters by AC, CLD adsorption and desorption kinetic studies are carried out using different ACs produced from sugar cane bagasse as adsorbents and subsequent CLD degradation is performed using reduced vitamin B12 (VB12)...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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