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Water, soils, environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352914/silica-in-situ-enhanced-pva-chitosan-biodegradable-films-for-food-packages
#1
Zhen Yu, Baoqiang Li, Jiayu Chu, Peifeng Zhang
Non-degradable plastic food packages threaten the security of environment. The cost-effective and biodegradable polymer films with good mechanical properties and low permeability are very important for food packages. Among of biodegradable polymers, PVA/chitosan (CS) biodegradable films have attracted considerable attention because of feasible film forming ability. However, PVA/CS biodegradable films suffered from poor mechanical properties. To improve mechanical properties of PVA/CS biodegradable films, we developed SiO2in situ to enhance PVA/CS biodegradable films via hydrolysis of sodium metasilicate in presence of PVA and chitosan solution...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351588/sorghum-root-system-classification-in-contrasting-p-environments-reveals-three-main-rooting-types-and-root-architecture-related-marker-trait-associations
#2
Sebastian Parra-Londono, Mareike Kavka, Birgit Samans, Rod Snowdon, Silke Wieckhorst, Ralf Uptmoor
Background and Aims: Roots facilitate acquisition of macro- and micronutrients, which are crucial for plant productivity and anchorage in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is rapidly immobilized in the soil and hardly available for plants. Adaptation to P scarcity relies on changes in root morphology towards rooting systems well suited for topsoil foraging. Root-system architecture (RSA) defines the spatial organization of the network comprising primary, lateral and stem-derived roots and is important for adaptation to stress conditions...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350131/antimicrobial-resistance-in-stenotrophomonas-spp
#3
Yang Wang, Tao He, Zhangqi Shen, Congming Wu
Bacteria of the genus Stenotrophomonas are found throughout the environment, in close association with soil, sewage, and plants. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, the first member of this genus, is the predominant species, observed in soil, water, plants, animals, and humans. It is also an opportunistic pathogen associated with the increased number of infections in both humans and animals in recent years. In this article, we summarize all Stenotrophomonas species (mainly S. maltophilia) isolated from animals and food products of animal origin and further distinguish all isolates based on antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance phenotypes...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346118/mycobacterium-avium-complex-pulmonary-disease-new-epidemiology-and-management-concepts
#4
Leah Lande, Jason George, Theodore Plush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-related pulmonary disease has been increasing because of environmental factors, changes in organism virulence, and evolving host susceptibility. Treatment is often complicated by adverse effects, development of drug resistance, and refractory disease, with recurrence rates as high as 25-45%. RECENT FINDINGS: Aerosolization of water, soil, or dusts are the likely sources of MAC-related pulmonary disease in susceptible individuals...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343426/environmental-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-have-a-higher-probability-to-act-as-a-recipient-in-conjugation-than-clinical-strains
#5
Salma A Shoulah, Anna M Oschmann, Abdelfattah Selim, Torsten Semmler, Carsten Schwarz, Elisabeth Kamal, Faysal Hamouda, Elsayed Galila, Wilbert Bitter, Astrid Lewin
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is a widespread opportunistic pathogen that can be isolated from environment (dust, soil and water) and patients with lung or lymphnode infection. In our previous research we revealed the pronounced genetic diversity in MAH by identifying eight different types of a newly described genomic island. In order to identify mechanisms of such horizontal gene transfer we now analyzed the ability of 47 MAH isolates to inherit the conjugative plasmid pRAW from M. marinum. A higher percentage of environmental isolates (22...
January 14, 2018: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331853/mobility-of-heavy-metals-in-sandy-soil-after-application-of-composts-produced-from-maize-straw-sewage-sludge-and-biochar
#6
K Gondek, M Mierzwa-Hersztek, M Kopeć
Studies on the availability of heavy metals in composted organic materials and in soil amended with these materials are of practical significance. They are used in the assessment of the purity of the soil environment and of the biological value of plants intended for human and animal consumption. Composting of organic materials has a significant effect on changes in mobile forms of heavy metals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of biochar and sewage sludge on (i) the contents of water soluble forms of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in composts; and (ii) the contents of mobile forms of these elements in sandy soil after the addition of composts...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331809/environmental-behavior-of-coated-nms-physicochemical-aspects-and-plant-interactions
#7
REVIEW
Martha L López-Moreno, Yarilyn Cedeño-Mattei, Sonia Janet Bailón-Ruiz, Edgar Vazquez-Nuñez, José A Hernandez-Viezcas, Oscar Juan Perales-Pérez, Guadalupe De la Rosa, José R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
The application of nanomaterials (NMs) depends on several characteristics, including polydispersity, shape, surface charge, and composition, among others. However, the specific surface properties of bare NMs induce aggregation, reducing their utilization. Thus, different surface coverages have been developed to avoid or minimize NMs aggregation, making them more stable for the envisioned applications. Carbon-based NMs are usually coated with metals, while metal-based NMs are coated with natural organic compounds including chitosan, dextran, alginate, or citric acid...
December 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331715/toxicokinetics-of-zn-and-cd-in-the-earthworm-eisenia-andrei-exposed-to-metal-contaminated-soils-under-different-combinations-of-air-temperature-and-soil-moisture-content
#8
M Nazaret González-Alcaraz, Susana Loureiro, Cornelis A M van Gestel
This study evaluated how different combinations of air temperature (20 °C and 25 °C) and soil moisture content (50% and 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), reflecting realistic climate change scenarios, affect the bioaccumulation kinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Earthworms were exposed for 21 d to two metal-contaminated soils (uptake phase), followed by 21 d incubation in non-contaminated soil (elimination phase). Body Zn and Cd concentrations were checked in time and metal uptake (k1) and elimination (k2) rate constants determined; metal bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated as k1/k2...
January 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330677/evaluating-efficacy-of-landsat-derived-environmental-covariates-for-predicting-malaria-distribution-in-rural-villages-of-vhembe-district-south-africa
#9
Oupa E Malahlela, Jane M Olwoch, Clement Adjorlolo
Malaria in South Africa is still a problem despite existing efforts to eradicate the disease. In the Vhembe District Municipality, malaria prevalence is still high, with a mean incidence rate of 328.2 per 100,0000 persons/year. This study aimed at evaluating environmental covariates, such as vegetation moisture and vegetation greenness, associated with malaria vector distribution for better predictability towards rapid and efficient disease management and control. The 2005 malaria incidence data combined with Landsat 5 ETM were used in this study...
January 12, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324349/organic-staining-on-bone-from-exposure-to-wood-and-other-plant-materials
#10
Corey R Pollock, James T Pokines, Jonathan D Bethard
Determining the depositional environment and the postmortem alterations to a set of remains are necessary aspects of a forensic investigation to explain the circumstances surrounding the death of an individual. The present study examines organic staining as a method for reconstructing the depositional environment of skeletal remains and the taphonomic agents with which they came into contact. Organic staining results largely from tannins leaching from plant materials and therefore can be seen on bone deposited in wooden coffin environments or on terrestrial surfaces...
December 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324285/lithium-as-an-emerging-environmental-contaminant-mobility-in-the-soil-plant-system
#11
Brett H Robinson, Rohith Yalamanchali, René Reiser, Nicholas M Dickinson
Contamination of soil with lithium (Li) is likely to increase due to its wider dispersal in the environment, associated in particular, with the disposal of the now ubiquitous Li-ion batteries. There is, however, a paucity of information on the behaviour of Li in the soil-plant system. We measured the sorption of added Li to soil, and uptake of Li by food and fodder species. Around New Zealand, soil concentrations were shown to range from 0.08 mg/kg to 92 mg/kg, and to be positively correlated with clay content...
January 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322334/detection-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-encoding-genes-in-feces-soil-and-water-from-a-brazilian-pig-farm
#12
João Pedro Rueda Furlan, Eliana Guedes Stehling
β-lactam antibiotics are widely used for the treatment of different types of infections worldwide and the resistance to these antibiotics has grown sharply, which is of great concern. Resistance to β-lactams in gram-negative bacteria is mainly due to the production of β-lactamases, which are classified according to their functional activities. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of β-lactamases encoding genes in feces, soil, and water from a Brazilian pig farm. Different β-lactamases encoding genes were found, including blaCTX-M-Gp1, blaCTX-M-Gp9, blaSHV, blaOXA-1-like, blaGES, and blaVEB...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314422/rapid-determination-of-carbendazim-in-complex-matrices-by-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-with-syringe-filter-needle
#13
Bi-Cheng Yang, Xi-di Wan, Xiao Yang, Yun-Jun Li, Xiao-Ju Wan, Yong Luo, Wei Deng, Feng Wang, Ou-Ping Huang
The determination of pesticide residues is an indispensable task in controlling food safety and environment protection. Carbendazim is one of extensive use of pesticides in the agricultural industry. In this study, a simple method utilizing syringe filter has been applied as electrospray ionization emitter for mass spectrometric identification and quantification of carbendazim in complex matrices including soil, natural water, and fruit juice samples, which contain many insoluble materials. With online syringe filter of the complex samples, most of insoluble materials such as soil were excluded in spray ionization process due to the filter effect, and analytes were subsequently sprayed out from syringe needle for mass spectrometric detection...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313216/chemical-speciation-and-fate-of-tripolyphosphate-after-application-to-a-calcareous-soil
#14
Jordan G Hamilton, Jay Grosskleg, David Hilger, Kris Bradshaw, Trevor Carlson, Steven D Siciliano, Derek Peak
Adsorption and precipitation reactions often dictate the availability of phosphorus in soil environments. Tripolyphosphate (TPP) is considered a form of slow release P fertilizer in P limited soils, however, investigations of the chemical fate of TPP in soils are limited. It has been proposed that TPP rapidly hydrolyzes in the soil solution before adsorbing or precipitating with soil surfaces, but in model systems, TPP also adsorbs rapidly onto mineral surfaces. To study the adsorption behavior of TPP in calcareous soils, a short-term (48 h) TPP spike was performed under laboratory conditions...
January 8, 2018: Geochemical Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313201/water-and-nitrate-dynamics-in-safflower-field-lysimeters-under-different-irrigation-strategies-planting-methods-and-nitrogen-fertilization-and-application-of-hydrus-1d-model
#15
Mohammad Hossein Shahrokhnia, Ali Reza Sepaskhah
World recent concerns about the shortage of water resources and contamination of groundwater supplies have motivated scientists seeking for more efficient techniques in irrigation and fertilization of farms while taking the advantage of models. The objective of this study is to address how water and nitrogen (N) dynamics are affected by efficient management strategies and to evaluate the application of HYDRUS-1D model in these conditions. In terms of using management policies, different irrigation strategies, planting methods, and different N fertilization rates applied on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312820/resistance-strategies-of-phragmites-australis-common-reed-to-pb-pollution-in-flood-and-drought-conditions
#16
Na Zhang, Jinwei Zhang, Zhiqiang Li, Jing Chen, Zhenhua Zhang, Chunsheng Mu
Resistance strategies of clonal organs, and parent and offspring shoots of Phragmites australis (common reed) to heavy metal pollution in soils are not well known. To clarify the tolerance or resistance strategies in reeds, we conducted a pot experiment with five levels of Pb concentration (0∼4,500 mg kg-1) in flood and drought conditions. Lead toxicity had no inhibitory effect on the number of offspring shoots in flood environment; however, biomass accumulation, and photosynthetic and clonal growth parameters were inhibited in both water environment...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305722/use-of-oil-shale-ash-in-road-construction-results-of-follow-up-environmental-monitoring
#17
Janek Reinik, Natalya Irha, Arina Koroljova, Tõnis Meriste
Oil shale ash (OSA) was used for road construction in a pristine swamp area in East-Estonia during 2013-2014. OSA was used as a binder both in mass stabilization of soft peat soil and in the upper layer. Use of OSA in civil engineering always raises questions about the environmental safety of such activities. Post-construction environmental monitoring of the pilot section was carried out in 2014 and 2015. The monitoring program involved surface water and soil sampling campaigns. Samples were analyzed for selected constituents and parameters of environmental concern...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305629/microbial-communities-of-high-elevation-fumaroles-penitentes-and-dry-tephra-soils-of-the-puna-de-atacama-volcanic-zone
#18
Adam J Solon, Lara Vimercati, J L Darcy, Pablo Arán, Dorota Porazinska, C Dorador, M E Farías, S K Schmidt
The aim of this study was to understand the spatial distribution of microbial communities (18S and 16S rRNA genes) across one of the harshest terrestrial landscapes on Earth. We carried out Illumina sequencing using samples from two expeditions to the high slopes (up to 6050 m.a.s.l.) of Volcán Socompa and Llullaillaco to describe the microbial communities associated with the extremely dry tephra compared to areas that receive water from fumaroles and ice fields made up of nieves penitentes. There were strong spatial patterns relative to these landscape features with the most diverse (alpha diversity) communities being associated with fumaroles...
January 5, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304464/monitoring-the-occurrence-of-pharmaceuticals-in-soils-irrigated-with-reclaimed-wastewater
#19
Miriam Biel-Maeso, Carmen Corada-Fernández, Pablo A Lara-Martín
The use of reclaimed wastewater for irrigation is foreseen as a possible strategy to mitigate the pressure on water resources in dry regions. However, there is the risk of potential accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in the edaphic environment, their percolation and consequently contamination of aquifers. In the present study, we measured the levels of a wide range of commonly used pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in sewage from a local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and in soils irrigated with treated wastewater...
January 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304227/combining-environmental-investigation-and-a-dual-analytical-strategy-to-isolate-the-legionella-longbeachae-strain-linked-to-two-occupational-cases-of-legionellosis
#20
Genevieve Marchand, Judith Lord, Carole Pépin, Nancy Lacombe
Legionella has a global distribution, mainly in aquatic and man-made environments. Under the right conditions, this bacterium is a notorious human pathogen responsible for severe pulmonary illnesses. Legionellosis outbreaks are reported around the world, and exposure to water droplet aerosols containing Legionella pneumophila is usually the mechanism of its transmission. Even if L. pneumophila causes most outbreaks, Legionella longbeachae also accounts for some cases. Unlike most other Legionella strains, L...
January 3, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
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