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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530292/soil-sorption-of-two-nitramines-derived-from-amine-based-co2-capture
#1
Cathrine Brecke Gundersen, Gijs D Breedveld, Lena Foseid, Rolf D Vogt
Nitramines are potentially carcinogens that form from the amines used in post-combustion CO2 capture (PCCC). The soil sorption characteristics of monoethanol (MEA)- and dimethyl (DMA)-nitramines have been assessed using a batch experimental setup, and defined indirectly by measuring loss of nitramine (LC-MS/MS) from the aqueous phase (0.01 M CaCl2 and 0.1% NaN3) after equilibrium had been established with the soil (24 h). Nitramine soil sorption was found to be strongly dependent on the content of organic matter in the soil (r(2) = 0...
May 22, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525814/risk-assessment-of-triclosan-in-the-global-environment-using-a-probabilistic-approach
#2
Jiahua Guo, Hisato Iwata
The occurrence of antimicrobial agent triclosan (TCS) in the global aquatic and terrestrial environment is an emerging concern. While risk assessment for TCS is available in certain countries, no studies have attempted to assess the risk of TCS worldwide. This could be due to lack of method to characterize the global exposure. The present study therefore proposed a probabilistic-based approach to approximate the percent-ranked measured environmental concentrations (MECs) by estimating exposure concentration distribution (ECD) for different environmental compartments on a global scale, incorporating approximate 1200 single MECs...
May 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524625/mrna-decay-an-adaptation-tool-for-the-environmental-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#3
REVIEW
Amanda L M Bloom, Jay Leipheimer, John C Panepinto
Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment and humans constantly encounter them in the soil, air, water, and food. The vast majority of these interactions are inconsequential. However, in the context of immunodeficiency precipitated by HIV infection, hematologic malignancy, or transplantation, a small subset of fungi can cause devastating, systemic infection. The most deadly of the opportunistic environmental fungi, Cryptococcus neoformans, is estimated to cause hundreds of thousands of deaths per year, mostly in the context of HIV co-infection...
May 19, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523826/occurrence-and-abundance-of-ammonia-oxidizing-archaea-and-bacteria-from-the-surface-to-below-the-water-table-in-deep-soil-and-their-contributions-to-nitrification
#4
Lei Zheng, Xue Zhao, Guibing Zhu, Wei Yang, Chao Xia, Tao Xu
Using molecular biology methods (qualitative and quantitative PCR), we determined the occurrence and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) from a dry inland soil in Basel, Switzerland, and from the riparian zone of Baiyangdian Lake, China. We also determined the contributions of these microorganisms to ammonia oxidization at different depths based on the nitrification rate. The number of archaeal amoA genes (the key functional gene in AOA) was larger than the number of bacterial amoA genes in each sample, suggesting a dominant role for the AOA amoA gene in environments with a low ammonium concentration...
May 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523620/occurrence-and-fractionation-of-cr-along-the-loushan-river-affected-by-a-chromium-slag-heap-in-east-china
#5
Youyuan Chen, Bingbing Dong, Jia Xin
This study investigated the chromium (Cr) occurrence and distribution along the Loushan River adjacent to a chromium slag heap. The speciation and chemical fractionation of Cr in different environmental media were determined. The potential ecological risks for the surrounding environment were assessed on the basis of both potential ecological risk index (RI) and risk assessment code (RAC). The results show that the surface soil experienced severe Cr contamination with Cr(T) and Cr(VI) values of 3220 ± 6266 and 64 ± 94 mg/kg, respectively, even though the chromium slag heap had already been removed...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523005/impact-of-temperature-and-nutrients-on-carbon-nutrient-tissue-stoichiometry-of-submerged-aquatic-plants-an-experiment-and-meta-analysis
#6
Mandy Velthuis, Emma van Deelen, Ellen van Donk, Peiyu Zhang, Elisabeth S Bakker
Human activity is currently changing our environment rapidly, with predicted temperature increases of 1-5°C over the coming century and increased nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in aquatic ecosystems. In the shallow parts of these ecosystems, submerged aquatic plants enhance water clarity by resource competition with phytoplankton, provide habitat, and serve as a food source for other organisms. The carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged aquatic plants can be affected by changes in both temperature and nutrient availability...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516406/degradation-and-adsorption-of-tralkoxydim-in-chinese-soils-and-water-sediment-environments
#7
Wen Zhu Wu, Zheng Jun Shan, De Yang Kong, Jian He
Tralkoxydim is a cyclohexanedione herbicide primarily used for gramineous weed control in China. In this paper, we present results of a tralkoxydim laboratory environmental fate study characterizing its degradation, adsorption, and mobility behavior in three different soils and two water-sediment systems (river and lake) in China. Degradation half-life of tralkoxydim in soil under aerobic conditions was 5.1, 7.7, and 7.9 days in Jiangxi red soil, Taihu paddy soil, and Northeast China black soil, respectively...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511352/emission-inventory-and-environmental-distribution-of-decabromodiphenyl-ether-in-china
#8
Boya Zhang, Bu Zhao, Mengqi Yu, Jianbo Zhang
Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) is a highly brominated flame retardant that recent studies have identified as a potential persistent organic pollutant. Large amounts of decaBDE have been consumed and released in the environment in China, while no emission inventory has been available until now. In this study, a substance flow analysis was applied to establish the emission inventory of decaBDE in China from 1982 (the first year of decaBDE production in China) until 2013 based on activity data, transfer coefficients, and emission factors...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510197/assimilates-mobilization-stable-canopy-temperature-and-expression-of-expansin-stabilizes-grain-weight-in-wheat-cultivar-lok-1-under-different-soil-moisture-conditions
#9
Mahesh Kumar, Susheel Kumar Raina, Venkadasamy Govindasamy, Ajay Kumar Singh, Ram Lal Choudhary, Jagadish Rane, Paramjit Singh Minhas
BACKGROUND: Grain yield of wheat is primarily determined by both grain number and grain weight, which often influence each other in response to environmental stimuli. Some of the genotypes are capable of maintaining high single grain weight (SGW) across the environments. Understanding mechanisms and factors associated with the superiority of such genotypes over others is necessary to enhance productivity of wheat. RESULTS: Experiments were conducted to elucidate the physiological basis of high SGW of LOK-1, a wheat cultivar grown in dry and hot environments in the central and peninsular zones of India...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510195/meso-or-xeromorphic-foliar-characters-of-asteraceae-in-a-xeric-scrub-of-mexico
#10
Patricia Rivera, José Luis Villaseñor, Teresa Terrazas
BACKGROUND: The anatomical traits associated with water deficit are also observed in plants growing in poor soils. The species may resist water deficit through three main strategies: escape, avoid or tolerate. The Pedregal de San Ángel Ecological Reserve (REPSA), Mexico, is an environment with low nutrient soil and low water availability. It is set on the basalt formation derived from the Xitle volcano eruption. The main vegetation type is characterized as xerophytic shrub. Thus we expect that species growing in this community will show leaf xeromorphic traits and may have any of the three response strategies...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509844/influence-of-nano-hydroxyapatite-on-the-metal-bioavailability-plant-metal-accumulation-and-root-exudates-of-ryegrass-for-phytoremediation-in-lead-polluted-soil
#11
Ling Ding, Jianbing Li, Wei Liu, Qingqing Zuo, Shu-Xuan Liang
Lead is recognized as one of the most widespread toxic metal contaminants and pervasive environmental health concerns in the environment. In this paper, the effects of nano-hydroxyapatite (NHAP) on remediation in artificially Pb-contaminated soils and ryegrass were studied in a pot experiment. The addition of NHAP decreased the water- and acid-soluble, exchangeable, and reducible fractions of Pb, extracted using the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) method, whilst greatly increasing the residual fraction of Pb...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508163/development-of-molecular-diagnostic-protocols-for-detecting-three-types-of-entamoeba-from-diarrheal-and-asymptomatic-pigs-and-environmental-moist-soils
#12
Yoshimasa Hirashima, Tilusha Manchanayake, Takahisa Yano, Syoei Kitahara, Terunori Koreeda, Syunsuke Kamimura, Kazumi Sasai, Makoto Matsubayashi, Tomoyuki Shibahara
Entamoeba suis and Entamoeba polecki subtypes (ST) 1 and 3 have recently been implicated in disease outbreaks in pigs. However, the distributions of these parasites in Japan and the potential sources of infection on farms still remain unclear. Here, we examined a farm of fattening/growing pigs with abnormal feces in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, and found the presence of parasites in the farm environment. Examination of intestinal tissues from pigs presenting with ulcerative colitis revealed a large number of trophozoites that had invaded the lesions...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507618/correlation-between-soil-transmitted-helminth-infection-and-eosinophil-levels-among-primary-school-children-in-medan
#13
Dewi Masyithah Darlan, Zaimah Z Tala, Cellya Amanta, Syah Mirsya Warli, Nurfida K Arrasyid
BACKGROUND: Soil Transmitted Helminth infection is one of most prevalent health problems worldwide, especially in environments with poor sanitation. Based on World Health Organisation (WHO) data, more than 2 billion people, or 24% of the world's population, are infected with intestinal parasite. The highest prevalence is located in areas of poor sanitation and unsafe water supplies. In Indonesia, the prevalence of parasite infections is 15% of the entire population. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Soil Transmitted Helminth infection on levels of eosinophils among primary school children...
April 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500722/uv-resistant-actinobacteria-from-high-altitude-andean-lakes-isolation-characterization-and-antagonistic-activities
#14
María Cecilia Rasuk, Gabriela Mónica Ferrer, Daniel Kurth, Luciano Raúl Portero, María Eugenia Farías, Virginia Helena Albarracín
Polyextremophiles are present in a wide variety of extreme environments in which they must overcome various hostile conditions simultaneously such as high UVB radiation, extreme pHs and temperatures, elevated salt and heavy-metal concentration, low-oxygen pressure and scarce nutrients. High-altitude Andean lakes (HAALs; between 2000 and 4000 m) are one example of these kinds of ecosystems suffering from the highest total solar and UVB radiation on Earth where an abundant and diverse polyextremophilic microbiota was reported...
May 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498787/spatial-and-temporal-variability-of-atmospheric-mercury-concentrations-emitted-from-a-coal-fired-power-plant-in-mexico
#15
Gilberto Fuentes, Bravo A Humberto, Sosa E Rodolfo, Rosas A Sergio, Magaña R Víctor, Caetano D Ernesto, Vázquez C Gustavo
Atmospheric mercury in the environment as a result of the consumption of fossil fuels, such as coal used in electricity generation, has gained increased attention worldwide because of its toxicity, atmospheric persistence, and bioaccumulation. Determining or predicting the concentration of this pollutant in ambient air is essential for determining sensitive areas requiring health protection. This study investigated the spatiotemporal variability of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations and its dry deposition surrounding the Presidente Plutarco Elías Calles, (CETEPEC) coal-fired power plant, located on Mexico's Pacific coast...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480420/effects-of-different-hydroponic-substrate-combinations-and-watering-regimes-on-physiological-and-anti-fungal-properties-of-siphonochilus-aethiopicus
#16
Xego S, Kambizi L, Nchu F
BACKGROUND: Production of medicinal plants in controlled environments, particularly hydroponic technology, provides opportunities for high quality biomass accumulation and optimizes production of secondary metabolites. Applying special watering regimes in combination with efficient soil draining is an encouraging new tool for the production of pharmaceutical relevant plants. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effect of substrate combinations and watering regimes on nutrient uptake, anti-F...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477273/environmental-and-social-risk-evaluation-of-overseas-investment-under-the-china-pakistan-economic-corridor
#17
Ruilian Zhang, Francis Andam, Guoqing Shi
Along with the further implementation of the "One Belt, One Road" initiative and the promotion of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), the construction of the CPEC will likely face challenges owing to differences between China and Pakistan in politics, economics, culture, religion, language, customs, environmental management systems, environmental protection laws, social management systems, and social management regulations. To address potential environmental and social risks associated with Chinese enterprises as they invest in the CPEC region, this paper examines previous studies addressing topics such as the environmental and social safeguards of international institutions and Pakistan's domestic environmental and social management requirements...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477163/spatial-distribution-of-organochlorine-and-organophosphorus-pesticides-in-soil-groundwater-systems-and-their-associated-risks-in-the-middle-reaches-of-the-yangtze-river-basin
#18
Hongwei Pan, Hongjun Lei, Xiaosong He, Beidou Xi, Qigong Xu
Soil and groundwater samples were collected from paddy fields in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River Basin to study the occurrence and the risks associated with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in soil and groundwater. Results showed that OCPs and OPPs were widely distributed throughout the study area. The levels of OCPs and OPPs in the soil were much lower than those specified by soil quality standards. However, the levels of four OCPs (heptachlors, aldrin, dieldrin, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) in groundwater were higher than those permitted by drinking water standards...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475975/using-column-experiments-to-examine-transport-of-as-and-other-trace-elements-released-from-poultry-litter-implications-for-trace-element-mobility-in-agricultural-watersheds
#19
Oluyinka Oyewumi, Madeline E Schreiber
Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469286/from-oryza2000-to-oryza-v3-an-improved-simulation-model-for-rice-in-drought-and-nitrogen-deficient-environments
#20
Tao Li, Olivyn Angeles, Manuel Marcaida, Emmali Manalo, Mervin Pogs Manalili, Ando Radanielson, Samarendu Mohanty
The worldwide usage of and increasing citations for ORYZA2000 has established it as a robust and reliable ecophysiological model for predicting the growth and yield of rice in an irrigated lowland ecosystem. Because of its focus on irrigated lowlands, its computation ability is limited to the representation of the effects of the highly dynamic environments of upland, rainfed, and aerobic ecosystems on rice growth and yield. Additional modules and routines to quantify daily variations in soil temperature, carbon, nitrogen, and environmental stresses were then developed and integrated into ORYZA2000 to capture their effects on primary production, assimilate allocation, root growth, and water and nitrogen uptake...
May 1, 2017: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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