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Water, soils, environment

Bernadette U Ukah, Ogbonnaya Igwe, Peter Ameh
In Ajao Estate, it is believed that poor quality of its groundwater is unconnected to the dislodging of wastewater into the environment by food- and wine-producing industries operating in the area. To ascertain this claim, the impact of this wastewater on microbiological and physicochemical quality of the groundwater was evaluated. Microbiological result of water samples revealed decrease in Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, etc. count from the industrial wastewater dislodging point...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Dean Calahan, Edward Osenbaugh, Walter Adey
Humanity is degrading multiple ecosystem services, potentially irreversibly. Two of the most important human impacts are excess agricultural nutrient loading in our fresh and estuarine waters and excess carbon dioxide in our oceans and atmosphere. Large-scale global intervention is required to slow, halt, and eventually reverse these stresses. Cultivating attached polyculture algae within controlled open-field photobioreactors is a practical technique for exploiting the ubiquity and high primary productivity of algae to capture and recycle the pollutants driving humanity into unsafe regimes of biogeochemical cycling, ocean acidification, and global warming...
February 2018: Heliyon
Sue Rodway-Dyer, Nicola Ellis
Footpaths are a prominent consequence of natural area tourism and reflect damage caused to valuable, sensitive habitats by people pressure. Degradation impacts on vegetation, wildlife, on and off-site soil movement and loss, creation of additional informal off-path footpaths (desire lines), and visual destruction of landscapes. Impacts need to be measured and monitored on a large temporal and spatial scale to aid in land management to maintain access and preserve natural environments. This study combined remote sensing (Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR] and aerial photography) with on-site measurement of footpaths within a sensitive heathland habitat (Land's End, Cornwall, UK)...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Michael G Walsh, Cameron Webb
BACKGROUND: The current understanding of the landscape epidemiology of Ross River virus (RRV), Australia's most common arthropod-borne pathogen, is fragmented due to gaps in surveillance programs and the relatively narrow focus of the research conducted to date. This leaves public health agencies with an incomplete understanding of the spectrum of infection risk across the diverse geography of the Australian continent. The current investigation sought to assess the risk of RRV epidemics based on abiotic and biotic landscape features in anthropogenic landscapes, with a particular focus on the influence of water and wildlife hosts...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Rowena M Briones, Ajit K Sarmah
Detection of metformin, an antidiabetic drug and its transformation product guanylurea in various environmental matrices such as surface water and groundwater, coupled with their effects on aquatic organisms warrant an understanding of the compounds fate and behaviour in the environment. Batch studies were conducted with the aim of evaluating the sorption of these two emerging contaminants in six New Zealand agricultural soils of contrasting physico-chemical properties. Kinetic studies revealed that metformin and guanylurea sorption in Te Kowhai soil was very rapid initially achieving 90% sorption within the first 4 and 13h, respectively...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Marcela Vega, Robert Nerenberg, Ignacio T Vargas
This paper reviews the unique situation of perchlorate contamination in Chile, including its sources, presence in environmental media and in the human population, and possible steps to mitigate its health impacts. Perchlorate is a ubiquitous water contaminant that inhibits thyroid function. Standards for drinking water range from 2 to 18 µg L-1 in United States and Europe. A major natural source of perchlorate contamination is Chile saltpeter, found in the Atacama Desert. High concentrations of perchlorate have presumably existed in this region, in soils, sediments, surface waters and groundwaters, for millions of years...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Research
Yanshuai Xing, Xiaoshuang Meng, Lei Wang, Junjie Zhang, Zijing Wu, Xinying Gong, Chenye Wang, Hongwen Sun
Triazole contaminants in water and soil environments can form complexes with metal ions, and therefore affect the bioavailability and toxicity of some heavy metals. In present study, significant increase of copper (Cu) uptake by earthworm (Eisenia fetida) was observed when combined pollution of benzotriazole (BTR) presented in soil. For instance, Cu accumulation in earthworms increased 55% approximately when BTR presented at the BTR/Cu molar ratio of 1:2.5. While the single Cu exposure (at 32 mg kg-1 in soil) resulted in increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in earthworms from 0...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Maroua Ben Amira, Robin Mom, David Lopez, Hatem Chaar, Ali Khouaja, Valérie Pujade-Renaud, Boris Fumanal, Aurélie Gousset-Dupont, Gisèle Bronner, Philippe Label, Jean-Louis Julien, Mohamed Ali Triki, Daniel Auguin, Jean-Stéphane Venisse
Major intrinsic proteins (MIP) are characterized by a transmembrane pore-type architecture that facilitates transport across biomembranes of water and a variety of low molecular weight solutes. They are found in all parts of life, with remarkable protein diversity. Very little is known about MIP from fungi. And yet, it can legitimately be stated that MIP are pivotal molecular components in the privileged relationships fungi enjoy with plants or soil fauna in various environments. To date, MIP have never been studied in a mycoparasitism situation...
2018: PloS One
Sahar Dalahmeh, Sana Tirgani, Allan John Komakech, Charles B Niwagaba, Lutz Ahrens
Occurrence and concentrations of 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were evaluated in wastewater, surface water, soil and crop plants (yam (Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)) in Nakivubo wetland and Lake Victoria at Kampala, Uganda. ∑PFAS concentrations in effluent from Bugolobi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were higher (5.6-9.1ngL-1 ) than in the corresponding influent (3.4-5.1ngL-1 ), indicating poor removal of PFASs within the WWTP. ∑PFAS concentrations decreased by a factor of approximately five between Nakivubo channel (8...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Stephan Brendel, Éva Fetter, Claudia Staude, Lena Vierke, Annegret Biegel-Engler
Background: Short-chain PFASs (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) are widely used as alternatives to long-chain PFASs. Long-chain PFASs become gradually regulated under REACH (EC No. 1907/2006) and other international regulations, due to having persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties and/or being toxic for reproduction. The increasingly used short-chain PFASs are assumed to have a lower bioaccumulation potential. Nonetheless, they have other properties of concern and are already widely distributed in the environment, also in remote regions...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye, Ian Singleton, Anderson S Sant'Ana
Foodborne illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated fresh produce is a common phenomenon and has severe effects on human health together with severe economic and social impacts. The implications of foodborne diseases associated with fresh produce have urged research into the numerous ways and mechanisms through which pathogens may gain access to produce, thereby compromising microbiological safety. This review provides a background on the various sources and pathways through which pathogenic bacteria contaminate fresh produce; the survival and proliferation of pathogens on fresh produce while growing and potential methods to reduce microbial contamination before harvest...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Ye Zhang, April Z Gu, Tianyu Cen, Xiangyang Li, Dan Li, Jianmin Chen
Particles exhausted from petrol and diesel consumptions are major components of urban air pollution that can be exposed to human via direct inhalation or other routes due to atmospheric deposition into water and soil. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious threats to modern health care. However, how the petrol and diesel exhaust particles affect the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in various environments remain largely unknown. This study investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of four representative petrol and diesel exhaust particles, namely 97 octane petrol, 93 octane petrol, light diesel oil, and marine heavy diesel oil, on the horizontal transfer of ARGs between two opportunistic Escherichia coli (E...
March 7, 2018: Environment International
Md Shahedur Rahman, Polsh Kumar Biswas, Syed Mahfuz Al Hasan, Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman, S H Lee, Ki-Hyun Kim, Shaikh Mizanur Rahman, Md Rezuanul Islam
In this research, heavy metal accumulation pattern was investigated using the data measured from the soil, paddy plants, and irrigation water samples in Jessore district in Bangladesh with the aid of principal component analysis. A total of 28 samples representing farmland soil and irrigation water along with paddy plant were collected from 28 locations in the Jessore district in November 2016. In agricultural soil, arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) were found 2.78 and 1.11 times more concentrated than their background values...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Meng Wang, Yinguang Chen
Wastewater reuse for resolving water shortage is increasingly emphasized. The presence of DOM in wastewater is a main consideration for wastewater reuse. Therefore, systematic understanding of characteristic changes of DOM in different wastewater treatment processes is needed. As biotechnology together with disinfection operation has been used widely by WWTPs to treat wastewater, this review aims to introduce the recent advances in the effects of wastewater biological treatment and disinfection on the characteristics of DOM...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Y Wang, J H Kim, Z Mao, M Ramel, F Pailler, J Perez, H Rey, S Tron, C Jourdan, A Stokes
Background and Aims: The structure of heterogeneous forests has consequences for their biophysical environment. Variations in the local climate significantly affect tree physiological processes. We hypothesize that forest structure also alters tree root elongation and longevity through temporal and spatial variations in soil temperature and water potential. Methods: We installed rhizotrons in paired vegetation communities of closed forest (tree islands) and open patches (canopy gaps), along a soil temperature gradient (elevations of 1400, 1700 and 2000 m) in a heterogeneous mixed forest...
February 28, 2018: Annals of Botany
David Goodwin, Adeyemi S Adeleye, Lipiin Sung, Kay T Ho, Robert M Burgess, Elijah J Petersen
An increase in production of commercial products containing graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) has led to concern over their release into the environment. The fate and potential ecotoxicological effects of GFNs in the environment are currently unclear, partially due to the limited analytical methods for GFN measurements. In this review, the unique properties of GFNs that are useful for their detection and quantification are discussed. The capacity of several classes of techniques to identify and/or quantify GFNs in different environmental matrices (water, soil, sediment, and organisms), after environmental transformations, and after release from a polymer matrix of a product is evaluated...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ian Pepper, John P Brooks, Charles P Gerba
Recently, there has been increased concern about the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG), in treated domestic wastewaters, animal manures and municipal biosolids. The concern is whether these additional sources of ARB contribute to antibiotic resistance levels in the environment, i.e. "environmental antibiotic resistance." ARB and ARG occur naturally in soil and water, and it remains unclear whether the introduction of ARB in liquid and solid municipal and animal wastes via land application have any significant impact on the background levels of antibiotic resistance in the environment, and whether they affect human exposure to ARB...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Nada Hanna, Pan Sun, Qiang Sun, Xuewen Li, Xiwei Yang, Xiang Ji, Huiyun Zou, Jakob Ottoson, Lennart E Nilsson, Björn Berglund, Oliver James Dyar, Ashok J Tamhankar, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the occurrence of antibiotic residues in different types of environmental samples including water samples in rural Shandong province, China. Further, to characterize the potential ecological risk for development of antibiotic resistance in the environment, and the potential direct human health risk of exposure to antibiotics via drinking water and vegetables. METHODS: Environmental samples (n = 214) (river water, waste water, drinking water, sediments, manure, soil and edible parts of vegetables) were collected in twelve villages in Shandong province in eastern China...
March 1, 2018: Environment International
Ana Montoya, Guadalupe Miró, José María Saugar, Beatriz Fernández, Rocío Checa, Rosa Gálvez, Begoña Bailo, Valentina Marino, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Isabel Fuentes
Acanthamoeba spp. is a widespread protozoan that has been isolated from air, dust, soil, water and biological samples. An opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals, it may cause ocular keratitis, encephalitis, and even multisystem disease. The frequency of Acanthamoeba in animals is unknown. The aim of present study was determine the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in immunocompromised stray cats - animals possibly more likely to harbour the infection given their immunocompromised status and frequenting of contaminated environments...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Xiangzhen Kong, Wenxiu Liu, Wei He, Fuliu Xu, Albert A Koelmans, Wolf M Mooij
Freshwater shallow lake ecosystems provide valuable ecological services to human beings. However, these systems are subject to severe contamination from anthropogenic sources. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), are among the contaminants that have received substantial attention, primarily due to abundant applications, environment persistence, and potential threats to ecological and human health. Understanding the environmental behavior of these contaminants in shallow freshwater lake environments using a modeling approach is therefore critical...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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