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Water, soils, environment

John S Sperry, Martin D Venturas, William R L Anderegg, Maurizio Mencuccini, D Scott Mackay, Yujie Wang, David M Love
Stomatal regulation presumably evolved to optimize CO2 for H2 O exchange in response to changing conditions. If the optimization criterion can be readily measured or calculated, then stomatal responses can be efficiently modeled without recourse to empirical models or underlying mechanism. Previous efforts have been challenged by the lack of a transparent index for the cost of losing water. Yet it is accepted that stomata control water loss to avoid excessive loss of hydraulic conductance from cavitation and soil drying...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Ana C Henriques, Rui M S Azevedo, Paolo De Marco
Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) is a relevant intermediate of the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur and environmental microorganisms assume an important role in the mineralization of this compound. Several methylotrophic bacterial strains able to grow on MSA have been isolated from soil or marine water and two conserved operons, msmABCD coding for MSA monooxygenase and msmEFGH coding for a transport system, have been repeatedly encountered in most of these strains. Homologous sequences have also been amplified directly from the environment or observed in marine metagenomic data, but these showed a base composition (G + C content) very different from their counterparts from cultivated bacteria...
2016: PeerJ
Chad Rittle
Occupational health nurses are familiar with environmental exposures workers encounter in their workplaces. However, employees are only "on-the-job" about one third of each workday, with a multitude of potential exposures in other environments that can affect their health. This article addresses some of the major exposures employees encounter outside the workplace-air, water, and soil pollution, and hazardous wastes-including a discussion of several well-known national and international environmental incidents...
October 19, 2016: Workplace Health & Safety
Yong-Jian Wang, Xue-Ping Shi, Xiao-Jing Wu, Xue-Feng Meng, Peng-Cheng Wang, Zhi-Xiang Zhou, Fang-Li Luo, Fei-Hai Yu
The availabilities of light and soil water resources usually spatially co-vary in natural habitats, and the spatial pattern of such co-variation may affect the benefits of physiological integration between connected ramets of clonal plants. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew connected or disconnected ramet pairs [consisting of a proximal (relatively old) and a distal (relative young) ramet] of a rhizomatous herb Iris japonica in four heterogeneous environments differing in patch arrangement (reciprocal vs...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Andrew Olaf Shelton, James Lawrence O'Donnell, Jameal F Samhouri, Natalie Lowell, Gregory D Williams, Ryan P Kelly
Environmental DNA (eDNA), genetic material recovered from an environmental medium such as soil, water, or feces, reflects the membership of the ecological community present in the sampled environment. As such, eDNA is a potentially rich source of data for basic ecology, conservation, and management, because it offers the prospect of quantitatively reconstructing whole ecological communities from easily obtained samples. However, like all sampling methods, eDNA sequencing is subject to methodological limitations that can generate biased descriptions of ecological communities...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
J Machado, J Azevedo, M Freitas, E Pinto, A Almeida, V Vasconcelos, A Campos
Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are often observed in freshwaters and may reflect the increased eutrophication of these environments and alterations in climate. Cyanotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs), are an effective threat to many life forms, ranging from plants to humans. Despite the research conducted to date on cyanotoxins, the risks associated to the use of contaminated water in agriculture require further elucidation. To tackle this aim, a research was conducted with the root-vegetable Daucus carota. The specific aims of this work were the following: (i) to evaluate the effects of MC-LR on the plant growth and photosynthesis; (ii) to evaluate the nutritional quality of carrot roots; and (iii) to measure bioaccumulation...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fang Li, Jing Jin, Dongqin Tan, Longxing Wang, Ningbo Geng, Rong Cao, Yuan Gao, Jiping Chen
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are two kinds of brominated flame retardants and widely present in the environment and biota. The levels, spatial distributions and mass inventories of HBCD and TBBPA were investigated in sediments and paddy soils from the Liaohe River Basin in northeast China. The concentrations of ΣHBCD and TBBPA were in the range of not detected (nd) to 4.02ng/g dry weight (dw) and 0.03 to 4.06ng/g dw, respectively. γ-HBCD was dominated in sediments, while the abundance of α-HBCD was relatively high in paddy soils...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Anita Giglio, Anna Ammendola, Silvia Battistella, Attilio Naccarato, Alberto Pallavicini, Enrico Simeon, Antonio Tagarelli, Piero Giulio Giulianini
Honeybees have become important tools for the ecotoxicological assessment of soil, water and air metal contamination due to their extraordinary capacity to bioaccumulate toxic metals from the environment. The level of heavy metal pollution in the Trieste city was monitored using foraging bees of Apis mellifera ligustica from hives owned by beekeepers in two sites strategically located in the suburban industrial area and urban ones chosen as control. The metal concentration in foraging bees was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Amanehalsadat Pouriyeh, Nematollah Khorasani, Farhad Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, Parvin Farshchi
Unplanned growth of cities is a matter of concern these days. Lack of attention to proper patterns of urban development has left so many harmful effects on human health and the environment. One of the most effective methods that can be used to measure the efficiency of urban development is data envelopment analysis (DEA). The present study is an attempt to evaluate the performance and efficiency of development of Yazd City using the DEA over the years 1983-2013. In this regard, the ecological factors, affecting the growth of the city of Yazd in the study period, were identified initially...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Cumali Ozaslan, Shahid Farooq, Huseyin Onen, Bekir Bukun, Selcuk Ozcan, Hikmet Gunal
Invasive plants are recognized for their impressive abilities to withstand adverse environmental conditions however, all invaders do not express the similar abilities. Therefore, survival, growth, nutrient uptake and fecundity of two co-occurring, invasive Physalis species were tested under water and salinity stresses, and different soil textures in the current study. Five different water stress levels (100, 75, 50, 25, and 12.5% pot water contents), four different soil salinity levels (0, 3, 6, and 12 dSm-1) and four different soil textures (67% clay, 50% clay, silt clay loam and sandy loam) were included in three different pot experiments...
2016: PloS One
Vania Elisabete Schneider, Roger Vasques Marques, Taison Anderson Bortolin, Gisele Cemin, Geise Macedo Dos Santos
Pig farming is one of the human activities carried out to meet the increasing food demand by the increasing population. South Brazil is the region with most intensive pig farming in the country, exerting pressure on the water and soil environments by the relevant pollutant emissions. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to assess pig farming pollution by monitoring superficial water qualities of the Taquari-Antas Watershed in South Brazil. The study area is about 8062 km(2) (south latitude 292,614, 282,624 and west longitude 520,802, 504,554)...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Liang Xu, Zhen-Feng Zhou
Physiological integration can enhance the performance of clonal plants in aquatic and terrestrial heterogeneous habitats and associated ecotones. Similar to nutrients, pollutants may be transported among connected ramets via physiological integration. Few studies have examined the expansion of amphibious clonal plants from terrestrial to aquatic environments, particularly when the local water supply is polluted with heavy metals. A greenhouse experiment was conducted using the amphibious plant Alternanthera philoxeroides to determine whether Cu can spread among clonal plants and examine the corresponding effects of this pollution on the expansion of clonal plants in aquatic-terrestrial ecotones...
2016: PloS One
D Lee Taylor, William A Walters, Niall J Lennon, James Bochicchio, Andrew Krohn, J Gregory Caporaso, Taina Pennanen
: While high-throughput-sequencing methods are revolutionizing fungal ecology, recovering accurate estimates of species richness and abundance has proven elusive. We sought to design ITS primers and an Illumina protocol that would maximize coverage of the kingdom Fungi while minimizing non-target eukaryotes. We inspected alignments of the 5.8S and LSU ribosomal genes and evaluated potential primers using PrimerProspector. We tested the resulting primers using tiered-abundance mock communities and five previously characterized soil samples...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yingna Xing, Xijuan Chen, Xin Chen, Jie Zhuang
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter soils through reclaimed water irrigation and biosolid land applications. Colloids, such as clays, that are present in soil may interact with PPCPs and thus affect their fate and transport in the subsurface environment. This study addresses the influence of soil colloids on the sorption and transport behaviors of PPCPs through laboratory column experiments. Results show that the affinities of PPCPs for colloids vary with their molecular chemistry and solution ionic strength...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Du-San Back, Gee-Wook Shin, Mitchell Wendt, Gang-Joon Heo
Pet turtles are known as a source of Salmonella infection to humans when handled in captivity. Thirty four turtles purchased from pet shops and online markets in Korea were examined to determine whether the turtles and their environment were contaminated with Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal samples of 17 turtles. These isolates were identified as S. enterica through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolation rate of Salmonella spp. from the soil and water samples increased over time. We concluded that a high percentage of turtles being sold in pet shops were infected with Salmonella spp...
September 2016: Laboratory Animal Research
M G Mostofa Amin, Christina Østerballe Pedersen, Anita Forslund, Tamie L Veith, Mette Laegdsmand
Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Geraldine Hall, Karen C Carroll
Aerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can be important pathogens in the immunocompromised host. These bacteria can be found in many environments, as part of the normal microbiota of the human host and animals, in soil and water, on plants, on fomites in the hospital, and on hospital equipment. This review provides information from relevant studies about what are the most common aerobic bacteria associated with patients who have cancer and/or are being treated for it, or who have other diseases which lead to immunodeficiencies, such as HIV, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, chronic diseases, and aging...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Aysha Masood Khan, Nor Kartini Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf
Rare earths (RE), chemically uniform group of elements due to similar physicochemical behavior, are termed as lanthanides. Natural occurrence depends on the geological circumstances and has been of long interest for geologist as tools for further scientific research into the region of ores, rocks, and oceanic water. The review paper mainly focuses to provide scientific literature about rare earth elements (REEs) with potential environmental and health effects in understanding the research. This is the initial review of RE speciation and bioavailability with current initiative toward development needs and research perceptive...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
O K Koech, R N Kinuthia, G N Karuku, S M Mureithi, R Wanjogu
BACKGROUND: Production of range grasses under irrigation has been widely adopted in the arid environments of Kenya as a strategy for seasonal forage supply gap. However, their productivity has only been done under conventional methods without an evaluation of their performance at varied soil moisture conditions. This information is needed for making sustainable management of irrigation water and also increased pasture productivity at the current intensification of the production systems...
2016: SpringerPlus
M Kurek, H Barchańska, M Turek
Potato is one of the most important crops, after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tons per year and is constantly increasing. It grows in temperate climate and is used as a source of starch, food, and in breeding industry.Potato cultivation requires application of numerous agro-technical products, including pesticides, since it can be affected by insects, weeds, fungi, and viruses. In the European Union the most frequently used pesticides in potato cultivations check are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide)...
October 8, 2016: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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