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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786850/plasticizers-and-bpa-residues-in-tunisian-and-italian-culinary-herbs-and-spices
#1
Giuseppa Di Bella, Hedi Ben Mansour, Asma Ben Tekaya, Asma Beltifa, Angela Giorgia Potortì, Emanuele Saiya, Giovanni Bartolomeo, Giacomo Dugo, Vincenzo Lo Turco
In the present study, 18 plasticizers and residues in 10 different Tunisian and Italian culinary herbs and spices (black pepper, mint, caraway, coriander, oregano, rosemary, thyme, fennel, verbena, and laurel) were determined by GC/MS. Di-methylphthalate, di-(2-methylpropyl)adipate, di-n-butyladipate, di-propylphthalate, benzylbenzoate, di-phenylphthalate, and bisphenol A were lower than their LOQ in all 118 samples. Among the Tunisian samples, di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was found in all types of samples and di-butylphthalate in 50% of types; all other phthalates were rarely dectected...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782522/molecular-detection-of-mycobacterium-ulcerans-in-the-environment-and-its-relationship-with-buruli-ulcer-occurrence-in-zio-and-yoto-districts-of-maritime-region-in-togo
#2
Issaka Maman, Tchadjobo Tchacondo, Abiba Banla Kere, Marcus Beissner, Kossi Badziklou, Ekanao Tedihou, Edith Nyaku, Komi Amekuse, Franz Xaver Wiedemann, Damintoti Simplice Karou, Gisela Bretzel
BACKGROUND: Buruli Ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Residence near aquatic areas has been identified as an important source of transmission of M. ulcerans with increased risk of contracting Buruli ulcer. However, the reservoir and the mode of transmission are not yet well known. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of M. ulcerans in the environment and its relationship with Buruli ulcer occurrence in Zio and Yoto districts of the maritime region in south Togo...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780681/the-swiss-ecotox-centre-bridging-the-gap-between-research-and-application
#3
REVIEW
Inge Werner
The Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) was created in recognition of the urgent societal need to provide expertise, education and tools for assessing the risks and effects of anthropogenic chemicals in the environment. Founded in 2008, the Ecotox Centre conducts applied, practice-oriented research in the areas of aquatic (water and sediment) and terrestrial (with focus on soil) ecotoxicology, and provides further education and consulting services to its stakeholders. To date, its most important activities focus on (1) the validation and standardization of bioassays for use in monitoring of water, sediment or soil quality and (2) the development of tools for retrospective risk assessment, including approaches to assess mixture risk...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780374/insight-into-the-variation-of-bacterial-structure-in-atrazine-contaminated-soil-regulating-by-potential-phytoremediator-pennisetum-americanum-l-k-schum
#4
Bo Cao, Ying Zhang, Ziyi Wang, Mengyuan Li, Feng Yang, Duo Jiang, Zhao Jiang
Although plants of the genus Pennisetum can accelerate the removal of atrazine from its rhizosphere, the roles played by this plant in adjusting the soil environment and soil microorganism properties that might contribute to pollutant removal are incompletely understood. We selected Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum ( P. americanum ) as the test plant and investigated the interaction between P. americanum and atrazine-contaminated soil, focusing on the adjustment of the soil biochemical properties as well as bacterial functional and community diversity in the rhizosphere using Biolog EcoPlates and high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780184/pore-scale-hydrodynamics-in-a-progressively-bioclogged-three-dimensional-porous-medium-3-d-particle-tracking-experiments-and-stochastic-transport-modeling
#5
M Carrel, V L Morales, M Dentz, N Derlon, E Morgenroth, M Holzner
Biofilms are ubiquitous bacterial communities that grow in various porous media including soils, trickling, and sand filters. In these environments, they play a central role in services ranging from degradation of pollutants to water purification. Biofilms dynamically change the pore structure of the medium through selective clogging of pores, a process known as bioclogging. This affects how solutes are transported and spread through the porous matrix, but the temporal changes to transport behavior during bioclogging are not well understood...
March 2018: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779706/plant-water-transport-and-aquaporins-in-oxygen-deprived-environments
#6
Xiangfeng Tan, Hao Xu, Shanjida Khan, Maria A Equiza, Seong H Lee, Maryamsadat Vaziriyeganeh, Janusz J Zwiazek
Oxygen deprivation commonly affects plants exposed to flooding and soil compaction. The resulting root hypoxia has an immediate effect on plant water relations and upsets water balance. Hypoxia inhibits root water transport and triggers stomatal closure. The processes contributing to the inhibition of root hydraulic conductivity and conductance (hydraulic conductivity of the whole root system) are complex and involve changes in root morphology and the functions of aquaporins. Aquaporins (AQPs) comprise a group of membrane intrinsic proteins that are responsible for the transport of water, as well as some small neutral solutes and ions...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775934/arsenic-speciation-dynamics-in-paddy-rice-soil-water-environment-sources-physico-chemical-and-biological-factors-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Prasanna Kumarathilaka, Saman Seneweera, Andrew Meharg, Jochen Bundschuh
Rice is the main staple carbohydrate source for billions of people worldwide. Natural geogenic and anthropogenic sources has led to high arsenic (As) concentrations in rice grains. This is because As is highly bioavailable to rice roots under conditions in which rice is cultivated. A multifaceted and interdisciplinary understanding, both of short-term and long-term effects, are required to identify spatial and temporal changes in As contamination levels in paddy soil-water systems. During flooding, soil pore waters are elevated in inorganic As compared to dryland cultivation systems, as anaerobism results in poorly mobile As(V), being reduced to highly mobile As(III)...
April 21, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775821/vermiremediation-of-metal-loid-s-via-eichornia-crassipes-phytomass-extraction-a-sustainable-technique-for-plant-amelioration
#8
Arnab Majumdar, Anil Barla, Munish Kumar Upadhyay, Dibyarpita Ghosh, Punarbasu Chaudhuri, Sudhakar Srivastava, Sutapa Bose
Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), imparts deficiency of soluble arsenic and other toxic metal (loid)s through rhizofiltration and phytoaccumulation. Without proper management strategy, this phytoremediation of metal (loid)s might fail and get reverted back to the environment, contaminating the nearby water bodies. This study, focused on bio-conversion of phytoremediating hyacinths, spiked with 100 times and greater arsenic, lead and cadmium concentrations than the average water contamination, ranging in 58...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774952/plant-roots-redesign-the-rhizosphere-to-alter-the-three-dimensional-physical-architecture-and-water-dynamics
#9
Sheikh M F Rabbi, Matthew K Tighe, Richard J Flavel, Brent N Kaiser, Chris N Guppy, Xiaoxian Zhang, Iain M Young
The mechanisms controlling the genesis of rhizosheaths are not well understood, despite their importance in controlling the flux of nutrients and water from soil to root. Here, we examine the development of rhizosheaths from drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive chickpea varieties; focusing on the three-dimensional characterization of the pore volume (> 16 μm voxel spatial resolution) obtained from X-ray microtomography, along with the characterization of mucilage and root hairs, and water sorption. We observe that drought-tolerant plants generate a larger diameter root, and a greater and more porous mass of rhizosheath, which also has a significantly increased water sorptivity, as compared with bulk soil...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773926/comparative-analysis-of-airborne-bacteria-and-fungi-in-two-salt-mines-in-poland
#10
Elżbieta Gębarowska, Wojciech Pusz, Jolanta Kucińska, Włodzimierz Kita
The aim of this work was to determine the genera or species composition and the number of colony forming units of airborne bacteria and fungi, respectively, in two salt mines in Poland "Wieliczka" (Lesser Poland) and "Polkowice-Sieroszowice" (Lower Silesia). Both of them are working environments characterized by extreme conditions, and additionally "Wieliczka," officially placed on the UNESCO World Heritage Sites' list, plays a role of tourist attraction. There are also some curative chambers located in this mine...
2018: Aerobiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769021/the-toxicological-mechanisms-and-detoxification-of-depleted-uranium-exposure
#11
Yong-Chao Yue, Ming-Hua Li, Hai-Bo Wang, Bang-Le Zhang, Wei He
Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely applied in industrial and military activities, and is often obtained from producing fuel for nuclear reactors. DU may be released into the environment, polluting air, soil, and water, and is considered to exert both radiological and chemical toxicity. In humans and animals, DU can induce multiple health effects, such as renal tubular necrosis and bone malignancies. This review summarizes the known information on DU's routes of entry, mechanisms of toxicity, and health effects...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768658/detrimental-effects-of-rhizobial-inoculum-early-in-the-life-of-partridge-pea-chamaecrista-fasciculata
#12
Rachel E Pain, Ruth G Shaw, Seema N Sheth
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Mutualistic relationships with microbes may aid plants in overcoming environmental stressors and increase the range of abiotic environments where plants can persist. Rhizobia, nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with legumes, often confer fitness benefits to their host plants by increasing access to nitrogen in nitrogen-limited soils, but effects of rhizobia on host fitness under other stresses, such as drought, remain unclear. METHODS: In this greenhouse study, we varied the application of rhizobia (Bradyrhizobium sp...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767797/hydraulic-processes-in-roots-and-the-rhizosphere-pertinent-to-increasing-yield-of-water-limited-grain-crops-a-critical-review
#13
Mutez Ali Ahmed, John Passioura, Andrea Carminati
To a first-order approximation, the yield of a water-limited grain crop depends (1) on how much water is available to the crop and (2) on how crop water use is partitioned during the growing season. The latter determines the harvest index of the crop, that is, the proportion of the crop's above ground biomass that is converted into grain, which is typically optimal if about 30% of the seasonal available water supply is used during flowering and grain-filling.Here we review the role of roots in extracting water from the soil both in the amount and in timing that may lead to maximal grain yield, and the various mechanisms underlying this activity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766422/migration-and-leaching-characteristics-of-base-cation-indicating-environmental-effects-on-soil-alkalinity-in-a-karst-area
#14
Mingzhen Ma, Yang Gao, Xianwei Song, Sophie M Green, Bailian Xiong, Jennifer A J Dungait, Tao Peng, Timothy A Quine, Xuefa Wen, Nianpeng He
In karst areas, rock dissolution often results in the development of underground networks, which act as subterranean pathways for rapid water and nutrient (and possibly soil) loss during precipitation events. Loss of soluble nutrients degrades surface soils and decreases net primary productivity, so it is important to establish flow pathways and quantify nutrient loss during rainfall events of different magnitudes. We conducted a simulated rainfall experiment in karst and nonkarst areas to compare the concentration of nutrients in surface and subsurface flow water and effects on soil alkalinity in three lithologic soil formations under five different rainfall intensity treatments...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763875/green-zero-valent-iron-nanoparticles-dispersion-through-a-sandy-column-using-different-injection-sequences
#15
António Soares, Sandra Ramos, Tomás Albergaria, Cristina Delerue-Matos
The contamination of soils is a global environmental problem that urges an increased effort to recover polluted sites. In Europe, there are an estimated 20,000 polluted sites that need to be remediated and around 350,000 sites that are classified as potentially contaminated by the European Environment Agency (EEA). Remediation is a part of the solution to this problem, requiring the most innovative and sustainable technologies. In this context, the use of zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) is a promising, low cost and efficient technology for the remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with a wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761657/nesting-environment-may-drive-variation-in-eggshell-structure-and-egg-characteristics-in-the-testudinata
#16
D Charles Deeming
Testudines exhibit considerable variation in the degree of eggshell calcification, which affects eggshell conductance, water physiology of the embryos, and calcium metabolism of embryos. However, the underlying reason for different shell types has not been explored. Phylogenetically controlled analyses examined relationships between egg size, shell mass, and clutch size in ∼200 turtle species from a range of body sizes and assigned by family as laying either rigid- or pliable-shelled eggs. Shell type affected egg breadth relative to pelvic dimensions, egg mass, and relative shell mass but did not affect size, mass, or total shell mass of the clutch...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761641/uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-determining-dinotefuran-and-its-main-metabolites-in-samples-of-plants-animal-derived-foods-soil-and-water
#17
Ying Zhang, Xiaohu Wu, Tingting Duan, Jun Xu, Fengshou Dong, Xingang Liu, Xiaogang Li, Pengqiang Du, Yongquan Zheng
An ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry residue method for the quantification and identification of dinotefuran and its main metabolites 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) urea and 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) guanidine in fruit (watermelon), vegetable (cucumber), cereal (rice), animal-derived foods (milk, egg, and pork), soil and water was developed and validated. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile containing 15% v/v acetic acid and purified with dispersive solid-phase extraction with octadecylsilane, primary secondary amine, graphitized carbon black, or zirconia-coated silica prior to analysis...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761412/persistence-of-hepatitis-a-virus-in-fresh-produce-and-production-environments-and-the-effect-of-disinfection-procedures-a-review
#18
REVIEW
N Cook, I Bertrand, C Gantzer, R M Pinto, A Bosch
Although information is limited, it is evident that prolonged persistence of infectious Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a factor in the transmission of the virus via fresh produce. Consequently, data on persistence of the virus on produce, and in environments relevant to production, such as soils, water and surfaces, are required to fully understand the dynamics of transmission of HAV via foods. Furthermore, information on effective disinfection procedures is necessary to implement effective post-harvest control measures...
May 14, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758911/a-hybrid-land-water-environment-model-for-identification-of-ecological-effect-and-risk-under-uncertain-meteorological-precipitation-in-an-agroforestry-ecosystem
#19
Xueting Zeng, Tienan Li, Cong Chen, Zhenjiang Si, Guohe Huang, Ping Guo, Xiaowen Zhuang
In this study, a hybrid land-water-environment (LWE) model is developed for identifying ecological effect and risk under uncertain precipitation in an agroforestry ecosystem. A simulation-based fuzzy-stochastic programming with risk analysis (SFSR) method is used into LWE model to reflect the meteorological impacts; meanwhile, it also can quantify artificial fuzziness (e.g., risk attitude of policymaker) and natural vagueness (e.g., ecological function) in decision-making. The developed LWE model with SFSR method is applied to a practical agroforestry ecosystem in China...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758865/risk-assessment-and-source-analysis-of-soil-heavy-metal-pollution-from-lower-reaches-of-yellow-river-irrigation-in-china
#20
Pengyan Zhang, Chengzhe Qin, Xin Hong, Guohua Kang, Mingzhou Qin, Dan Yang, Bo Pang, Yanyan Li, Jianjian He, Richard P Dick
The level of concentration of heavy metal in soil is detrimental to soil quality. The Heigangkou-Liuyuankou irrigation area in the lower-reach of Yellow River irrigation, as home to a large population and a major site to agricultural production, is vulnerable to heavy metal pollution. This study examined soil quality in Heigangkou-Liuyuankou irrigation areas of Kaifeng, China. Pollution in soil and potential risks introduced by heavy metal accumulation were assessed using Nemerow, Geoaccumulation, and Hakanson's ecological risk indices...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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