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Pharmacological treatment of addiction

Manon Auffret, Sophie Drapier, Marc Vérin
Apomorphine is now recognized as the oldest antiparkinsonian drug on the market. Though still underused, it is increasingly prescribed in Europe for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with motor fluctuations. However, its history is far from being limited to movement disorders. This paper traces the history of apomorphine, from its earliest empirical use, to its synthesis, pharmacological development, and numerous indications in human and veterinary medicine, in light of its most recent uses and newest challenges...
March 15, 2018: Drugs in R&D
Catherine F Moore, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Eating disorders and some forms of obesity are characterized by addictive-like, compulsive eating behavior which contains numerous similarities with compulsive drug use. Food intake is in part mediated by reward and reinforcement processes that can become dysregulated in these disorders. Additionally, impairments in inhibitory control regulation of reward-related responding can cause or further exacerbate binge and compulsive eating. Dysfunctions in two neurotransmitter systems in the mesocorticolimbic pathway, dopamine and glutamate, are thought to contribute to maladaptive eating behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Stephen Brimijoin, Yang Gao, Liyi Geng, Vicky P Chen
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), a plasma enzyme that hydrolyses the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine relatively well, with far lower efficiency than acetylcholinesterase (AChE) but with the capability to degrade a broad range of bioactive esters. AChE is universally understood as essential to cholinergic neurotransmission, voluntary muscle performance, and cognition, among other roles, and its catalytic impact is essential for life. A total absence of BChE activity, whether by enzyme inhibition or simple lack of enzyme protein is not only compatible with life, but does not lead to obvious physiologic disturbance...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yonglai Zhang, Rui Sha, Kaiguo Wang, Hao Li, Bo Yan, Naibao Zhou
Tetrahydropalmatine exerts numerous pharmacological activities, including analgesic and narcotic effects; anti-arrhythmic, blood pressure lowering and cardioprotective effects; protective effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury; inhibition of platelet aggregation; prevention of ulcerative diseases and inhibition of gastric acid secretion; antitumor effects; and beneficial effects on the withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of tetrahydropalmatine against ketamine‑induced learning and memory impairment in mice...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
David E Moorman
The hypocretin/orexin (ORX) system has been repeatedly demonstrated to regulate motivation for drugs of abuse, including alcohol. In particular, ORX seems to be critically involved in highly motivated behaviors, as is observed in high-seeking individuals in a population, in the seeking of highly palatable substances, and in models of dependence. It seems logical that this system could be considered as a potential target for treatment for addiction, particularly alcohol addiction, as ORX pharmacological manipulations significantly reduce drinking...
March 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jenna Goesling, Lewei A Lin, Daniel J Clauw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic pain impacts millions of people in the USA. At the heart of the problem of chronic pain remains the complex psychosocial aspects associated with living with chronic pain. Given the overlap between chronic pain and mental health, a promising treatment approach is to improve how we integrate psychiatry into pain management. RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment of chronic pain and comorbid mental health issues requires a multidisciplinary approach...
March 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Laura B Ferguson, R Adron Harris, Roy Dayne Mayfield
The alcohol research field has amassed an impressive number of gene expression datasets spanning key brain areas for addiction, species (humans as well as multiple animal models), and stages in the addiction cycle (binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative effect, and preoccupation/anticipation). These data have improved our understanding of the molecular adaptations that eventually lead to dysregulation of brain function and the chronic, relapsing disorder of addiction. Identification of new medications to treat alcohol use disorder (AUD) will likely benefit from the integration of genetic, genomic, and behavioral information included in these important datasets...
March 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, Román Darío Moreno-Fernández, Sara Gil-Rodríguez, Cristina Rosell-Valle, Guillermo Estivill-Torrús, Antonia Serrano, Francisco J Pavón, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Luis J Santín, Estela Castilla-Ortega
Erasing memories of cocaine-stimuli associations might have important clinical implications for addiction therapy. Stimulating hippocampal plasticity by enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is a promising strategy because the addition of new neurons may not only facilitate new learning but also modify previous connections and weaken retrograde memories. To investigate whether increasing AHN prompted the forgetting of previous contextual cocaine associations, mice trained in a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm were administered chronic intracerebroventricular infusions of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, an endogenous lysophospholipid with pro-neurogenic actions), ki16425 (an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist) or a vehicle solution, and they were tested 23 days later for CPP retention and extinction...
February 26, 2018: Addiction Biology
Terence Y Pang, Anthony J Hannan, Andrew J Lawrence
Relapse remains the most prominent hurdle to successful rehabilitation from alcoholism. The neural mechanisms underlying relapse are complex, but our understanding of the brain regions involved, the anatomical circuitry and the modulation of specific nuclei in the context of stress and cue-induced relapse have improved significantly in recent years. In particular, stress is now recognised as a significant trigger for relapse, adding to the well-established impact of chronic stress to escalate alcohol consumption...
February 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Linda Nguyen, Laura R Lander, Kevin E O'Grady, Patrick J Marshalek, Adrienne Schmidt, Audra K Kelly, Hendrée E Jones
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rising concerns regarding diversion and misuse of mono-buprenorphine for treatment of pregnant women with opioid use disorders have sparked interest in the use of buprenorphine + naloxone to reduce misuse and diversion rates. Examined the relationship of prenatal buprenorphine + naloxone exposure to neonatal outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of 26 mother infant dyads in comprehensive medication-assisted treatment with buprenorphine + naloxone during pregnancy...
March 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Jian-Feng Liu, Robert Seaman, Justin N Siemian, Rohan Bhimani, Bernard Johnson, Yanan Zhang, Qing Zhu, Marius C Hoener, Jinwoo Park, David M Dietz, Jun-Xu Li
Nicotine addiction and abuse remains a global health issue. To date, the fundamental neurobiological mechanism of nicotine addiction remains incompletely understood. Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is thought to directly modulate dopaminergic system and are thought to be a neural substrate underlying addictive-like behaviors. We aimed to investigate the role of TAAR1 in nicotine addictive-like behaviors. TAAR1 expression after nicotine treatment was evaluated by western blotting. c-Fos immunofluorescence and in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry were used to examine the activation of brain regions and dopamine release, respectively...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Megan Barker, Julia Lecce, Anna Ivanova, Laurie Zawertailo, Rosa Dragonetti, Peter Selby
INTRODUCTION: Standard knowledge delivery formats for CME may have limited impact on long-term practice change. A community of practice (CoP) is one tool that may enhance competencies and support practice change. This study explores the utility of an interprofessional CoP as an adjunct to a CME program in tobacco addiction treatment (Training Enhancement in Applied Counselling and Health [TEACH] Project) to promote and sustain practice change. METHODS: A prospective cohort design was utilized to examine the long-term impact of the TEACH CoP on practice change...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Carolina L Haass-Koffler, Robert M Swift, Lorenzo Leggio
The role of norepinephrine (NE) in the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been studied over the past several decades. However, the NE system has been largely ignored for many years as a potential target for medication development for AUD. More recently, preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the potential value of targeting NE signaling for developing new pharmacological treatments for AUD. This review contributes to a special issue of Psychopharmacology focused on promising targets for alcohol addiction...
February 20, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Alexandria S Coles, Karolina Kozak, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a leading cause of disability worldwide. While several pharmacological and behavioral treatments for SUDs are available, these may not be effective for all patients. Recent studies using non-invasive neuromodulation techniques including Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) have shown promise for SUD treatment. OBJECTIVE: Multiple studies were evaluated investigating the therapeutic potential of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques in treatment of SUDs...
February 19, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Belin G Teklezgi, Annapurna Pamreddy, Sooraj Baijnath, Hendrik G Kruger, Tricia Naicker, Nirmala D Gopal, Thavendran Govender
Opioid addiction is a serious public health concern with severe health and social implications; therefore, extensive therapeutic efforts are required to keep users drug free. The two main pharmacological interventions, in the treatment of addiction, involve management with methadone an mu (μ)-opioid agonist and treatment with naltrexone, μ-opioid, kappa (κ)-opioid and delta (δ)-opioid antagonist. MET and NAL are believed to help individuals to derive maximum benefit from treatment and undergo a full recovery...
February 14, 2018: Addiction Biology
Marta Mauro-Lizcano, Abelardo López-Rivas
Glutamine plays an important role in the metabolism of tumor cells through its contribution to redox homeostasis, bioenergetics, synthesis of macromolecules, and signaling. Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are highly metastatic and associated with poor prognosis. TNBC cells show a marked dependence on extracellular glutamine for growth. Herein we demonstrate that TNBC cells are markedly sensitized to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis upon glutamine deprivation...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Lebourgeois Sophie, Vilpoux Catherine, Jérôme Jeanblanc, Acher Francine, Marie Nicolas, Florence Noble, Naassila Mickaël
Addiction is a chronic and highly relapsing disorder hypothesized to be produced by an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. For more than a decade, emerging evidence indicates that manipulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission, by group III mGlu receptors (mGlu4/7/8), could be a promising approach to develop therapeutic agents for the treatment of addiction. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine whether LSP2-9166, a mixed mGlu4/mGlu7 orthosteric agonist, could reduce ethanol self-administration, ethanol motivation and reacquisition after protracted abstinence in a preclinical model of excessive ethanol intake...
January 26, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Jessica P Young, Carol E Achtmeyer, Kara M Bensley, Eric J Hawkins, Emily C Williams
BACKGROUND: Effective behavioral and pharmacological treatments are available and recommended for patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) but rarely received. Barriers to receipt and provision of evidence-based AUD treatments delivered by specialists may be greatest in rural areas. METHODS: A targeted subanalysis of qualitative interview data collected from primary care providers at 5 Veterans Affairs clinics was conducted to identify differences in provider perceptions and practices regarding AUD treatment across urban and rural clinics...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Danielle O Sambo, Joseph J Lebowitz, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a major public health issue around the world, yet there are currently no effective pharmacotherapies for the treatment of METH addiction. METH is a potent psychostimulant that increases extracellular dopamine levels by targeting the dopamine transporter (DAT) and alters neuronal activity in the reward centers of the brain. One promising therapeutic target for the treatment of METH addiction is the sigma-1 receptor (σ1R). The σ1R is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized chaperone protein that is activated by cellular stress, and, unique to this chaperone, its function can also be induced or inhibited by different ligands...
January 22, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Anna Carfora, Paola Cassandro, Alessandro Feola, Francesco La Sala, Raffaella Petrella, Renata Borriello
Different immunotherapeutic approaches are in the pipeline for the treatment of drug dependence. "Drug vaccines" aim to induce the immune system to produce antibodies that bind to drugs and prevent them from inducing rewarding effects in the brain. Drugs of abuse currently being tested using these new approaches are opioids, nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In human clinical trials, "cocaine and nicotine vaccines" have been shown to induce sufficient antibody levels while producing few side effects. Studies in humans, determining how these vaccines interact in combination with their target drug, are underway...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
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