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Pharmacological treatment of addiction

Hanne Mette Hoffmann, Nadine Crouzin, Estefanía Moreno, Noora Raivio, Silvia Fuentes, Peter J McCormick, Jordi Ortiz, Michel Vignes
BACKGROUND: Cocaine addiction continues to be a major heath concern, and despite public health intervention there is a lack of efficient pharmacological treatment options. A newly identified potential target are the group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/5), with allosteric modulators showing particular promise. METHODS: We evaluated the capacity of mGluR1/5 receptors to induce functional responses in ex vivo striatal slices from rats with 1) acute cocaine self-administration (CSA), 2) chronic CSA and 3) 60 days CSA withdrawal by westernblot and extracellular recordings of synaptic transmission...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Maria Claudia Rodríguez, Perla Villamor, Tatiana Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Pain is a disease by itself and it's a public health concern of major implication in children, not just because of the emotional component of the child and his family, but also due to the potential morbidity and mortality involving it. A proper assessment of pain it's a challenge in the pediatric population, due to their lack of understanding and verbalization of hurt. Additionally, a satisfactory treatment of pediatric pain can be arduous due to a lack of clinical knowledge, insufficient pediatric research, and the fear to opioid side effects and addiction...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
S Mücke, M Nagel, J P Siedentopf, C Bührer, D Hüseman
Background: Infants exposed to opiates antenatally display withdrawal symptoms after birth referred to as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Patients: A total of 366 newborns (166 females, 10 twins) from 361 mothers were diagnosed with NAS from 2000 to 2011 at a single large metropolitan referral center. Methods: Retrospective chart review of all newborn infants exposed to opiates in utero. Results: 20% were premature (gestational age<37 weeks), 32% were small-for-gestational-age (<10(th) percentile)...
October 10, 2016: Klinische Pädiatrie
S Cuesta, J Batuecas, M J Severin, A Funes, S B Rosso, A M Pacchioni
Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by the loss of control over drug-seeking and taking, and continued drug use regardless of adverse consequences. Despite years of research, effective treatments for psychostimulant addiction have not been identified. Persistent vulnerability to relapse arises from a number of long lasting adaptations in the reward circuitry that mediate the enduring response to the drug. Recently, we reported that the activity of the canonical or Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) is very important in the early stages of cocaine-induced neuroadaptations...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Antonio Ferragud, Adam D Howell, Catherine F Moore, Tina L Ta, Marius C Hoener, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Compulsive, binge eating of highly palatable food constitutes a core feature of some forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as of the recently proposed disorder of food addiction. Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a highly conserved G-protein-coupled receptor bound by endogenous trace amines. TAAR1 agonists have been shown to reduce multiple behavioral effects of drugs of abuse through their actions on the mesocorticolimbic system. In this study, we hypothesized that TAAR1 may play a role in compulsive, binge-like eating; we tested this hypothesis by assessing the effects of a TAAR1 agonist, RO5256390, in multiple excessive feeding-related behaviors induced by limiting access to a highly palatable diet in rats...
October 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Xavier Castells, Ruth Cunill, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Xavier Vidal, Dolors Capellà
BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence is a severe disorder for which no medication has been approved. Like opioids for heroin dependence, replacement therapy with psychostimulants could be an effective therapy for treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychostimulants for cocaine abuse and dependence. Specific outcomes include sustained cocaine abstinence and retention in treatment. We also studied the influence of type of drug and comorbid disorders on psychostimulant efficacy...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Aishwarya Vijay, Shuo Wang, Patrick Worhunsky, Ming-Qiang Zheng, Nabeel Nabulsi, Jim Ropchan, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Yiyun Huang, Evan D Morris
Opioid receptors may play critical roles in alcoholism and other addictions, addiction withdrawal, and depression and are considered pharmacological targets for treatment of these conditions. Sex differences have been demonstrated in mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) opioid receptors in humans, in vivo. In addition, sex differences have been observed in efficacy of treatment targeting kappa opioid receptors (KOR). Our goal in the present study was to compare the availability of KOR (1) between healthy control (HC) men and women...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Kalyan N Rao, Alena M Sentir, Eric A Engleman, Richard L Bell, Leslie A Hulvershorn, Alan Breier, R Andrew Chambers
RATIONAL: Prefrontal cortical (PFC)-hippocampal-striatal circuits, interconnected via glutamatergic signaling, are dysfunctional in mental illnesses that involve addiction vulnerability. OBJECTIVES: In healthy and neurodevelopmentally altered rats, we examined how Radial Arm Maze (RAM) performance estimates addiction vulnerability, and how starting a glutamatergic modulating agent, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in adolescence alters adult mental illness and/or addiction phenotypes...
September 17, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok, Robert Pudlo, Magdalena Jarząb, Agnieszka Szymlak
Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used...
2016: Medycyna Pracy
Philip H Smith, Andrea H Weinberger, Ju Zhang, Erin Emme, Carolyn M Mazure, Sherry A McKee
INTRODUCTION: Converging clinical and biological evidence suggest sex is an important factor when selecting a pharmacological intervention for smoking cessation. The current investigation used network meta-analyses to estimate sex differences in the comparative efficacy of transdermal nicotine (TN), varenicline, and sustained release (SR) bupropion for smoking cessation. METHODS: Systematically searched previously published reviews and databases (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of bupropion-SR, TN, and varenicline for cigarette smoking cessation in primary care/general community samples were included...
July 11, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Paula G Slater, Hector E Yarur, Katia Gysling
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system, which is involved in stress, addiction, and anxiety disorders such as depression, acts through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as type-1 and type-2 CRF receptors. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in the interactions of CRF receptors with other GPCRs and non-GPCR proteins and their associated functional consequences. A better understanding of these interactions may generate new pharmacological alternatives for the treatment of addiction and stress-related disorders...
November 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
Nalini Vadivelu, Sukanya Mitra, Alice M Kai, Gopal Kodumudi, Karina Gritsenko
Opioid dependence can occur due to prescription opioid use, recreational opioid use, or as a result of opioid use for the treatment of drug addiction. Pain control in these patients is truly a challenge. It is important to understand the patient's condition such as the phenomenon of drug dependence, drug addiction, and pseudoaddiction to provide effective analgesia. This may be accomplished using appropriate multimodal therapies and by treatment of coexisting diseases such as anxiety. The goal is to provide effective analgesia, prevent cognitive and emotional problems, and produce a positive postoperative rehabilitation process...
July 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
Gustavo Nieto-Alamilla, Ricardo Márquez-Gómez, Ana-Maricela García-Gálvez, Guadalupe-Elide Morales-Figueroa, José-Antonio Arias-Montaño
Among the four G protein-coupled receptors (H1-H4) identified as mediators of the biologic effects of histamine, the H3 receptor (H3R) is distinguished for its almost exclusive expression in the nervous system and the large variety of isoforms generated by alternative splicing of the corresponding mRNA. Additionally, it exhibits dual functionality as autoreceptor and heteroreceptor, and this enables H3Rs to modulate the histaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems. The cloning of the H3R cDNA in 1999 by Lovenberg et al...
November 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
Marsida Kallupi, Giulia Scuppa, Giordano de Guglielmo, Girolamo Calò, Friedbert Weiss, Michael A Statnick, Linda M Rorick-Kehn, Roberto Ciccocioppo
The nociceptin (NOP) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor whose natural ligand is the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide. Evidence from pharmacological studies suggests that the N/OFQ system is implicated in the regulation of several addiction-related phenomena, such as drug intake, withdrawal and relapse. Here, to further explore the role of NOP system in addiction, we used NOP (-/-) rats to study the motivation for cocaine, heroin and alcohol self-administration in the absence of N/OFQ function. Conditioned place preference (CPP) and saccharin (0...
August 26, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ellen M McGlinchey, Morgan H James, Stephen V Mahler, Caroline Pantazis, Gary Aston-Jones
UNLABELLED: Glutamate inputs to nucleus accumbens (NAc) facilitate conditioned drug-seeking behavior and primarily originate from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and ventral subiculum of the hippocampus (vSub). These regions express Fos (a marker of neural activity) during cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, but only subpopulations of neurons within these regions drive drug seeking. One way to identify and functionally distinguish neural subpopulations activated during drug-seeking is to examine their projection targets...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vanesa Ortiz, Víctor Alejandro Molina, Irene Delia Martijena
The pharmacological blockade of memory reconsolidation has been suggested as a potential treatment to the attenuation of maladaptive memories associated to psychiatric disorders and drug addiction. To interfere with the process of fear memory reconsolidation using a manipulation safer than pharmacological interventions, here we examined whether a positive reinforcing stimulus (non-alcoholic beer, NB) post-memory retrieval can decrease the fear response in ethanol withdrawn (ETOH) animals. We first evaluated the potential interfering effect of NB on memory reconsolidation in non-ethanol dependent (control, CON) rats...
December 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Michel M M Verheij, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Lucia Caffino, Giuseppe Giannotti, Maxime Cazorla, Fabio Fumagalli, Marco A Riva, Judith R Homberg, George F Koob, Candice Contet
UNLABELLED: Cocaine exposure alters brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the brain. BDNF signaling through TrkB receptors differentially modulates cocaine self-administration, depending on the brain regions involved. In the present study, we determined how brain-wide inhibition of TrkB signaling affects cocaine intake, the motivation for the drug, and reinstatement of drug taking after extinction. To overcome the inability of TrkB ligands to cross the blood-brain barrier, the TrkB antagonist cyclotraxin-B was fused to the nontoxic transduction domain of the tat protein from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (tat-cyclotraxin-B)...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Valentina Vengeliene, Nazzareno Cannella, Tatiane Takahashi, Rainer Spanagel
RATIONALE: The glutamatergic system plays a key role in the maintenance of drug use and development of drug-related conditioned behaviours. In particular, hyper-glutamatergic activity and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation may drive drug craving and relapse. Inhibition of kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) shifts the metabolic kynurenine pathway towards production of kynurenic acid, which leads to a reduction of glutamatergic/NMDAR activity via different mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated whether drug-seeking and relapse behaviour could be modified by the metabolic shift of endogenous kynurenine pathway...
September 2016: Psychopharmacology
Itxaso González-Ortega, Enrique Echeburúa, Adriana García-Alocén, Patricia Vega, Ana González-Pinto
BACKGROUND: The high rate of cannabis use among patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), as well as the associated negative impact on illness course and treatment outcomes, underlines the need for effective interventions in these populations. However, to date, there have been few clinical treatment trials (of pharmacological or psychological interventions) that have specifically focused on addressing comorbid cannabis use among these patients. The aim of this paper is to describe the design of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial in which the objective is to assess the efficacy of a specific cognitive behavioral therapy program for cannabis cessation in patients with FEP compared to standard treatment (psychoeducation)...
2016: Trials
M Bauer, T Banaschewski, A Heinz, I Kamp-Becker, A Meyer-Lindenberg, F Padberg, M A Rapp, R Rupprecht, F Schneider, T G Schulze, H-U Wittchen
Mental disorders are among the greatest medical and social challenges facing us. They can occur at all stages of life and are among the most important commonly occurring diseases. In Germany 28 % of the population suffer from a mental disorder every year, while the lifetime risk of suffering from a mental disorder is almost 50 %. Mental disorders cause great suffering for those affected and their social network. Quantitatively speaking, they can be considered to be among those diseases creating the greatest burden for society due to reduced productivity, absence from work and premature retirement...
September 2016: Der Nervenarzt
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