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Pharmacological treatment of addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721822/opioid-antagonists-for-pharmacological-treatment-of-gambling-disorder-are-they-relevant
#1
Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Andrew Spiers, Pascal Caillet, Mélanie Bruneau, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Marie Grall-Bronnec
Background To date, no drugs have been approved for gambling disorder. Numerous publications have described the value of opioid antagonists. Indeed, the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway has been suggested as the underlying cause of reward-seeking behaviour, and it is modulated by the opioid system. Objective This study aims to evaluate the relevance of opioid antagonists for treating GD. Method A systematic literature review was conducted. A search of the PubMed electronic database, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Systematic Review Database without any limits was performed...
July 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693859/the-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nachr-partial-agonist-at-1001-attenuates-stress-induced-reinstatement-of-nicotine-seeking-in-a-rat-model-of-relapse-and-induces-minimal-withdrawal-in-dependent-rats
#2
Menglu Yuan, Ariana M Malagon, Dennis Yasuda, James D Belluzzi, Frances M Leslie, Nurulain T Zaveri
The strong reinforcing effects of nicotine and the negative symptoms such as anxiety experienced during a quit attempt often lead to relapse and low success rates for smoking cessation. Treatments that not only block the reinforcing effects of nicotine but also attenuate the motivation to relapse are needed to improve cessation rates. Recent genetic and preclinical studies have highlighted the involvement of the α3, β4, and α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and the α3β4 nAChR subtype in nicotine dependence and withdrawal...
July 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690183/perinatal-protein-deprivation-facilitates-morphine-cross-sensitization-to-cocaine-and-enhances-%C3%AE-fosb-expression-in-adult-rats
#3
María Cecilia Perondi, María Cecilia Gutiérrez, Analía Valdomero, Gabriel Ricardo Cuadra
Previous studies have indicated that neural changes induced by early nutritional insult cause an altered response to pharmacological treatments, including addictive drugs. This study evaluates the influence of perinatal protein malnutrition in developing cross-sensitization to cocaine-induced rewarding effects in animals pre-exposed to morphine. Different groups of well-nourished (C-rats) and protein-deprived animals (D-rats) were treated twice a day for three days with increasing doses of morphine or with saline...
July 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686988/prevalence-correlates-comorbidity-and-treatment-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-system-use-in-the-united-states
#4
S Patricia Chou, Tulshi D Saha, Haitao Zhang, W June Ruan, Boji Huang, Bridget F Grant, Carlos Blanco, Wilson Compton
INTRODUCTION: This study presents nationally representative data on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity and treatment (including pharmacological and nonpharmacological) among electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) users. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. RESULTS: Prevalences of 12-month and lifetime ENDS use were 3.8% (SE=0.14) and 5.4% (SE=0.17)...
June 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666251/evaluation-of-a-community-based-integrated-heroin-addiction-treatment-model-in-chinese-patients
#5
Hong-He Zhang, Lin-Xiang Tan, Wei Hao, Qi-Jian Deng
In this study, we analyzed the efficacy and feasibility of a community-based integrated heroin addiction treatment model in Chinese patients. The 210 heroin addicts belonging to six Chinese communities received an integrated biopsychosocial intervention that included pharmacological treatment, counseling and social assistance. High proportions of study participants were retained at the 12-month (91.9%; 193/210) and 24-month (88.1%; 185/210) follow-up visits. The number of morphine-positive subjects declined from 61...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663570/brain-stimulation-in-obesity
#6
REVIEW
C H Göbel, V M Tronnier, T F Münte
Obesity is taking up epidemic proportions worldwide with significant impacts on the health of both the affected individual and on society as a whole. Treatment approaches consist of behavioural and pharmacological approaches, however these are often found to be ineffective. In severe obesity, bariatric surgery is frequently performed. Unfortunately, 40% of patients show substantial weight gain over the long-term or display the associated metabolic syndrome, making the development of novel therapies necessary...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662295/%C3%AE-9-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-the-modulation-of-pain
#7
REVIEW
Arik J Hone, Denis Servent, J Michael McIntosh
Neuropathic pain is a complex and debilitating syndrome for which there are few effective pharmacological treatments. Opioid-based medications are initially effective for acute pain but tolerance to their analgesic effects quickly develops and long-term use often leads to physical dependence and addiction. Furthermore, neuropathic pain is generally resistant to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Other classes of medications including antidepressants, antiepileptics, and voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) inhibitors are only partially effective in most patients, may be associated with significant side effects, and have few disease modifying effects on the underlying pathology...
June 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656876/co-dependency-between-kras-addiction-and-arhgef2-promotes-an-adaptive-escape-from-mapk-pathway-inhibition
#8
Oliver A Kent, Maria-Jose Sandi, Robert Rottapel
Oncogenic KRAS engages multiple effector pathways including the MAPK cascade to promote proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells. KRAS-transformed cancer cells exhibit oncogene addiction to sustained activity of RAS for maintenance of malignant phenotypes. Previously, we have shown an essential role for the RHO guanine exchange factor ARHGEF2 for growth and survival of RAS-transformed pancreatic tumors. Here, we have determined that pancreatic cancer cells demonstrating KRAS addiction are significantly dependent on expression of ARHGEF2...
June 28, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648162/-treatment-of-acute-pain-in-opioid-addicts
#9
Henrik Rindom, Jette Højsted, Nina Brünés
The challenge of managing acute pain in opioid-addicted patients is a question of fully understanding the pharmacological effects of the illegal drugs and to prevent overdosing or withdrawal symptoms. It requires a thorough knowledge of the patient's daily consumption of legal and illegal drugs and an understanding obtained through an accepting and empathetic communication with the patient. Substitution management aims to prevent opioid withdrawal symptoms and is not a means of managing pain. When planning the pain management the patient must receive at least 25% of the daily methadone dose, recalculated into equipotent substitute morphine...
June 26, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646714/synthetic-cathinones-and-stereochemistry-s-enantiomer-of-mephedrone-reduces-anxiety-and-depressant-like-effects-in-cocaine-or-mdpv-abstinent-rats
#10
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Callum Hicks, Allen B Reitz, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neuropharmacological profile of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (MEPH) is influenced by stereochemistry. Both MEPH enantiomers are monoamine transporter substrates, but R-MEPH is primarily responsible for rewarding effects of MEPH as it produces greater locomotor activation and intracranial self-stimulation than S-MEPH. S-MEPH is a 50-fold more potent 5-HT releaser than R-MEPH and does not place preference in rats. MEPH is also structurally similar to the cathinone derivative bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation medication, suggesting MEPH has therapeutic and addictive properties...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631980/orexin-research-patent-news-from-2016
#11
Christoph Boss, Catherine Roch
The orexin system consists of two G-protein-coupled receptors, orexin 1 and orexin 2 and two endogenous ligands, orexin A and orexin B . It is evolutionarily highly conserved. It is involved in the promotion of wakefulness as well as in anxiety and addictive disorders. In addition, its activation via the Ox1 receptor triggers apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. Dual orexin receptor antagonists are successfully used to treat primary insomnia. The major open questions are now related to the clinical validation of Ox1 selective antagonists...
June 28, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627395/the-opioid-epidemic-is-an-historic-opportunity-to-improve-both-prevention-and-treatment
#12
Robert L DuPont
The current narrative describing the national opioid epidemic as the result of overprescribing opioid pain medicines fails to capture the full dimensions of problem and leads to inadequate and even confounding solutions. Overlooked is the fact that polysubstance use is nearly ubiquitous among overdose deaths, demonstrating that the opioid overdose death problem is bigger than opioids. The foundation of the nation's opioid overdose crisis - and the totality of the nation's drug epidemic - is widespread recreational pharmacology, the use of drugs for fun or "self-medication...
June 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625446/a-novel-treatment-for-chronic-opioid-use-after-surgery
#13
Paul F White, Ofelia Loani Elvir-Lazo, Hector Hernandez
In a recent article from the Center for Disease Control, the authors addressed the current opioid epidemic in America and emphasized the importance of utilizing non-opioid analgesic alternatives to opioid medication for treating chronic pain. In cases where non-opioid analgesic drugs alone have failed to produce adequate pain relief, these authors suggested that non-pharmacologic therapies should also be considered. This Case Series describes a pilot study designed to evaluate a novel non-pharmacologic approach to treating long-standing (>1year) opioid dependency...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624806/targeting-the-tumor-promoting-microenvironment-in-met-amplified-nsclc-cells-with-a-novel-inhibitor-of-pro-hgf-activation
#14
Benjamin Y Owusu, Shantasia Thomas, Phanindra Venukadasula, Zhenfu Han, James W Janetka, Robert A Galemmo, Lidija Klampfer
Targeted therapeutic agents, such as inhibitors of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), have transformed the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. MET-amplified NSCLC cells display resistance to EGFR-targeting agents, but are addicted to MET signaling for survival and proliferation and are sensitive to MET inhibition. However, responsive cancer cells invariably develop resistance to MET-targeted treatment.The tumor microenvironment plays a major role in resistance to anticancer therapy...
May 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622206/bupropion-augmentation-in-a-case-of-compulsive-buying-disorder
#15
Gianna Sepede, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Fiori, Massimo Di Giannantonio
BACKGROUND: Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is a condition characterized by excessive preoccupations, impulses, and behaviors regarding buying, resulting in serious psychological, social, and financial problems. Even though it has not been included in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, "behavioral addictions" section, CBD is a hot topic in current clinical psychiatry, because of its relevant prevalence (at least 5% in adult populations) and severe effect on quality of life...
July 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611691/morphine-reward-promotes-cue-sensitive-learning-implication-of-dorsal-striatal-creb-activity
#16
Mathieu Baudonnat, Jean-Louis Guillou, Marianne Husson, Veronique D Bohbot, Lars Schwabe, Vincent David
Different parallel neural circuits interact and may even compete to process and store information: whereas stimulus-response (S-R) learning critically depends on the dorsal striatum (DS), spatial memory relies on the hippocampus (HPC). Strikingly, despite its potential importance for our understanding of addictive behaviors, the impact of drug rewards on memory systems dynamics has not been extensively studied. Here, we assessed long-term effects of drug- vs food reinforcement on the subsequent use of S-R vs spatial learning strategies and their neural substrates...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604329/report-on-the-first-government-funded-opioid-substitution-programme-for-heroin-users-in-the-western-cape-province-south-africa
#17
Graeme Michie, Shuaib Hoosain, Muiruri Macharia, Lize Weich
BACKGROUND: Although pharmacological opioid substitution treatment (OST) is a well-established treatment modality for heroin addiction, it is a relatively recent introduction in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To report on a pilot OST programme initiated in 2013 that was the only public-funded programme in South Africa (SA) at the time. Participants were offered standard care only (n=68) or, for the OST group (n=67), standard care plus Suboxone (Reckitt Benckiser), a synthetic partial opioid agonist, in a 12-week clinician-monitored programme...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589470/a-narrative-review-of-potential-treatment-strategies-for-food-addiction
#18
REVIEW
Shae-Leigh C Vella, Nagesh B Pai
The concept of food addiction (FA) remains controversial with research being in the nascent stages; FA like any addiction can have a devastating impact on the lives of those afflicted. There exists a clinical need for treatment strategies for those affected. This article reviews potential treatment strategies for FA. The treatment strategies target four core behaviours of the addiction phenotype specifically craving through the opioid system, impulsivity as a personality trait, compulsivity through the serotonergic system and lastly motivation through the dopaminergic system...
June 6, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583866/effects-of-chronic-cocaine-morphine-and-methamphetamine-on-the-mobility-immobility-and-stereotyped-behaviors-in-crayfish
#19
Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel, Natalia Rincon, Vasiliki Bessie Orfanakos, Leanne Brechtel, Leah Wormack, Erika Richardson, Robert Huber, Thomas I Nathaniel
The worth of crayfish as a model system for studies of addiction was not previously recognized because a drug-reward phenomenon had not been documented in this model system. In our previous experiments, we demonstrate that the crayfish natural reward pathways are sensitive to human drugs of abuse. This finding supports crayfish as a suitable model to characterize specific behaviors that are relevant in drug addiction research, and the current study builds on our previous findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate unconditioned neurobehavioral effects of repeated treatment regimens using cocaine, morphine, and methamphetamine for three consecutive days...
June 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564556/brain-on-fire-incentive-salience-hedonic-hot-spots-dopamine-obesity-and-other-hunger-games
#20
Jameason D Cameron, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Anders M Sjödin, Gary S Goldfield
This review examines human feeding behavior in light of psychological motivational theory and highlights the importance of midbrain dopamine (DA). Prospective evidence of both reward surfeit and reward deficit pathways to increased body weight are evaluated, and we argue that it is more complex than an either/or scenario when examining DA's role in reward sensitivity, eating, and obesity. The Taq1A genotype is a common thread that ties the contrasting models of DA reward and obesity; this genotype related to striatal DA is not associated with obesity class per se but may nevertheless confer an increased risk of weight gain...
May 31, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
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