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Pharmacological treatment of addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324652/food-addiction-and-binge-eating-lessons-learned-from-animal-models
#1
REVIEW
Marta G Novelle, Carlos Diéguez
The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered "addictive" under normal circumstances, people can become "addicted" to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of "eating addiction" are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317611/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-binding-in-male-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#2
Funda Akkus, Yoan Mihov, Valerie Treyer, Simon M Ametamey, Anass Johayem, Smeralda Senn, Susanne Rösner, Alfred Buck, Gregor Hasler
Glutamate signaling plays a major role in addiction. Preclinical research strongly suggests an implication of G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) in nicotine addiction and alcohol use disorder. In humans, smoking is related to a global reduction in mGluR5 availability. In the present study, we investigated mGluR5 in vivo in patients with alcohol use disorder without the confounding effects of smoking. A total of 14 male subjects with alcohol use disorder and at least a 25-day abstinence and 14 matched male non-smoking healthy controls were included in the study...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315084/safety-of-reiki-therapy-for-newborns-at-risk-for-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#3
Rosanne Marie Radziewicz, Sandra Wright-Esber, Julie Zupancic, Deb Gargiulo, Patricia Woodall
The incidence of opioid abuse and subsequent drug withdrawal is exponentially on the rise in the United States for many populations including newborns who are born to drug-addicted mothers. These newborns often exhibit symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) within 24 to 72 hours of birth. Treatment of NAS includes monitoring of withdrawal symptoms, managing physiological parameters, and the use of supportive and pharmacologic treatments. Although a few randomized controlled trials exist, studies on supportive intervention are generally limited by small sample sizes, case study reports, expert opinions, and descriptive design...
January 8, 2018: Holistic Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303948/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-chronic-pain-one-therapeutic-approach-for-the-opioid-epidemic
#4
Muhammad Hassan Majeed, Donna M Sudak
Opioids are frequently prescribed for chronic pain. For the past 2 decades, long-term opioid analgesic therapy was considered the cornerstone of effective pain management for chronic nonmalignant conditions, despite a lack of documented effectiveness and safety, with the attendant risk of addiction, overdose, and death. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may be used effectively to treat chronic pain, either as a stand-alone treatment or with other nonopioid pharmacological treatments. CBT improves pain-related outcomes along with mobility, quality of life, and disability and mood outcomes...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303096/-insomnia-in-hospital
#5
J M J Stoffels, A Thijs
- Every night in hospitals physicians on night shift are confronted with insomnia among their patients and have to make a decision on prescribing sleeping medication.- The extent to which insomnia is disadvantageous to hospital patients and its effects on clinical outcomes have not been well investigated.- A recent systematic review concluded that it is not known if treatment of insomnia with medication, such as melatonin or benzodiazepines, has a beneficial or a disadvantageous effect on clinical outcomes...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302219/individual-differences-in-the-neuropsychopathology-of-addiction
#6
Olivier George, George F Koob
Drug addiction or substance-use disorder is a chronically relapsing disorder that progresses through binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages. These stages represent diverse neurobiological mechanisms that are differentially involved in the transition from recreational to compulsive drug use and from positive to negative reinforcement. The progression from recreational to compulsive substance use is associated with downregulation of the brain reward systems and upregulation of the brain stress systems...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287612/decision-making-in-addiction-current-knowledge-clinical-implications-and-future-directions
#7
EDITORIAL
William W Stoops, David N Kearns
This article serves to summarize this special issue on "Decision-making in Addiction." The manuscripts included in this issue cover topics as diverse as theory, types of models used to study decision-making, underlying pharmacological, behavioral and brain mechanisms, and individual differences. Together, these papers can serve as a comprehensive resource outlining our contemporary understanding of how decision-making processes contribute to addictive behavior. The knowledge included here can inform treatment development, clearly pointing to the need for tailored interventions based on individual differences...
January 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273415/design-synthesis-and-opioid-activity-of-arodyn-analogs-cyclized-by-ring-closing-metathesis-involving-tyr-allyl
#8
Wei-Jie Fang, Thomas F Murray, Jane V Aldrich
Kappa (κ) opioid receptor selective antagonists are useful pharmacological tools in studying κ opioid receptors and have potential to be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of a variety of diseases including mood disorders and drug addiction. Arodyn (Ac[Phe1-3,Arg4,d-Ala8]Dyn A-(1-11)NH2) is a linear acetylated dynorphin A (Dyn A) analog that is a potent and selective κ opioid receptor antagonist (Bennett et al. J Med Chem 2002;45:5617-5619) and prevents stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior following central administration (Carey et al...
November 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232248/endocarditis-in-the-setting-of-idu-multidisciplinary-management
#9
Bobby Yanagawa, Anees Bahji, Wiplove Lamba, Darrell H Tan, Asim Cheema, Ishba Syed, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the medical and surgical management of infective endocarditis secondary to IDU, with a focus on the underlying substance use disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with infective endocarditis secondary to IDU are often young with unique comorbidities including mental illness, chronic hepatitis C, HIV infection, which are often compounded by limited social and familial supports. The focus of management has been treatment of endocarditis using IV antibiotics alongside surgery...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231916/-the-use-of-transdermal-fentanyl-in-the-treatment-of-patients-suffering-from-chronic-non-cancer-pain-case-reports
#10
Tatiana Pietrzyńska, Łukasz Pietrzyński
The use of strong opioids for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) has gained undisputed acceptance among specialists and should be considered when other pharmacological treatments are not effective or cause serious side effects. However, drugs from the third step of analgesic ladder still raise concerns among doctors and patients in the case of long-term therapy. A CASE REPORT: The authors present reports of three cases of patients with CNCP caused by musculoskeletal disorders and numerous comorbidities...
November 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231765/imaging-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-nociceptin-in-addiction-and-ptsd-models
#11
Savannah Tollefson, Michael Himes, Rajesh Narendran
Addiction is composed of three phases: intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Negative reinforcement, strengthening a behaviour by removing an aversive stimulus, has been associated with the withdrawal phase. An imbalance of neurotransmitters within the brain's stress (nociceptin, neuropeptide Y) and anti-stress (CRF, norepinephrine, etc.) system is attributed to negatively reinforced compulsive behaviours associated with relapse. Similarly, post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by an overactive stress system...
December 12, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227643/structure-activity-relationship-studies-on-a-series-of-3%C3%AE-bis-4-fluorophenyl-methoxy-tropanes-and-3%C3%AE-bis-4-fluorophenyl-methylamino-tropanes-as-novel-atypical-dopamine-transporter-dat-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-cocaine-use-disorders
#12
Mu-Fa Zou, Jianjing Cao, Ara M Abramyan, Theresa Kopajtic, Claudio Zanettini, Daryl A Guthrie, Rana Rais, Barbara S Slusher, Lei Shi, Claus J Loland, Amy Hauck Newman
The development of medications to treat cocaine use disorders has thus far defied success, leaving this patient population without pharmacotherapeutic options. As the dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a prominent role in the reinforcing effects of cocaine that can lead to addiction, atypical DAT inhibitors have been developed that prevent cocaine from binding to DAT, but they themselves are not cocaine-like. Herein, a series of novel DAT inhibitors were synthesized, and based on its pharmacological profile, the lead compound 10a was evaluated in phase I metabolic stability studies in mouse liver microsomes and compared to cocaine in locomotor activity and drug discrimination paradigms in mice...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225566/cdk5-is-essential-for-amphetamine-to-increase-dendritic-spine-density-in-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons
#13
Soledad Ferreras, Guillermo Fernández, Víctor Danelon, María V Pisano, Luján Masseroni, Christopher A Chapleau, Favio A Krapacher, Estela C Mlewski, Daniel H Mascó, Carlos Arias, Lucas Pozzo-Miller, María G Paglini
Psychostimulant drugs of abuse increase dendritic spine density in reward centers of the brain. However, little is known about their effects in the hippocampus, where activity-dependent changes in the density of dendritic spine are associated with learning and memory. Recent reports suggest that Cdk5 plays an important role in drug addiction, but its role in psychostimulant's effects on dendritic spines in hippocampus remain unknown. We used in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that amphetamine increases dendritic spine density in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220782/mindfulness-based-interventions-for-chronic-pain-evidence-and-applications
#14
REVIEW
Muhammad Hassan Majeed, Ali Ahsan Ali, Donna M Sudak
Chronic pain is estimated to occur in from 5.5% to 33% of the world's adult population (Gureje et al., 1998). Chronic pain is frequently treated with opiates, which has produced an opiate addiction crisis (Dowell et al., 2016). Several non-pharmacological treatment alternatives can help manage chronic pain. There is moderate evidence that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) such as meditation, yoga, and stress reduction lower the perception of pain, increase mobility, improve functioning and well-being. By integrating MBIs and other therapeutic interventions in a multi-disciplinary pain management plan, clinicians can improve treatment outcomes and potentially decrease pain-related medication utilization...
December 5, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217282/atypical-dopamine-transporter-inhibitors-attenuate-compulsive-like-methamphetamine-self-administration-in-rats
#15
Brendan J Tunstall, Chelsea P Ho, Jianjing Cao, Janaína C M Vendruscolo, Brooke E Schmeichel, Rachel D Slack, Gianluigi Tanda, Alexandra J Gadiano, Rana Rais, Barbara S Slusher, George F Koob, Amy H Newman, Leandro F Vendruscolo
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive drug, but no pharmacological treatment is yet available for METH use disorders. Similar to METH, the wake-promoting drug (R)-modafinil (R-MOD) binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT). Unlike METH, R-MOD is not a substrate for transport by DAT and has low abuse potential. We tested the hypothesis that the atypical DAT inhibitor R-MOD and compounds that are derived from Modafinil would decrease METH intake by reducing the actions of METH at the DAT. We tested the effects of systemic injections of R-MOD and four novel Modafinil-derived ligands with increased DAT affinity (JJC8-016, JJC8-088, JJC8-089, and JJC8-091) on intravenous (i...
December 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207922/effect-of-steady-state-methadone-on-high-fructose-corn-syrup-consumption-in-rats
#16
Stephen Daniels, Mick Pratt, Yan Zhou, Francesco Leri
Patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment self-report enhanced preferences for, and excessive consumption of, foods rich in sugar. However, it is unclear whether these are direct pharmacological effects of methadone or the consequences of metabolic dysfunctions induced by addiction to illicit opiates. Hence, the current study in drug-naïve male Sprague-Dawley rats explored the effects of steady-state methadone delivered by osmotic mini-pumps (13 days; 0, 10, 30 mg/kg/day) on consumption of rat chow and a palatable, sweet, liquid high fructose corn syrup solution...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189365/using-integrative-medicine-in-pain-management-an-evaluation-of-current-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Yuan-Chi Lin, Limeng Wan, Robert N Jamison
Complementary medicine therapies are frequently used to treat pain conditions such as headaches and neck, back, and joint pain. Chronic pain, described as pain lasting longer than 3-6 months, can be a debilitating condition that has a significant socioeconomic impact. Pharmacologic approaches are often used for alleviating chronic pain, but recently there has been a reluctance to prescribe opioids for chronic noncancer pain because of concerns about tolerance, dependence, and addiction. As a result, there has been increased interest in integrative medicine strategies to help manage pain and to reduce reliance on prescription opioids to manage pain...
December 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185897/pharmacological-treatment-of-insomnia-symptoms-in-individuals-with-substance-use-disorders-in-spain-a-quasi-experimental-study
#18
L Grau-López, L Grau-López, C Daigre, R F Palma-Álvarez, L Rodriguez-Cintas, E Ros-Cucurull, C Roncero
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacological treatment of insomnia in patients with addictions has been hardly investigated and there are few researches about it in an inpatient detoxification. The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of the pharmacological treatment of insomnia in SUD patients admitted to a detoxification unit in Spain, with a focus on the primary substance of abuse and co-occurring mental disorders. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted in 481 addicted in patients, who were admitted for substances detoxification in Vall d´Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain, from 2010 to 2015...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148565/tobacco-cessation-interventions-for-young-people
#19
REVIEW
Thomas R Fanshawe, William Halliwell, Nicola Lindson, Paul Aveyard, Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Most tobacco control programmes for adolescents are based around prevention of uptake, but teenage smoking is still common. It is unclear if interventions that are effective for adults can also help adolescents to quit. This is the update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of strategies that help young people to stop smoking tobacco. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register in June 2017...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113896/neuroinflammation-produced-by-heavy-alcohol-intake-is-due-to-loops-of-interactions-between-toll-like-4-and-tnf-receptors-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-and-the-central-melanocortin-system-a-novel-hypothesis-and-new-therapeutic-avenues
#20
Osvaldo Flores-Bastías, Eduardo Karahanian
Excessive alcohol intake induces an inflammatory response in the brain, via TNFα, TLR4 and NF-κB signaling pathways. It has been proposed that neuroinflammation would play a very important role in the development of alcohol addiction. In addition to stimulating the synthesis of inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα, NF-κB is capable of reducing the anti-inflammatory activity of PPARα and PPARγ. Reciprocally, PPARα, PPARγ and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) can decrease the proinflammatory activity of NF-κB, establishing an interplay of inactivations between such nuclear factors and receptors...
November 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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