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Partial agonist

Anna R Reynolds, Justin C Strickland, William W Stoops, Joshua A Lile, Craig R Rush
BACKGROUND: Medications development efforts for methamphetamine-use disorder have targeted central monoamines because these systems are directly involved in the effects of methamphetamine. Buspirone is a dopamine autoreceptor and D3 receptor antagonist and partial agonist at serotonin 1A receptors, making it a logical candidate medication for methamphetamine-use disorder. Buspirone effects on abuse-related behaviors of methamphetamine have been mixed in clinical and preclinical studies...
September 22, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Anis Syamimi Mohamed, Noorul Izzati Hanafi, Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Julina Md Noor, Narimah Abdul Hamid Hasani, Sharaniza Ab Rahim, Rosfaiizah Siran
In hepatocytes, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) activates cell signalling pathways such as p53, intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-receptor via Gαi -coupled-receptor. Recently, UDCA has been shown to protect the heart against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. However, it is not clear whether UDCA cardioprotection against hypoxia acts through a transcriptional mediator of cells stress, HIF-1α and p53. Therefore, in here, we aimed to investigate whether UDCA could protect cardiomyocytes (CMs) against hypoxia by regulating expression of HIF-1α, p53, [Ca(2+) ]i , and S1P-Gαi -coupled-receptor...
October 12, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Kristin Pogoda, Hanna Mannell, Stephanie Blodow, Holger Schneider, Kai Michael Schubert, Jiehua Qiu, Andreas Schmidt, Axel Imhof, Heike Beck, Laurentia Irina Tanase, Alexander Pfeifer, Ulrich Pohl, Petra Kameritsch
OBJECTIVE: Because of its strategic position between endothelial and smooth muscle cells in microvessels, Cx37 (Connexin 37) plays an important role in myoendothelial gap junctional intercellular communication. We have shown before that NO inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication through gap junctions containing Cx37. However, the underlying mechanism is not yet identified. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using channel-forming Cx37 mutants exhibiting partial deletions or amino acid exchanges in their C-terminal loops, we now show that the phosphorylation state of a tyrosine residue at position 332 (Y332) in the C terminus of Cx37 controls the gap junction-dependent spread of calcium signals...
October 12, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Namrata Chaudhari, Priti Talwar, Christian Lefebvre D'hellencourt, Palaniyandi Ravanan
Neuroblastoma is the most common solid extra cranial tumor in infants. Improving the clinical outcome of children with aggressive tumors undergoing one of the multiple treatment options has been a major concern. Differentiating neuroblastoma cells holds promise in inducing tumor growth arrest and treating minimal residual disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of partial PPARγ agonist 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) on human neuroblastoma IMR32 cells. Our results demonstrate that treatment with low concentration of CDDO and particularly in combination with all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induced neurite outgrowth, increased the percentage of more than two neurites bearing cells, and decreased viability in IMR32 cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Judy Hope, David Castle, Nicholas A Keks
OBJECTIVES: Brexpiprazole is a new dopamine partial agonist antipsychotic in the same class as aripiprazole. This paper will briefly review brexpiprazole and compare it with aripiprazole. CONCLUSIONS: Brexpiprazole and aripiprazole are both partial agonists at dopamine D2, and serotonin 5-HT1A and antagonists at serotonin 5-HT2A and noradrenergic α1B receptors. However, the two drugs are significantly different in potencies at various receptors; neurochemical profiles predict that brexpiprazole may be comparable with aripiprazole in its antipsychotic efficacy but may cause less akathisia, extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and activation...
October 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Jing-Jie Zhu, Jun Ji, Ai-Jun Hou, He-Yao Wang
PPARγ agonists are widely used medications in diabetes mellitus therapy. Their role in improving adipose tissue function contribute to the antidiabetic effects. The extracts of Dodonaea viscosa (Sapindaceae) have been reported to exert antidiabetic activity. However, the effective mediators and the underlying mechanisms were largely unknown. In this study, we investigated action on PPARγ transactivation and adipocyte modulation of two typical flavonoid constituents from D. viscosa, 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone (DHDMF) and alizarin...
October 10, 2017: Planta Medica
Maria Gabriella Matera, Barbara Rinaldi, Luigino Calzetta, Mario Cazzola
Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic approaches are already utilized in some areas, such as oncology and cardiovascular disease, for selecting appropriate patients and/or establishing treatment and dosing guidelines. This is not true in asthma although many patients have different responses to drug treatment due to genetic factors. Areas covered: Several genetic factors that affect the pharmacotherapeutic responses to asthma medications, such as β2-AR agonists, corticosteroids, and leukotriene modifiers and could contribute to significant between-person variability in response are described...
October 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Daniel M Freed, Nicholas J Bessman, Anatoly Kiyatkin, Emanuel Salazar-Cavazos, Patrick O Byrne, Jason O Moore, Christopher C Valley, Kathryn M Ferguson, Daniel J Leahy, Diane S Lidke, Mark A Lemmon
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates many crucial cellular programs, with seven different activating ligands shaping cell signaling in distinct ways. Using crystallography and other approaches, we show how the EGFR ligands epiregulin (EREG) and epigen (EPGN) stabilize different dimeric conformations of the EGFR extracellular region. As a consequence, EREG or EPGN induce less stable EGFR dimers than EGF-making them partial agonists of EGFR dimerization. Unexpectedly, this weakened dimerization elicits more sustained EGFR signaling than seen with EGF, provoking responses in breast cancer cells associated with differentiation rather than proliferation...
October 4, 2017: Cell
George J Crystal, Paul S Pagel
Regulation of blood flow to the right ventricle differs significantly from that to the left ventricle. The right ventricle develops a lower systolic pressure than the left ventricle, resulting in reduced extravascular compressive forces and myocardial oxygen demand. Right ventricular perfusion has eight major characteristics that distinguish it from left ventricular perfusion: (1) appreciable perfusion throughout the entire cardiac cycle; (2) reduced myocardial oxygen uptake, blood flow, and oxygen extraction; (3) an oxygen extraction reserve that can be recruited to at least partially offset a reduction in coronary blood flow; (4) less effective pressure-flow autoregulation; (5) the ability to downregulate its metabolic demand during coronary hypoperfusion and thereby maintain contractile function and energy stores; (6) a transmurally uniform reduction in myocardial perfusion in the presence of a hemodynamically significant epicardial coronary stenosis; (7) extensive collateral connections from the left coronary circulation; and (8) possible retrograde perfusion from the right ventricular cavity through the Thebesian veins...
October 4, 2017: Anesthesiology
Yanfan Chen, Xiaoming Yu, Yicheng He, Lin Zhang, Xiaoying Huang, Xiaomei Xu, Mayun Chen, Xiang Chen, Liangxing Wang
Previous studies in our lab have demonstrated that Adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) gene-knockout mice were vulnerable to pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin (BLM). Inhibition of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis has been reported to protect the lungs from fibrogenesis in BLM-exposed mice. Little is yet known about the relationships between A2aR and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This study probes the role of A2aR in the fibrotic process and explores the relationship between A2aR and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Kristina Wallenius, Pia Thalén, Jan-Arne Björkman, Petra Johannesson, John Wiseman, Gerhard Böttcher, Ola Fjellström, Nicholas D Oakes
GPR81 is a receptor for the metabolic intermediate lactate with an established role in regulating adipocyte lipolysis. Potentially novel GPR81 agonists were identified that suppressed fasting plasma free fatty acid levels in rodents and in addition improved insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance and diabetes. Unexpectedly, the agonists simultaneously induced hypertension in rodents, including wild-type, but not GPR81-deficient mice. Detailed cardiovascular studies in anesthetized dogs showed that the pressor effect was associated with heterogenous effects on vascular resistance among the measured tissues: increasing in the kidney while remaining unchanged in hindlimb and heart...
October 5, 2017: JCI Insight
Anne Gingery, Urszula T Iwaniec, Malayannan Subramaniam, Russell T Turner, Kevin S Pitel, Renee M McGovern, Joel M Reid, Ronald J Marler, James N Ingle, Matthew P Goetz, John R Hawse
Endoxifen, the primary active metabolite of tamoxifen, is currently being investigated as a novel endocrine therapy for the treatment of breast cancer. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that elicits potent anti-breast cancer effects. However, long-term use of tamoxifen also induces bone loss in premenopausal women and is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. For these reasons, we have used a rat model system to comprehensively characterize the impact of endoxifen on the skeleton and uterus...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
Zhen-Zhou Zhang, Wang Wang, Hai-Yan Jin, Xueyi Chen, Yu-Wen Cheng, Ying-Le Xu, Bei Song, Josef M Penninger, Gavin Y Oudit, Jiu-Chang Zhong
The apelin pathway has emerged as a critical regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis and disease. However, the exact role of pyr1-apelin-13 in angiotensin (Ang) II-mediated heart disease remains unclear. We used apelin-deficient (APLN(-)(/y)) and apolipoprotein E knockout mice to evaluate the regulatory roles of pyr1-apelin-13. The 1-year aged APLN(-)(/y) mice developed myocardial hypertrophy and dysfunction with reduced angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 levels. Ang II infusion (1.5 mg kg(-)(1) d(-)(1)) for 4 weeks potentiated oxidative stress, pathological hypertrophy, and myocardial fibrosis in young APLN(-)(/y) hearts resulting in exacerbation of cardiac dysfunction...
October 3, 2017: Hypertension
Hanne D Hansen, Joseph B Mandeville, Christin Y Sander, Jacob M Hooker, Ciprian Catana, Bruce R Rosen, Gitte M Knudsen
In the present study, we used a simultaneous PET-MR experimental design to investigate the effects of functionally different compounds (agonist, partial agonist and antagonist) on 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) occupancy and the associated hemodynamic responses. In anaesthetized male non-human primates (NHP, n=3), we used PET imaging with the radioligand [(11)C]AZ10419369 administered as a bolus followed by constant infusion to measure changes in 5-HT1BR occupancy. Simultaneously, we measured changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) as a proxy of drug effects on neuronal activity...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vinh Lam, Jie Zheng, Patrick Robert Griffin
The nuclear receptor PPARg regulates adipogenesis and plays a central role in lipid and glucose homeostasis, and is the molecular target of the glitazones (TZDs), therapeutics used to treat insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes (T2D).  While the TZDs, which are PPARg agonists, demonstrated robust clinical efficacy in T2D, their use has been hampered by an array of untoward side effects.  Paradoxically, partial agonists (e.g., MRL24), antagonists (e.g., SR1664), and inverse agonists (e.g., SR10171 and SR2595), possess similar insulin-sensitizing efficacy as the TZDs in obese diabetic mice...
September 29, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Emilia Tarland, Robert T Franke, Heidrun Fink, Heinz H Pertz, Jan Brosda
RATIONALE: 2-Bromoterguride, a dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist with antagonist properties at serotonin 5-HT2A receptors and α2C-adrenoceptors, meets the prerequisites of a putative atypical antipsychotic drug (APD). We recently showed that 2-bromoterguride is effective in tests of positive symptoms of schizophrenia in rats without inducing extrapyramidal side effects or metabolic changes. OBJECTIVE: In continuation of our recent work, we now investigated the effect of 2-bromoterguride on apomorphine and phencyclidine (PCP)-induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, a measure of sensory gating...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Guendalina Olivero, Tommaso Bonfiglio, Matteo Vergassola, Cesare Usai, Barbara Riozzi, Giuseppe Battaglia, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Anna Pittaluga
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We recently proposed the existence of mGlu3-preferring autoreceptors in spinal cord terminals and of mGlu2-preferring autoreceptors in cortical terminals. This study aims to verify our previous conclusions and to extend their pharmacological characterization. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We studied the effect of LY566332, an mGlu2 receptors positive allosteric modulator (PAM) and of LY2389575, a selective mGlu3 receptor negative allosteric (NAM) modulator, on the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268-mediated inhibition of glutamate exocytosis [measured as KCl-evoked release of preloaded [(3) H]-D-aspartate ([(3) H]-D-Asp)]...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
Ning Wu, Jeffrey G Tasker
Glucocorticoids rapidly stimulate endocannabinoid synthesis and modulation of synaptic transmission in hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells via a nongenomic signaling mechanism. The endocannabinoid actions are synapse-constrained by astrocyte restriction of extracellular spatial domains. Exogenous cannabinoids have been shown to modulate postsynaptic potassium currents, including the A-type potassium current (IA), in different cell types. The activity of magnocellular neuroendocrine cells is shaped by a prominent IA...
September 2017: ENeuro
Kyoko Ishikawa, Fumika Karaki, Kaoru Tayama, Eika Higashi, Shigeto Hirayama, Kennosuke Itoh, Hideaki Fujii
Buprenorphine shows strong analgesic effects on moderate to severe pain. Although buprenorphine can be used more safely than other opioid analgesics, it has room for improvement in clinical utility. Investigation of compounds structurally related to buprenorphine should be an approach to obtain novel analgesics with safer and improved profiles compared to buprenorphine. In the course of our previous studies, we observed that derivatives obtained by cyclizing C-homomorphinans were structurally related to buprenorphine...
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Yasutomo Hori, Daisuke Touei, Ryuta Saitoh, Maki Yamagishi, Kazutaka Kanai, Fumio Hoshi, Naoyuki Itoh
β-Adrenergic receptor (β-AR)-induction of collagen-I synthesis is partially mediated by the cardiac mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) system. However, it remains unclear whether the selective MR antagonist, eplerenone, inhibits collagen-I synthesis induced by β-AR stimulation. We investigated the effects of eplerenone on the responses to a non-selective β-AR agonist, isoproterenol, which induced collagen-I synthesis in primary cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and the left ventricle. mRNAs encoding the MR and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I (11β-HSD1) were evident in the left ventricle and primary CFs...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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