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Psychological treatment of addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346473/treatment-for-alcohol-dependence-in-primary-care-compared-to-outpatient-specialist-treatment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Sara Wallhed Finn, Anders Hammarberg, Sven Andreasson
Aim: To investigate if treatment for alcohol dependence in primary care is as effective as specialist addiction care. Method: Randomized controlled non-inferiority trial, between groups parallel design, not blinded. The non-inferiority limit was set to 50 grams of alcohol per week. About 288 adults fulfilling ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence were randomized to treatment in primary care (men n = 82, women n = 62) or specialist care (men n = 77, women n = 67)...
January 16, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340793/neuroimaging-findings-in-patients-with-medication-overuse-headache
#2
REVIEW
Tzu-Hsien Lai, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a secondary headache syndrome defined as the deterioration of the headache associated with the overuse of analgesics. The prevalence of MOH is 1-2% in the general population and even up to 50% in special clinics. Overuse of abortive medications is highly associated with chronic daily headaches and also a known risk factor for headache evolution. Possible mechanisms include neural plasticity changes such as sensitization and defective endogenous pain inhibition. Psychological studies have suggested dependence, even addiction, in patients with MOH...
January 16, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339294/ketamine-for-the-treatment-of-addiction-evidence-and-potential-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
I Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, W Lawn, E Krupitsky, C J A Morgan
Ketamine is a dissociative anaesthetic drug which acts on the central nervous system chiefly through antagonism of the n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Recently, ketamine has attracted attention as a rapid-acting anti-depressant but other studies have also reported its efficacy in reducing problematic alcohol and drug use. This review explores the preclinical and clinical research into ketamine's ability to treat addiction. Despite methodological limitations and the relative infancy of the field, results thus far are promising...
January 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336959/psychological-attributes-of-ultramarathoners
#4
Katherine Buck, Jack Spittler, Alex Reed, Morteza Khodaee
INTRODUCTION: As the popularity of ultramarathon participation increases, there still exists a lack of understanding of the unique psychological characteristics of ultramarathon runners. The current study sought to investigate some of the psychological and behavioral factors that are involved in ultramarathon running. METHODS: We obtained information from participants of the Bear Chase Trail Race via an online survey. This race is a single-day, multidistance race consisting of a 10 k, half marathon, 50 k, 50 mi, and 100 k run in Lakewood, Colorado, at a base altitude of 1680 m with total altitude in climbs ranging from 663 to 2591 m...
January 11, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324054/bayesian-diagnostics-of-hidden-markov-structural-equation-models-with-missing-data
#5
Jingheng Cai, Ming Ouyang, Kai Kang, Xinyuan Song
Cocaine is a type of drug that functions to increase the availability of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. However, cocaine dependence or abuse is highly related to an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and deficits in cognitive performance, attention, and decision-making abilities. Given the chronic and persistent features of drug addiction, the progression of abstaining from cocaine often evolves across several states, such as addiction to, moderate dependence on, and swearing off cocaine. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are well suited to the characterization of longitudinal data in terms of a set of unobservable states, and have increasingly been used to uncover the dynamic heterogeneity in progressive diseases or activities...
January 11, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280237/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-false-safety-behaviors-on-cannabis-use-and-related-problems
#6
Julia D Buckner, Michael J Zvolensky, Michael S Businelle, Matthew W Gallagher
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In light of increasing rates of cannabis use and use-related problems, efforts to understand malleable psychological vulnerability factors related to use and related problems remain important as they can inform prevention and treatment efforts. Recent data indicate that false safety behaviors (FSB; ie, behaviors that may be effective in decreasing anxiety in the short-term, but can maintain and even exacerbate anxiety in the long-term) are related to cannabis problem severity...
January 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275839/the-multifaceted-role-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-emotion-decision-making-social-cognition-and-psychopathology
#7
REVIEW
Jaryd Hiser, Michael Koenigs
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a variety of social, cognitive, and affective functions that are commonly disrupted in mental illness. In this review, we summarize data from a diverse array of human and animal studies demonstrating that the vmPFC is a key node of cortical and subcortical networks that subserve at least three broad domains of psychological function linked to psychopathology. One track of research indicates that the vmPFC is critical for the representation of reward- and value-based decision making, through interactions with the ventral striatum and amygdala...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261427/addiction-vulnerability-exploring-relationships-between-cigarette-smoking-substance-misuse-and-early-psychosis
#8
Vanessa Clark, Agatha M Conrad, Terry J Lewin, Amanda L Baker, Sean A Halpin, Ketrina A Sly, Juanita Todd
OBJECTIVE: Smoking rates in adolescents at risk of psychosis are significantly greater than those who are not at risk. Recent research suggests that cigarette smoking in adolescence may be a potential marker of transition to psychosis, although the exact relationship between the two remains unclear. Our aim was to examine whether tobacco smoking is a potential marker of transition to psychosis or subsequent episodes of psychosis, independently of other substance use, or alternatively, if smoking is essentially a general marker of later mental illness episodes...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251380/the-relationship-between-dsm-5-ptsd-symptom-clusters-and-alcohol-misuse-among-military-veterans
#9
Jessica L Walton, Amanda M Raines, Lisa-Ann J Cuccurullo, Desirae N Vidaurri, Margo C Villarosa-Hurlocker, C L Franklin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prior research has revealed a strong relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and alcohol misuse. However, previous attempts to understand nuanced associations between PTSD symptom clusters and alcohol misuse within military veteran samples have produced mixed results. In an attempt to better understand the associations between PTSD and alcohol misuse, the current study examined the unique relationships between the newly classified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) PTSD symptom clusters and alcohol misuse in an outpatient sample of military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD and Substance Use Disorders...
December 18, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247974/evidence-of-validity-and-reliability-of-the-opiate-dosage-adequacy-scale-odas-in-a-sample-of-heroin-addicted-patients-in-buprenorphine-naloxone-maintenance-treatment
#10
Francisco González-Saiz, Oscar Lozano Rojas, Joan Trujols, Saul Alcaraz, Núria Siñol, José Pérez de Los Cobos
OBJECTIVE: The Opiate Dosage Adequacy Scale (ODAS) is a clinical tool to individually measure the "adequacy" of opioid doses in patients on maintenance treatment. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the ODAS in a sample of patients in buprenorphine/naloxone (B/N) maintenance treatment. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of B/N-treated patients (n = 316) from four Autonomous Communities in Spain...
December 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220602/an-observational-study-of-treatment-seeking-users-of-natural-opiates-from-india
#11
Arpit Parmar, Vaibhav Patil, Siddharth Sarkar, Ravindra Rao
BACKGROUND: The type of opioid used influences the severity and complications experienced. Natural opiates (opium and poppy husk) use is a socio-culturally accepted phenomenon reported in India. However, studies on their profile, quality of life, and addiction severity are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to assess the socio-demographic profile, clinical profile, addiction severity, and quality of life of treatment-seeking natural opiate users...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216892/opiate-agonist-treatment-to-improve-health-of-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder-in-lebanon
#12
Ali Ghaddar, Zeinab Abbas, Ramzi Haddad
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapy has been widely used to reduce harms among individuals with opioid use disorder but its effectiveness has not been evaluated in the Middle East North African (MENA) region. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a program using opioid agonist therapy in combination with psychosocial support on improving psychological and social well-being, reducing arrest, and reducing risky behavior in individuals with opioid use disorder in Lebanon. METHODS: A one-group pre-test post-test design study was performed at SKOUN Lebanese Addiction Centre between January 2013 and December 2014...
December 8, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197198/cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-patients-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-a-narrative-review
#13
Marina Šagud, Nenad Jakšić, Bjanka Vuksan-Ćusa, Mladen Lončar, Ivana Lončar, Alma Mihaljević Peleš, Davor Miličić, Miro Jakovljević
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic condition related to severe stress and trauma. There is a mounting evidence about increased prevalence and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients with PTSD. This review summarizes the current data on possible relations between PTSD and increased risks of CVD, including biological, psychological and behavioral factors. Biological factors refer to increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), hypertension, elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and homocysteine levels...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195595/factors-associated-with-victimization-in-dual-diagnosis-patients
#14
Marleen M de Waal, Carolien Christ, Jack J M Dekker, Martijn J Kikkert, Nick M Lommerse, Wim van den Brink, Anna E Goudriaan
BACKGROUND: Patients with a substance use disorder and co-occurring mental disorder are prone to victimization. There is a lack of research identifying variables related to violent and property victimization in this high risk group. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with violent and property victimization in male and female dual diagnosis patients in order to identify targets for prevention. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, victimization and demographic, clinical and psychological characteristics were assessed in 243 treatment-seeking patients with dual diagnosis...
January 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189190/role-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-in-treatment-of-addiction-and-related-disorders-a-systematic-review
#15
Ramkrishna Makani, Basant Pradhan, Umang Shah, Tapan Parikh
BACKGROUND: Addiction and related disorders are devastating with their tremendous social, psychological, and physical consequences for which development of optimally effective treatments are long overdue. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is relatively safe and is becoming an emerging therapeutic tool for these conditions. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, PsychiatryOnline and Cochrane Library ranging from year 2001 to 2017...
November 29, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180560/dysrhythmias-with-loperamide-used-for-opioid-withdrawal
#16
Nicki D Vithalani, Christopher Heron, Ravishankar E Rao, Anthony F Cardell, Mark B Stephens
The antidiarrheal loperamide has had a recent, drastic increase in off-label use as an alternative treatment for symptoms of opioid withdrawal. The concept of this is easily discovered on the Internet and social media, where there are multiple blogs and forums promoting loperamide use at doses of 70 to 200 mg per day. Unfortunately, the serious side effects are not well recognized. Multiple cases of cardiac dysrhythmias contributing to death have been highlighted in recent literature. In November 2016, the US Food & Drug Administration released a statement highlighting the potential heart effects and risk of death with high doses of loperamide...
November 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169199/-internet-addiction-suicidality-and-non-suicidal-self-harming-behavior-a-systematic-review
#17
Toni Andreas Steinbüchel, Stephan Herpertz, Ina Külpmann, Aram Kehyayan, Jan Dieris-Hirche, Bert Theodor Te Wildt
Background Internet addiction (IA) is associated with a high rate of co-morbid mental disorders, especially depression, anxiety disorders, ADHD and personality disorders and a considerable level of psychological strain. In terms of risk assessment, the present work investigates the current research literature on suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI). Methods We performed a systematic literature search in 14 databases on title and abstract level for the most common keywords for IA, NSSI and suicidality...
November 23, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149893/association-between-severity-of-illicit-drug-dependence-and-quality-of-life-in-a-psychosocial-care-center-in-brazil-cross-sectional-study
#18
Selva Rios Campêlo, Maria Alves Barbosa, Danilo Rocha Dias, Camila Cardoso Caixeta, Cláudio Rodrigues Leles, Celmo Celeno Porto
BACKGROUND: Quality of life must be one of the main purposes for the treatment of drug users, requiring a better understanding of the association between the quality of life and the severity of dependency. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between severity of substance use in various areas of human functioning and quality of life of illicit drug users in a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 60 participants - illicit drug users - treated at a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs...
November 17, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098681/summary-and-prospect
#19
Zhengde Wei, Xueli Chen, Xiaochu Zhang
In this chapter, the main content is to summarize the similarities and differences between substance and non-substance addictions in several aspects, involving definition, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment. We try to display the complete picture of addictions in a brief but comprehensive way. Mechanism includes molecule and neural circuit, genetics, neuroimaging and cognitive psychology; diagnosis includes diagnostic criterion, diagnostic scales, biochemical diagnosis and new diagnostic techniques; treatment includes drug therapy, physical therapy, traditional Chinese medical therapy, nutrition support therapy, psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098676/physical-therapy
#20
Li-Jun Xiao, Ran Tao
Physical therapy has the evidence-based science knowledge to address a wide range of physical and psychological problems of addiction. Neuromodulation techniques are becoming more and more important in the treatment of addiction. Here, the efficacy of different neuromodulation techniques in addiction, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), is critically evaluated. Other physical therapy methods including Biofeedback, Physical Activity and Acupuncture are also presented...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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