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Psychological treatment of addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783244/some-features-of-the-behavior-of-alcohol-dependent-persons
#1
Ihor М Karpinets, Oksana V Marusyn
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Alcoholism is characterized by psychological dependence and changes in human behavior, which affects the person's relationship with the social environment. The aim: to determine the behavior of alcohol dependent persons basing on the retrospective study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: On the basis of narcological offices of healthcare establishments and narcological clinic in Ivano-Frankivsk oblast, 552 people being in follow-up by a narcologist as addicted or abused have been examined for a specially developed extended program based on a standardized AUDIT screening test...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782404/evaluating-patient-centered-outcomes-in-clinical-trials-of-procedural-sedation-part-2-safety-sedation-consortium-on-endpoints-and-procedures-for-treatment-education-and-research-recommendations
#2
Denham S Ward, Mark R Williams, John W Berkenbosch, Maala Bhatt, Douglas Carlson, Phillip Chappell, Randall M Clark, Isabelle Constant, Aaron Conway, Joseph Cravero, Albert Dahan, Franklin Dexter, Raymond Dionne, Robert H Dworkin, Tong J Gan, David Gozal, Steven Green, Michael G Irwin, Suzanne Karan, Michael Kochman, Jerrold Lerman, Jenifer R Lightdale, Ronald S Litman, Keira P Mason, James Miner, Robert E O'Connor, Pratik Pandharipande, Richard R Riker, Mark G Roback, Daniel I Sessler, Anne Sexton, Joseph R Tobin, Dennis C Turk, Rebecca S Twersky, Richard D Urman, Mark Weiss, Hannah Wunsch, Anna Zhao-Wong
The Sedation Consortium on Endpoints and Procedures for Treatment, Education, and Research, established by the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks, a public-private partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration, convened a second meeting of sedation experts from a variety of clinical specialties and research backgrounds to develop recommendations for procedural sedation research. The previous meeting addressed efficacy and patient- and/or family-centered outcomes...
May 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770251/review-of-the-neurological-benefits-of-phytocannabinoids
#3
REVIEW
Joseph Maroon, Jeff Bost
Background: Numerous physical, psychological, and emotional benefits have been attributed to marijuana since its first reported use in 2,600 BC in a Chinese pharmacopoeia. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the most studied extracts from cannabis sativa subspecies hemp and marijuana. CBD and Δ9-THC interact uniquely with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Through direct and indirect actions, intrinsic endocannabinoids and plant-based phytocannabinoids modulate and influence a variety of physiological systems influenced by the ECS...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715300/public-versus-internal-conceptions-of-addiction-an-analysis-of-internal-philip-morris-documents
#4
Jesse Elias, Yogi Hale Hendlin, Pamela M Ling
BACKGROUND: Tobacco addiction is a complex, multicomponent phenomenon stemming from nicotine's pharmacology and the user's biology, psychology, sociology, and environment. After decades of public denial, the tobacco industry now agrees with public health authorities that nicotine is addictive. In 2000, Philip Morris became the first major tobacco company to admit nicotine's addictiveness. Evolving definitions of addiction have historically affected subsequent policymaking. This article examines how Philip Morris internally conceptualized addiction immediately before and after this announcement...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679670/mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-combined-with-virtual-reality-cue-exposure-for-methamphetamine-addiction-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
XiJing Chen, Dongmei Wang, Lidan Zhou, Markus Winkler, Paul Pauli, Nan Sui, Yonghui Li
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) is a method that combines cognitive behavioral relapse prevention with mindfulness practice. Research shows that MBRP can effectively reduce negative emotions and craving in people with substance use disorders (SUDs). An important part of MBRP is to practice mindfulness meditation to cope with high-risk situations for relapse, such as stimuli and situations associated with drug taking. Virtual reality cue exposure (VRCE) may be a complementary approach to MBRP as it allows for controlled and graded presentations of various high-risk situations with distal and proximal drug cues...
April 18, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657695/effectiveness-of-transactional-analysis-group-therapy-on-addiction-intensity-of-woman-patients-treated-with-methadone
#6
Niloofar Etemadi-Chardah, Bahman Matinpour, Rasoul Heshmati
Background: Addiction brings about severe and profound physical, psychological and social damages such as divorce, crime, and unemployment. The present study was to investigate the effectiveness of transactional analysis (TA) therapy on addiction intensity of woman patients treated with methadone. Methods: The research design was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest and a control group. The statistical population consisted of all the addicted women who referred to any drug rehabilitation center of Tehran, Iran, in 2016...
July 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657692/effectiveness-of-positive-thinking-skills-training-on-the-hope-and-quality-of-life-of-drug-dependent-people
#7
Narges Mohammad-Najar, Elaheh Khoshnevis, Parinaz Banisi
Background: The increase of hope and quality of life (QOL) can play a significant role in improving the mental health of drug addicts. Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of positive thinking skills training on hope and QOL of drug-dependent people. Methods: The present study is a quasi-experimental research with pre- and post-test design with the control group. The study population consisted of all men dependent on drugs who visited addiction treatment centers in Tehran, Iran, in 2016...
July 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628449/ethical-guidelines-for-genetic-research-on-alcohol-addiction-and-its-applications
#8
Audrey R Chapman, Adrian Carter, Jonathan M Kaplan, Kylie Morphett, Wayne Hall
Research on the genomic correlates to addiction raises ethical issues in a number of different domains. In this paper, we evaluate the status of genetic research on alcohol dependence as background to addressing the ethical issues raised in conducting research on addiction and the application of that research to the formulation of public policies. We conclude that genetic testing is not yet ready for use in the prediction of alcohol dependence liability. Pharmacogenetic testing for responses to treatments may have more clinical utility, although additional research is required to demonstrate utility and cost-effectiveness...
2018: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627881/public-stigma-across-addictive-behaviors-casino-gambling-esports-gambling-and-internet-gaming
#9
Samuel C Peter, Qian Li, Rory A Pfund, James P Whelan, Andrew W Meyers
The negative psychological effects of public stigma on disordered gamblers have been well documented. Public stigma deters treatment-seeking and other help-seeking behaviors, and negatively impacts individuals' view of themselves. Different types of disordered gambling activities may attract different degrees of stigma. One increasingly popular form of gambling involves placing bets on the outcomes of competitive video games, also called eSports gambling. This activity shares characteristics with Internet gaming and gambling...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596724/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-gender-focused-addiction-model-versus-12-step-facilitation-for-women-veterans
#10
Lisa M Najavits, Justin Enggasser, Deborah Brief, Edward Federman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Substance use disorder (SUD) has increased among women, including military veterans, yet SUD treatment was historically designed for males. This randomized controlled trial compared 12 individual sessions of a gender-focused SUD recovery model, A Woman's Path to Recovery (WPR) to an evidence-based, non-gender-focused SUD model, 12-Step Facilitation (TSF) for 66 women veterans with current severe SUD. METHODS: The primary outcome was substance use; secondary outcomes were associated problems (e...
April 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589972/beyond-facebook-addiction-the-role-of-cognitive-related-factors-and-psychiatric-distress-in-social-networking-site-addiction
#11
Halley M Pontes, Megan Taylor, Vasileios Stavropoulos
The use of social networking sites (SNSs) is rapidly increasing as billions of individuals use SNS platforms regularly to communicate with other users, follow the news, and play browser games. Given the widespread use of SNS platforms, investigating the potential predictors of addictive SNS use beyond Facebook use has become paramount given that most studies so far focused on "Facebook addiction." In this study, a total of 511 English-speaking SNS users (58.1% young adults aged 20-35 years; 64.6% female) were recruited online and asked to complete a battery of standardized psychometric tools assessing participants' sociodemographic characteristics, SNS preferences and patterns of use, SNS addiction, preference for online social interaction, maladaptive cognitions, fear of missing out (FoMo), dysfunctional emotion regulation, and general psychiatric distress...
March 28, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558338/integration-of-a-clinical-pharmacy-specialist-into-a-substance-use-disorder-intensive-outpatient-treatment-program-to-improve-prescribing-rates-of-alcohol-use-disorder-pharmacotherapy
#12
Erica Dimitropoulos, Stephanie Bertucci, Kara Wong
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated that the combination of pharmacotherapy and psychological interventions in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment is superior to either alone. Despite this, medications remain highly underutilized in many outpatient treatment facilities. Pharmacists can serve as an excellent resource to aid in improving access to medications. METHODS: This study was a prospective, longitudinal evaluation of a pharmacist's role in a substance use disorder (SUD) clinic, specifically an intensive outpatient program (IOP)...
March 20, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545753/neuroendocrine-associations-underlying-the-persistent-therapeutic-effects-of-classic-serotonergic-psychedelics
#13
REVIEW
Emmanuelle A D Schindler, Ryan M Wallace, Jordan A Sloshower, Deepak C D'Souza
Recent reports on the effects of psychedelic-assisted therapies for mood disorders and addiction, as well as the effects of psychedelics in the treatment of cluster headache, have demonstrated promising therapeutic results. In addition, the beneficial effects appear to persist well after limited exposure to the drugs, making them particularly appealing as treatments for chronic neuropsychiatric and headache disorders. Understanding the basis of the long-lasting effects, however, will be critical for the continued use and development of this drug class...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540928/psychosocial-interventions-for-technological-addictions
#14
REVIEW
Manoj Kumar Sharma, Thamil Selvan Palanichamy
Increase in the use of technology has led to an increase in various kinds of technological addictions. A range of psychological and behavioural theories has been proposed to explain technology addictions. These include learning theories, reward-deficiency hypothesis, impulsivity, cognitive-behavioural models and social skills deficiency theories. While no particular form of psychological intervention has been suggested as being the golden standard for its treatment, the most frequently investigated approaches have been cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational enhancement therapy...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502754/treatment-considerations-in-internet-and-video-game-addiction-a-qualitative-discussion
#15
REVIEW
David N Greenfield
Internet and video game addiction has been a steadily developing consequence of modern living. Behavioral and process addictions and particularly Internet and video game addiction require specialized treatment protocols and techniques. Recent advances in addiction medicine have improved our understanding of the neurobiology of substance and behavioral addictions. Novel research has expanded the ways we understand and apply well-established addiction treatments as well as newer therapies specific to Internet and video game addiction...
April 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499467/adverse-physiological-and-psychological-effects-of-screen-time-on-children-and-adolescents-literature-review-and-case-study
#16
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
July 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480575/not-all-smokers-appear-to-seek-nicotine-for-the-same-reasons-implications-for-preclinical-research-in-nicotine-dependence
#17
REVIEW
Vernon Garcia-Rivas, Véronique Deroche-Gamonet
Tobacco use leads to 6 million deaths every year due to severe long-lasting diseases. The main component of tobacco, nicotine, is recognized as one of the most addictive drugs, making smoking cessation difficult, even when 70 percent of smokers wish to do so. Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated consistently that nicotine seeking is a complex behavior involving various psychopharmacological mechanisms. Evidence supports that the population of smokers is heterogeneous, particularly as regards the breadth of motives that determine the urge to smoke...
February 26, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471923/integration-of-transcendental-meditation%C3%A2-tm-into-alcohol-use-disorder-aud-treatment
#18
Jan Gryczynski, Robert P Schwartz, Marc J Fishman, Courtney D Nordeck, James Grant, Sanford Nidich, Stuart Rothenberg, Kevin E O'Grady
AIMS: Maladaptive responses to stress are thought to play a role in addiction and relapse. Transcendental Meditation (TM) is a popular meditation technique with promising clinical applications. This study sought to: (a) examine the feasibility of providing TM during AUD treatment; (b) compare outcomes for TM vs. treatment as usual (TAU); and (c) investigate the relationship between TM practice and outcomes. METHODS: Meditation-naïve adults with primary AUD (N = 60; 35% female, 60% white) newly admitted to inpatient treatment were recruited in sequential cohorts (30 receiving TAU and 30 receiving TM training)...
April 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469633/outpatient-addiction-treatment-for-problematic-alcohol-use-what-makes-patients-who-dropped-out-different-from-those-who-did-not
#19
Vincent Wagner, Didier Acier, Jean-Eric Dietlin
BACKGROUND: A minority of individuals with problematic alcohol use effectively seek help. Moreover, dropouts from care are not uncommon. It remains a major concern for health professionals, as adherence to treatment is significantly associated with better physical and psychological outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this research was to assess what factors could distinguish patients with problematic alcohol use who dropped out from those who did not. METHODS: The sample included 150 patients followed-up in an outpatient treatment center in France for a problematic alcohol use...
February 22, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468884/borrowing-benefits-group-treatment-with-clinical-emotional-freedom-techniques-is-associated-with-simultaneous-reductions-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-anxiety-and-depression-symptoms
#20
Dawson Church, Dennis House
Clinical Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) is an evidence-based treatment for depression and anxiety. The current study sought to elucidate the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety in a nonclinical population. The sample (N = 81) comprised participants at five 2-day EFT workshops. All groups used an EFT protocol called Borrowing Benefits, in which the group facilitator works with a single client while other participants self-apply EFT. Participants were assessed on 9 specific conditions as well as on the breadth (Positive Symptom Total [PST]) and depth (General Symptom Index [GSI]) of psychological distress...
January 2018: Journal of evidence-based integrative medicine
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