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Psychological treatment of addiction

Emmanuelle A D Schindler, Ryan M Wallace, Jordan A Sloshower, Deepak C D'Souza
Recent reports on the effects of psychedelic-assisted therapies for mood disorders and addiction, as well as the effects of psychedelics in the treatment of cluster headache, have demonstrated promising therapeutic results. In addition, the beneficial effects appear to persist well after limited exposure to the drugs, making them particularly appealing as treatments for chronic neuropsychiatric and headache disorders. Understanding the basis of the long-lasting effects, however, will be critical for the continued use and development of this drug class...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Manoj Kumar Sharma, Thamil Selvan Palanichamy
Increase in the use of technology has led to an increase in various kinds of technological addictions. A range of psychological and behavioural theories has been proposed to explain technology addictions. These include learning theories, reward-deficiency hypothesis, impulsivity, cognitive-behavioural models and social skills deficiency theories. While no particular form of psychological intervention has been suggested as being the golden standard for its treatment, the most frequently investigated approaches have been cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational enhancement therapy...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
David N Greenfield
Internet and video game addiction has been a steadily developing consequence of modern living. Behavioral and process addictions and particularly Internet and video game addiction require specialized treatment protocols and techniques. Recent advances in addiction medicine have improved our understanding of the neurobiology of substance and behavioral addictions. Novel research has expanded the ways we understand and apply well-established addiction treatments as well as newer therapies specific to Internet and video game addiction...
April 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Vernon Garcia-Rivas, Véronique Deroche-Gamonet
Tobacco use leads to 6 million deaths every year due to severe long-lasting diseases. The main component of tobacco, nicotine, is recognized as one of the most addictive drugs, making smoking cessation difficult, even when 70 percent of smokers wish to do so. Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated consistently that nicotine seeking is a complex behavior involving various psychopharmacological mechanisms. Evidence supports that the population of smokers is heterogeneous, particularly as regards the breadth of motives that determine the urge to smoke...
February 26, 2018: Addiction Biology
Jan Gryczynski, Robert P Schwartz, Marc J Fishman, Courtney D Nordeck, James Grant, Sanford Nidich, Stuart Rothenberg, Kevin E O'Grady
AIMS: Maladaptive responses to stress are thought to play a role in addiction and relapse. Transcendental Meditation (TM) is a popular meditation technique with promising clinical applications. This study sought to: (a) examine the feasibility of providing TM during AUD treatment; (b) compare outcomes for TM vs. treatment as usual (TAU); and (c) investigate the relationship between TM practice and outcomes. METHODS: Meditation-naïve adults with primary AUD (N = 60; 35% female, 60% white) newly admitted to inpatient treatment were recruited in sequential cohorts (30 receiving TAU and 30 receiving TM training)...
April 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Vincent Wagner, Didier Acier, Jean-Eric Dietlin
BACKGROUND: A minority of individuals with problematic alcohol use effectively seek help. Moreover, dropouts from care are not uncommon. It remains a major concern for health professionals, as adherence to treatment is significantly associated with better physical and psychological outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this research was to assess what factors could distinguish patients with problematic alcohol use who dropped out from those who did not. METHODS: The sample included 150 patients followed-up in an outpatient treatment center in France for a problematic alcohol use...
February 22, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Dawson Church, Dennis House
Clinical Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) is an evidence-based treatment for depression and anxiety. The current study sought to elucidate the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety in a nonclinical population. The sample (N = 81) comprised participants at five 2-day EFT workshops. All groups used an EFT protocol called Borrowing Benefits, in which the group facilitator works with a single client while other participants self-apply EFT. Participants were assessed on 9 specific conditions as well as on the breadth (Positive Symptom Total [PST]) and depth (General Symptom Index [GSI]) of psychological distress...
January 2018: J Evid Based Integr Med
J Chilton, D Crone, P J Tyson
BACKGROUND: Dual diagnosis covers a broad spectrum of mental health and substance misuse conditions occurring concurrently (NICE, 2016). Its manifestation is complex and as such, the disorder is recognized as influencing adherence to prescribed medication, service engagement and has a worse prognosis than substance use and mental health conditions occurring independently. AIMS: To determine the effectiveness of psycho-educational group therapy on a sample of dual diagnosis patients...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
W Miles Cox, Eric Klinger, Javad Salehi Fadardi
Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
A T Spijker, J van Zaane, M A Koenders, R Hoekstra, R W Kupka
A fairly large proportion (25-50%) of patients with bipolar disorder (bd) also suffer from comorbid alcohol use disorder (aud). However, little is known how this type of morbidity should be treated. It is also unclear whether the current guidelines on bd have been influenced by aud.<br/> AIM: To provide an overview of recent literature concerning the diagnosis and treatment of comorbid bd and aud.<br/> METHOD: We systematically reviewed studies that have addressed three treatment options for this group of patients: pharmaco-therapy, psychological interventions and self-management techniques...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, María Teresa Talón-Navarro, Àngel Cuquerella, Marta Baño, Laura Moragas, Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Núria Mallorquí-Bagué, Cristina Vintró-Alcaraz, Pablo Magaña, José Manuel Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
Gambling disorder (GD) is a psychiatric condition that was recently recategorized as a non-substance-related addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders. Criminal activity is commonly associated with gambling; however, few empirical studies to date have examined sociodemographic and psychological variables in this population. In this study, we explored criminal behavior history in a sample of consecutively recruited treatment-seeking gamblers (n = 382) and compared subjects with a history of illegal acts (n = 103, 26...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Melvyn Zhang, JiangBo Ying, Guo Song, Roger Cm Ho, Daniel Ss Fung, Helen Smith
BACKGROUND: Globally, substance disorders, particularly that of opiate use, cannabis use, and stimulant use disorders, are highly prevalent. Psychological treatments are an integral aspect of intervention, but a proportion of individuals still relapse despite having received such an intervention. Recently, the dual-process theory proposed that the unconscious processes of attention biases are responsible for these relapses. Prior meta-analyses have reported the presence of attention bias in alcohol and tobacco use disorders...
February 8, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Reza Ghanbari, Susan Sumner
Drug addiction has been associated with an increased risk for cancer, psychological complications, heart, liver, and lung disease, as well as infection. While genes have been identified that can mark individuals at risk for substance abuse, the initiation step of addiction is attributed to persistent metabolic disruptions occurring following the first instance of narcotic drug use. Advances in analytical technologies can enable the detection of thousands of signals in body fluids and excreta that can be used to define biochemical profiles of addiction...
January 31, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Tetiana Kiriazova, Oleksandr Postnov, Trista Bingham, Janet Myers, Timothy Flanigan, Charles Vitek, Oleksandr Neduzhko
BACKGROUND: Engagement with HIV medical care is critical to successful HIV treatment and prevention efforts. However, in Ukraine, delays in the timely initiation of HIV treatment hamper viral suppression. By January 01, 2016, only 126,604 (57.5%) of the estimated 220,000 people living with HIV (PLWH) had registered for HIV care, and most (55.1%) of those who registered for HIV care in 2015 did that at a late stage of infection. In the US, Anti-Retroviral Treatment and Access to Services (ARTAS) intervention successfully linked newly diagnosed PLWH to HIV services using strengths-based case management with a linkage coordinator...
January 30, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Guy M Goodwin, Emily A Holmes, Erik Andersson, Michael Browning, Andrew Jones, Johanna Lass-Hennemann, Kristoffer Nt Månsson, Carolin Moessnang, Elske Salemink, Alvaro Sanchez, Linda van Zutphen, Renée M Visser
This ECNP meeting was designed to build bridges between different constituencies of mental illness treatment researchers from a range of backgrounds with a specific focus on enhancing the development of novel, evidence based, psychological treatments. In particular we wished to explore the potential for basic neuroscience to support the development of more effective psychological treatments, just as this approach is starting to illuminate the actions of drugs. To fulfil this aim, a selection of clinical psychologists, psychiatrists and neuroscientists were invited to sit at the same table...
January 19, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Anna Garcia-Caballero, Marina Torrens-Lluch, Isabel Ramírez-Gendrau, Gemma Garrido, Vicenç Vallès, Núria Aragay
The aim of the current study is to determine the effectiveness of an individual psychological intervention based on the motivational interview and cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of pathological gambling. A sample of 18 participants, diagnosed of pathological gambling and without any other associated comorbidity, were assessed, attended at the publicly-funded Gambling and Behavioral Addictions Unit (Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa). Median age was 46 years (SD = 12). All the patients achieved abstinence and completed follow-up...
January 15, 2018: Adicciones
Barry J Everitt, Chiara Giuliano, David Belin
Since the introduction of intravenous drug self-administration methodology over 50 years ago, experimental investigation of addictive behaviour has delivered an enormous body of data on the neural, psychological and molecular mechanisms of drug reward and reinforcement and the neuroadaptations to chronic use. Whether or not these behavioural and molecular studies are viewed as modelling the underpinnings of addiction in humans, the discussion presented here highlights two areas-the impact of drug-associated conditioned stimuli-or drug cues-on drug seeking and relapse, and compulsive cocaine seeking...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Sara Wallhed Finn, Anders Hammarberg, Sven Andreasson
Aim: To investigate if treatment for alcohol dependence in primary care is as effective as specialist addiction care. Method: Randomized controlled non-inferiority trial, between groups parallel design, not blinded. The non-inferiority limit was set to 50 grams of alcohol per week. About 288 adults fulfilling ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence were randomized to treatment in primary care (men n = 82, women n = 62) or specialist care (men n = 77, women n = 67)...
January 16, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Tzu-Hsien Lai, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a secondary headache syndrome defined as the deterioration of the headache associated with the overuse of analgesics. The prevalence of MOH is 1-2% in the general population and even up to 50% in special clinics. Overuse of abortive medications is highly associated with chronic daily headaches and also a known risk factor for headache evolution. Possible mechanisms include neural plasticity changes such as sensitization and defective endogenous pain inhibition. Psychological studies have suggested dependence, even addiction, in patients with MOH...
January 16, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
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