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Opioid dependence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812595/compulsive-like-sufentanil-vapor-self-administration-in-the-rat
#1
Janaina Cm Vendruscolo, Brendan J Tunstall, Stephanie A Carmack, Brooke E Schmeichel, Emily G Lowery-Gionta, Maury Cole, Olivier George, Sophia Vandewater, Michael Taffe, George F Koob, Leandro F Vendruscolo
Opioid misuse is at historically high levels in the United States, with inhalation (ie, smoking, and vaping) being one of the most common routes of consumption. We developed and validated a novel preclinical model of opioid self-administration by inhalation that does not require surgery and reliably produces somatic and motivational signs of dependence. Rats were trained to perform an operant response (nosepoke) to receive 10 s of vaporized sufentanil, a potent opioid, in 2 h daily sessions. Rats readily and concentration-dependently self-administered vaporized sufentanil...
August 16, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811180/development-of-an-opioid-self-administration-assay-to-study-drug-seeking-in-zebrafish
#2
Gabriel D Bossé, Randall T Peterson
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an excellent tool to study mental health disorders, due to its physiological and genetic similarity to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, and feasibility of small molecule screening. Zebrafish have been shown to exhibit characteristics of addiction to drugs of abuse in non-contingent assays, including conditioned place preference, but contingent assays have been limited to a single assay for alcohol consumption. Using inexpensive electronic, mechanical, and optical components, we developed an automated opioid self-administration assay for zebrafish, enabling us to measure drug seeking and gain insight into the underlying biological pathways...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810899/chronic-pain-and-opioid-misuse-a-review-of-reviews
#3
REVIEW
Pauline Voon, Mohammad Karamouzian, Thomas Kerr
OBJECTIVE: The crisis of prescription opioid (PO) related harms has focused attention toward identifying and treating high-risk populations. This review aims to synthesize systematic reviews on the epidemiology and clinical management of comorbid chronic pain and PO or other substance misuse. METHODS: A systematic database search was conducted to identify systematic reviews published between 2000 and 2016. Eligible studies were systematic reviews related to chronic non-cancer pain and PO or other substance misuse...
August 15, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807162/chinese-herbal-medicine-for-the-treatment-of-drug-addiction
#4
Weili Zhu, Yinan Zhang, Yingjie Huang, Lin Lu
This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806222/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-antagonists-prevent-anesthesia-induced-hypothermia-and-decrease-postincisional-opioid-dose-requirements-in-rodents
#5
Andras Garami, Mohab Ibrahim, Kerry Gilbraith, Rajesh Khanna, Eszter Pakai, Alexandra Miko, Erika Pinter, Andrej A Romanovsky, Frank Porreca, Amol M Patwardhan
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypothermia and postoperative pain control are two important clinical challenges in anesthesiology. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 has been implicated both in thermoregulation and pain. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonists were not advanced as analgesics in humans in part due to a side effect of hyperthermia. This study tested the hypothesis that a single, preincision injection of a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonist could prevent anesthesia-induced hypothermia and decrease the opioid requirement for postsurgical hypersensitivity...
August 14, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806211/the-opiorphin-analog-str-324-decreases-sensory-hypersensitivity-in-a-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#6
Alain Van Elstraete, Philippe Sitbon, Leila Hamdi, Victor Juarez-Perez, Jean-Xavier Mazoit, Dan Benhamou, Catherine Rougeot
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain represents a therapeutic challenge, and treatments with increased efficacy and tolerability still need to be developed. Opiorphin protects endogenous enkephalins from degradation, potentiating enkephalin-dependent analgesia via the activation of opioid pathways. Enkephalins are natural ligands of opioid receptors, with strong affinity for δ-opioid receptors. Expression of functional δ-opioid receptors increases in sensory neurons after peripheral nerve injury in neuropathic pain models...
August 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802836/neocortical-prodynorphin-expression-is-transiently-increased-with-learning-implications-for-time-and-learning-dependent-neocortical-kappa-opioid-receptor-activation
#7
Ryan Loh, Sean Collins, Roberto Galvez
There are several lines of evidence that indicate a prominent role for the opioid system in the acquisition and consolidation of learned associations. Specifically, kappa opioid receptor (KOR) modulation has been demonstrated to alter various behavioral tasks including whisker trace eyeblink conditioning (WTEB). WTEB is an associative conditioning paradigm in which a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; Whisker stimulation) is paired following a short stimulus free trace interval with a salient unconditioned stimulus that elicits a blink response (US; Eye shock)...
August 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802778/cryotherapy-treatment-after-unicompartmental-and-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Morad Chughtai, Nipun Sodhi, Michael Jawad, Jared M Newman, Anton Khlopas, Anil Bhave, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy is widely utilized to enhance recovery after knee surgeries. However, the outcome parameters often vary between studies. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to compare (1) no cryotherapy vs cryotherapy; (2) cold pack cryotherapy vs continuous flow device cryotherapy; (3) various protocols of application of these cryotherapy methods; and (4) cost-benefit analysis in patients who had unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: A search for "knee" and "cryotherapy" using PubMed, EBSCO Host, and SCOPUS was performed, yielding 187 initial reports...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802093/clinical-aspects-of-opium-adulterated-with-lead-in-iran-a-review
#9
Samira Alinejad, Jan Aaseth, Mohammad Abdollahi, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Omid Mehrpour
Adulteration of drugs with poisonous substances during production or consumption has caused numerous health problems. Among contaminants that have the potential of producing poisonous effects are the heavy metals lead, arsenic and thallium that make up an important group of toxic substances. The emergence of these new health problems related to opioid abuse has precipitated this MiniReview on the status of the most hazardous and common opioid adulterants. In fact, adulterated opium is a major public health problem and can threaten the health of users...
August 12, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801372/multi-variant-genetic-panel-for-genetic-risk-of-opioid-addiction
#10
Keri Donaldson, Laurence Demers, Kirk Taylor, Joe Lopez, Sherman Chang
Over 116 million people worldwide have chronic pain and prescription dependence. In the US, opioids account for the majority of overdose deaths, and in 2014, almost 2 million Americans abused or were dependent on prescription opioids. Genetic factors may play a key role in opioid prescription addiction. Herein, we describe genetic variations between opioid addicted and non-addicted populations and derive a predictive model determining risk of opioid addiction. This case cohort study compares the frequency of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in the brain reward pathways in patients with and without opioid addiction...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801006/palliative-care-in-kazakhstan
#11
Gulnara Kunirova, Ainur Shakenova
In Kazakhstan, like most ex-Soviet Union countries palliative care began in the late 1990's with the opening of the Almaty Hospice in 1999. Since that time, several palliative care services have opened in urban centers but there is little coverage in rural areas. Palliative care has grown due to the collaborative work of Parliament leaders, Ministry of Health, local governments officials, Public Health Higher School, National Center for Health Development, academic medical institutions, oncology and palliative care experts, NGO's, Soros Foundation Kazakhstan, and international experts...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801003/who-public-health-model-a-roadmap-for-palliative-care-development
#12
Mary V Callaway, Stephen R Connor, Kathleen M Foley
The Open Society Foundation's International Palliative Care Initiative (IPCI) began to support palliative care development in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union in 1999. Twenty-eight country representatives were invited to discuss the need for palliative care in their countries and to identify key areas that should be addressed to improve the care of adults and children with life-limiting illnesses. As a public health concern, progress in palliative care requires integration into health policy, education and training of health care professionals, availability of essential pain relieving medications, and health care services...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800420/retention-in-medication-assisted-treatment-programs-in-ukraine-identifying-factors-contributing-to-a-continuing-hiv-epidemic
#13
Kostyantyn Dumchev, Sergii Dvoryak, Olena Chernova, Olga Morozova, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist treatments (OAT) are widely-used, evidence-based strategies for treating opioid dependence and reducing HIV transmission. The positive benefits of OAT are strongly correlated with time spent in treatment, making retention a key indicator for program quality. This study assessed patient retention and associated factors in Ukraine, where OAT was first introduced in 2004. METHODS: Data from clinical records of 2916 patients enrolled in OAT at thirteen sites from 2005 to 2012 were entered into an electronic monitoring system...
August 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797641/b2-kinin-receptors-in-the-dorsal-periaqueductal-gray-are-implicated-in-the-panicolytic-like-effect-of-opiorphin
#14
Caio César Sestile, Jhonatan Christian Maraschin, Marcel Pereira Rangel, Rosangela Getirana Santana, Hélio Zangrossi, Frederico Guilherme Graeff, Elisabeth Aparecida Audi
Reported results have shown that the pentapeptide opiorphin inhibits oligopeptidases that degrade brain neuropeptides, and has analgesic and antidepressant effects in experimental animals, without either tolerance or dependency after chronic administration. In a previous study we showed that opiorphin has a panicolytic-like effect in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) electrical stimulation test (EST), mediated by the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). This study further analyzes the mechanism of opiorphin panicolytic action, using the EST and drug injection inside the dPAG...
August 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795846/a-novel-non-opioid-protocol-for-medically-supervised-opioid-withdrawal-and-transition-to-antagonist-treatment
#15
Gregory Rudolf, Jim Walsh, Abigail Plawman, Paul Gianutsos, William Alto, Lloyd Mancl, Vania Rudolf
BACKGROUND: The clinical feasibility of a novel non-opioid and benzodiazepine-free protocol was assessed for the treatment of medically supervised opioid withdrawal and transition to subsequent relapse prevention strategies. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of DSM-IV diagnosed opioid-dependent patients admitted for inpatient medically supervised withdrawal examined 84 subjects (52 males, 32 females) treated with a 4-day protocol of scheduled tizanidine, hydroxyzine, and gabapentin...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794657/repeated-administration-of-mazindol-reduces-spontaneous-pain-related-behaviors-without-modifying-bone-density-and-microarchitecture-in-a-mouse-model-of-complete-freund-s-adjuvant-induced-knee-arthritis
#16
L E Robledo-González, A Martínez-Martínez, V M Vargas-Muñoz, R I Acosta-González, R Plancarte-Sánchez, M Anaya-Reyes, C Fernández Del Valle-Laisequilla, J G Reyes-García, J M Jiménez-Andrade
BACKGROUND: The role of dopaminergic system in the development of rheumatoid arthritis-related pain, a major symptom in this disease, has not been explored. Therefore, the anti-nociceptive effect of mazindol, a dopamine uptake inhibitor, was evaluated in a model of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis. Furthermore, as studies have shown that the dopaminergic system regulates bone metabolism, the effect of mazindol on bone mass and microarchitecture was determined. METHODS: Adult ICR male mice received intra-articular injections of either CFA or saline into the right knee joint every week...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782904/role-of-olfactory-reactions-nociception-and-immunoendocrine-shifts-in-addictive-disorders
#17
Elena Masterova, Tatiana Nevidimova, Dariya Savochkina, Valentina Nikitina, Olga Lobacheva, Tamara Vetlugina, Nikolay Bokhan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Addictive pathology is associated with nervous, immune, and endocrine shifts. Meanwhile, the nature of intersystemic relationship lying beneath addictive disorders remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to identify neuroimmunoendocrine markers of addictive disorders in male subjects defining the nature of their interaction. METHODS: The study enrolled 69 subjects aged 18-43 years: 59 males and 10 females divided into those with addictive disorders (n = 39) and conditionally healthy subjects (n = 30)...
August 7, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782703/the-contribution-of-the-international-pain-policy-fellowship-in-improving-opioid-availability-in-georgia
#18
Pati Dzotsenidze, Martha A Maurer, Dimitri Kordzaia, Ioseb Abesadze, Mary M Skemp Brown, Aaron M Gilson, James F Cleary
In the Republic of Georgia, the incidence and prevalence of cancer is increasing, signifying a growing need for palliative care and pain relief, including with controlled opioid medicines. As a signatory to the Single Convention, the Georgian government has a responsibility to ensure the adequate availability of controlled medicines for medical purposes, however the consumption of morphine is very low, suggesting a high occurrence of unrelieved pain. In Georgia, palliative care development began in the 2000s including the adoption of a policy document in 2005, the creation of the National Palliative Care Coordinator in 2006 and important changes in Georgian legislation in 2007 and 2008, which served to lay a foundation for improving opioid availability...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782335/elimination-of-hcv-as-a-public-health-concern-among-people-who-inject-drugs-by-2030-what-will-it-take-to-get-there
#19
REVIEW
Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Sébastien Morin, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Marina B Klein
INTRODUCTION: Globally, there is a considerable burden of HCV and HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) and transmission of both infections continues. Needle and syringe programme (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) coverage remains low, despite evidence demonstrating their prevention benefit. Direct-acting antiviral therapies (DAA) with HCV cure >95% among PWID provide an opportunity to reverse rising trends in HCV-related morbidity and mortality and reduce incidence...
July 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781727/cross-state-dependent-learning-interaction-between-scopolamine-and-morphine-in-mice-the-role-of-dorsal-hippocampus
#20
Morteza Maleki, Majid Hassanpour-Ezatti, Majid Navaeian
INTRODUCTION: The current study aimed at investigating the existence of the cross state-dependent learning between morphine and scopolamine (SCO) in mice by passive avoidance method, pointing to the role of CA1 area. METHODS: The effects of pre-training SCO (0.75, 1.5, and 3 μg, Intra-CA1), or morphine (1, 3, and 6 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) was evaluated on the retrieval of passive avoidance learning using step-down task in mice (n=10). Then, the effect of pretest administration of morphine (1...
May 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
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