Read by QxMD icon Read

Opioid dependence

Taylor McLinden, Erica E M Moodie, Anne-Marie Hamelin, Sam Harper, Carmine Rossi, Sharon L Walmsley, Sean B Rourke, Curtis Cooper, Marina B Klein, Joseph Cox
BACKGROUND: Severe food insecurity (FI) is common among individuals living with HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection. We hypothesize that the injection of opioids is partly responsible for the association between injection drug use and severe FI. Therefore, this analysis examines whether methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence is associated with a lower risk of severe FI. METHODS: We used biannual data from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort (N = 608, 2012-2015)...
February 20, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Igam Bagra, Vijay Krishnan, Ravindra Rao, Alok Agrawal
OBJECTIVES: Use of various psychoactive substances can influence outcomes of patients on opioid agonist treatment (OAT). While use of alcohol and cocaine has shown to adversely affect OAT results, associated cannabis use shows mixed results. This study aimed to assess the pattern of cannabis use among opioid-dependent patients maintained on buprenorphine. Additionally, the study compared the dose of buprenorphine, opioid-related craving and withdrawals, productivity, and also quality of life between those with and without recent (past 90-day) cannabis use...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Kamilla L Venner, Victoria Sánchez, Jacqueline Garcia, Robert L Williams, Andrew L Sussman
PURPOSE: Rates of risky substance use and substance use disorders are high in primary-care practices, yet the adoption of universal screening and brief intervention (SBI) has been slow and uneven. This study aimed to describe SBI-related attitudes, practices, and perspectives regarding practice change among medical providers in a minority-majority state. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, on-line survey of a practice-based research network of medical providers serving predominantly Hispanic/Latinx and Native American patients in rural and urban settings...
March 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Michael D Raleigh, Megan Laudenbach, Federico Baruffaldi, Samantha J Peterson, Michaela J Roslawski, Angela K Birnbaum, Frank I Carroll, Scott P Runyon, Scott Winston, Paul R Pentel, Marco Pravetoni
Heroin and oxycodone abuse occurs over a wide range of drug doses and by various routes of administration characterized by differing rates of drug absorption. The current study addressed the efficacy of a heroin vaccine (M-KLH) or oxycodone vaccine (OXY-KLH) for reducing drug distribution to brain after i.v. heroin or oxycodone, or s.c. oxycodone. Rats immunized with M-KLH or KLH control received an i.v. bolus dose of 0.26 or 2.6 mg/kg heroin. Vaccination with M-KLH increased retention of heroin and its active metabolites 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) and morphine in plasma compared to KLH controls, and reduced total opioid (heroin + 6-AM + morphine) distribution to brain but only at the lower heroin dose...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Samuel Obeng, Yunyun Yuan, Abdulmajeed Jali, Dana E Selley, Yan Zhang
Evidence has shown that downstream signaling by mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists that recruit β-arrestin2 may lead to the development of tolerance. Also, it has been suggested that opioid receptor desensitization and cyclic AMP overshoot contributes to the development of tolerance and occurrence of withdrawal, respectively. Therefore, studies were conducted with 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6α-(isoquinoline-3-carboxamido)morphinan (NAQ), a MOR selective partial agonist discovered in our laboratory, to characterize its effect on β-arrestin2 recruitment and precipitation of a cyclic AMP overshoot...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Anders Helander, Katarina Stojanovic, Tomas Villén, Olof Beck
In recent time, structural variants of fentanyl ("designer fentanyls") have appeared on the recreational drug market for new psychoactive substances (NPS). These potent opioids have caused harmful intoxications and increased opioid related mortality in many countries. This work evaluated three commercial immunoassays for fentanyl screening in urine, and investigated whether they are useful also for screening of designer fentanyls. The assays examined were the Thermo DRI® Fentanyl Enzyme Immunoassay, the ARK™ Fentanyl Assay homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and the Immunalysis® Fentanyl Urine SEFRIA™ Drug Screening Kit...
March 12, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Solina Tith, Garinder Bining, Laurent Bollag
Background : Opioid use during pregnancy is a growing concern in the United States. Buprenorphine has been recommended by "The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology" as an alternative to methadone to decrease risks associated with the use of illicit opioids during pregnancy. The partial μ-opioid agonists' unique pharmacology, including its long half time and high affinity to the μ-opioid receptor, complicates patient management in a highly kinetic, and often urgent field like obstetric anesthesia...
2018: F1000Research
Rachel I Anderson, David E Moorman, Howard C Becker
Understanding the neural systems that drive alcohol motivation and are disrupted in alcohol use disorders is of critical importance in developing novel treatments. The dynorphin and orexin/hypocretin neuropeptide systems are particularly relevant with respect to alcohol use and misuse. Both systems are strongly associated with alcohol-seeking behaviors, particularly in cases of high levels of alcohol use as seen in dependence. Furthermore, both systems also play a role in stress and anxiety, indicating that disruption of these systems may underlie long-term homeostatic dysregulation seen in alcohol use disorders...
March 11, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Hyerim Yu, Minje Choi, Jung-Hee Jang, Byoungduck Park, Young Ho Seo, Chul-Ho Jeong, Jung-Woo Bae, Sooyeun Lee
Hair is a valuable specimen for monitoring long-term drug use. Tramadol is an effective opioid analgesic but is associated with risks such as drug dependence and unexpected toxicity arising from genetic differences in metabolism. However, few studies have been performed on the distribution of tramadol and its metabolites in hair. In the present study, a column-switching LC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of tramadol and its phase I and II metabolites in hair...
March 9, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Sergey Motov, Reuben Strayer, Bryan Hayes, Mark Reiter, Steven Rosenbaum, Melanie Richman, Zachary Repanshek, Scott Taylor, Benjamin Friedman, Gary Vilke, Daniel Lasoff
BACKGROUND: Pain is one of the most common reasons patients present to the emergency department (ED). Emergency physicians should be aware of the numerous opioid and nonopioid alternatives available for the treatment of pain. OBJECTIVES: To provide expert consensus guidelines for the safe and effective treatment of acute pain in the ED. METHODS: Multiple independent literature searches using PubMed were performed regarding treatment of acute pain...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Enrique Gomez-Pomar, Loretta P Finnegan
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) refers to a constellation of signs that are present in some newborn infants resulting from the abrupt cessation of passive transfer of maternal opioids used during pregnancy. The classic NAS refers to infants born to mothers who used opioids during pregnancy, but the term has broadened to include infants whose mothers have used or abused other psychoactive substances during pregnancy that contribute to the expression of the syndrome. Pregnant women who use opioids do so illicitly, and/or as medically prescribed for pain relief, and/or as medication assisted treatment for opioid dependence...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Rezeda A Akhmadishina, Ruslan Garifullin, Natalia V Petrova, Marat I Kamalov, Timur I Abdullin
Although delocalized lipophilic cations have been identified as effective cellular and mitochondrial carriers for a range of natural and synthetic drug molecules, little is known about their effects on pharmacological properties of peptides. The effect of triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation on bioactivity of antioxidant tetrapeptides based on the model opioid YRFK motif was studied. Two tetrapeptide variants with L-arginine (YRFK) and D-arginine (YrFK) were synthesized and coupled with carboxyethyl-TPP (TPP-3) and carboxypentyl-TPP (TPP-6) units...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Lin Zhou, Yahui Hu, Chengyuan Li, Yunyi Yan, Luyao Ao, Boyang Yu, Weirong Fang, Jihua Liu, Yunman Li
Vincristine is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug that can produce painful peripheral neuropathy. The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) and its receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2) may mediate the resolution of this inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether and how CXCL1 contributes to vincristine-induced pain and the underlying mechanisms of levo-corydalmine (l-CDL, a tetrahydroprotoberberine). Oxycodone hydrochloride (a semisynthetic opioid analgesic) was used as positive control in vivo experiments...
March 5, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Athir Morad, Salia Farrokh, Alexander Papangelou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pain management in neurocritical care is a subject often avoided because of concerns over the side-effects of analgesics and the potential to cause additional neurological injury with treatment. The sedation and hypercapnia caused by opioids have been feared to mask the neurological examination and contribute to elevations in intracranial pressure. Nevertheless, increasing attention to patient satisfaction has sparked a resurgence in pain management. As opioids have remained at the core of analgesic therapy, the increasing attention to pain has contributed to a growing epidemic of opioid dependence...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Md Shafiullah Shajib, Ridwan B Rashid, Long C Ming, Shanta Islam, Md Moklesur R Sarker, Lutfun Nahar, Satyajit D Sarker, Bidyut K Datta, Mohammad A Rashid
Polymethoxylavones (PMFs) are known to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Nicotiana plumbaginifolia , an annual Bangladeshi herb, is rich in polymethoxyflavones that possess significant analgesic and anxiolytic activities. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of polyoxygenated flavonoids namely- 3,3',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy-4',5'-methylenedioxyflavone ( 1 ), 3,3',4',5',5,6,7,8-octamethoxyflavone (exoticin) ( 2 ), 6,7,4',5'-dimethylenedioxy-3,5,3'-trimethoxyflavone ( 3 ), and 3,3',4',5,5',8-hexamethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone ( 4 ), isolated and identified from N...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
John W Barrington, Ryan N Hansen, Belinda Lovelace, Elaine A Böing, Morad Chughtai, Jared M Newman, An T Pham, Anton Khlopas, Nipun Sodhi, Assem A Sultan, Michael A Mont
Postoperative pain remains difficult to control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). While various modalities have been used, they have been associated with several side effects. For example, opioids have many side effects including: sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, respiratory depression, and can lead to dependency. Recently, intravenous (IV) acetaminophen has been introduced as a method to manage postoperative pain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative outcomes of TKA patients who received oral acetaminophen versus IV acetaminophen...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Peter Athanasos, Walter Ling, Felix Bochner, Jason M White, Andrew A Somogyi
Objective: Acute pain management in opioid-dependent persons is complicated because of tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Very high doses of morphine are ineffective in overcoming opioid-induced hyperalgesia and providing antinociception to methadone-maintained patients in an experimental setting. Whether the same occurs in buprenorphine-maintained subjects is unknown. Design: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled. Subjects were tested on two occasions, at least five days apart, once with intravenous morphine and once with intravenous saline...
March 5, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Edward F Domino, Mika Hirasawa-Fujita
Introduction: The effects of smoking denicotinized (denic) and average nicotine (avnic) tobacco cigarettes were studied on brain mu opioid receptor binding by positron emission tomography with 11C carfentanil. The results indicated the importance of physiological and psychological effects induced by denic smoking. Methods: Regional mu opioid binding potential (non-displaceable binding potential, BPND) was measured in 20 adult male overnight abstinent chronic tobacco smokers...
March 5, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Aviv Ouanounou, Michael Goldberg, Daniel A Haas
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a collective term that includes disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and of the masticatory muscles and their associated structures. TMDs are characterized by pain, joint sounds and restricted mandibular movement, and drugs are widely used in the management of that pain. Pharmacological agents commonly used for the treatment of TMDs include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, corticosteroids, muscle relaxants, antidepressants, anticonvulsants and benzodiazepines...
July 2017: Journal—Canadian Dental Association, Journal de L'Association Dentaire Canadienne
Masayo Fujita, Soichiro Ide, Kazutaka Ikeda
A common notion is that essentially all addictive drugs, including opioids, activate dopaminergic pathways in the brain reward system, and the inappropriate use of such drugs induces drug dependence. However, an opioid reward response is reportedly still observed in several models of dopamine depletion, including in animals that are treated with dopamine blockers, animals that are subjected to dopaminergic neuron lesions, and dopamine-deficient mice. The intracranial self-stimulation response is enhanced by stimulants but reduced by morphine...
March 7, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"