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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454426/prevalence-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-of-the-anal-canal-in-women-a-prospective-analysis-of-high-risk-populations
#1
Bernd P Kost, Jörg Hofmann, Susanne Stoellnberger, Florian Bergauer, Thomas Blankenstein, Irene Alba-Alejandre, Angela Stein, Claudia Stuckart, Katharina Weizsäcker, Ioannis Mylonas, Sven Mahner, Andrea Gingelmaier
Infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with the development of cervical and anal cancer. Worldwide, the incidence of anal cancer has increased markedly. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection of the uterine cervix and anal canal in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and non-HIV-infected risk populations. Cervical and anal HPV swabs and cytology samples were collected from 287 patients at the University Hospital of Munich, Germany between 2011 and 2013...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454254/oculomotor-nerve-palsy-as-a-preceding-symptom-of-adult-sporadic-burkitt-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Yun Liang, Luyin Ding, Xian Li, Weiqin Wang, Xiaohong Zhang
Adult sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a rare aggressive neoplasm and represents ~1-5% of all lymphomas diagnosed in adults. The disease exhibits an aggressive clinical manifestation, which frequently involves the central nervous system (CNS) in the early stages, and is usually accompanied by abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations and/or neuroradiography. The current study describes the rare case of a 29-year-old man who presented with oculomotor nerve palsy without palpated masses, B symptoms, peripheral blood anomaly and abnormalities of the nervous system...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453849/association-between-frailty-and-components-of-the-frailty-phenotype-with-modifiable-risk-factors-and-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
Kristine M Erlandson, Kunling Wu, Susan L Koletar, Robert C Kalayjian, Ronald J Ellis, Babafemi Taiwo, Frank J Palella, Katherine Tassiopoulos
The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on frailty among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults has not been well described. HIV-infected participants aged ≥40 years with initial ART receipt through a randomized, controlled AIDS Clinical Trials Group trial completed a frailty assessment. Ordinal logistic regression models examined factors associated with frailty. Of 1016 participants, 6% were frail, and 38% were prefrail. Frailty was associated with lower education, older age, Medicare/Medicaid, initial efavirenz, smoking, obesity, and neurocognitive impairment; physical activity and alcohol use were protective...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453847/human-immunodeficiency-virus-persistence-and-t-cell-activation-in-blood-rectal-and-lymph-node-tissue-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-receiving-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
Gabriela Khoury, Rémi Fromentin, Ajantha Solomon, Wendy Hartogensis, Marisela Killian, Rebecca Hoh, Ma Somsouk, Peter W Hunt, Valerie Girling, Elizabeth Sinclair, Peter Bacchetti, Jenny L Anderson, Frederick M Hecht, Steven G Deeks, Paul U Cameron, Nicolas Chomont, Sharon R Lewin
Background.: Immune activation and inflammation remain elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may contribute to HIV persistence. Methods.: Using flow cytometry expression of CD38, HLA-DR and PD-1 were measured in blood (n = 48), lymph node (LN; n = 9), and rectal tissue (n = 17) from virally suppressed individuals. Total and integrated HIV DNA, 2-LTR circles, and cell-associated unspliced HIV RNA were quantified...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453843/inflammation-and-immune-activation-in-antiretroviral-treated-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infected-african-infants-and-rotavirus-vaccine-responses
#5
Priyanka Uprety, Jane C Lindsey, Myron J Levin, Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, Carrie Ziemniak, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizix, Susan S Kaplan, Micki Nelson, Amanda Zadzilka, Adriana Weinberg, Deborah Persaud
00880698.
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453836/commonly-transmitted-hiv-1-drug-resistance-mutations-in-reverse-transcriptase-and-protease-in-antiretroviral-treatment-naive-patients-and-response-to-regimens-containing-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-or-tenofovir-alafenamide
#6
Nicolas A Margot, Pamela Wong, Rima Kulkarni, Kirsten White, Danielle Porter, Michael E Abram, Christian Callebaut, Michael D Miller
Background.: The presence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRMs) in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive patients can adversely affect the outcome of ART. Methods.: Resistance testing was conducted in 6704 ART-naive subjects predominantly from the United States and Europe in 9 clinical studies conducted by Gilead Sciences from 2000 to 2013. Results.: The presence of TDRMs increased during this period (from 5.2% to 11.4%), primarily driven by an increase in nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations (from 0...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453403/high-rate-of-hepatitis-b-virus-surface-antigenemia-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-kakuri-kaduna-state-north-west-nigeria
#7
Cornelius Arome Omatola, Bernard Anyebe Onoja, Temitope Thomas
Globally, increased incidence of liver disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for high morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. This is because both viruses share common routes of transmission. We determined prevalence of HBV-HIV coinfection and the influence of some risk factors on concomitant infection among people living with HIV in a treatment center in Kakuri, Kaduna State. Two hundred consenting individuals with HIV infection participated in the study...
April 28, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448732/cytomegalovirus-anterior-uveitis-following-topical-cyclosporine-a
#8
Jay Siak, Soon-Phaik Chee
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis and endotheliitis occurs among immunocompetent individuals and may manifest as Posner-Schlossman syndrome or Fuchs uveitis syndrome. The condition may first present following ophthalmic surgery, the use of a fluocinolone-sustained steroid drug delivery implant, or the use of topical prostaglandin analogues for the treatment of glaucoma. We report the first case of a non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected individual who presented with CMV anterior uveitis after the use of topical cyclosporine A 0...
April 27, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448599/simulation-of-the-dynamics-of-primary-immunodeficiencies-in-cd4-t-cells
#9
Gabriel N Teku, Mauno Vihinen
Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) form a large and heterogeneous group of mainly rare disorders that affect the immune system. T-cell deficiencies account for about one-tenth of PIDs, most of them being monogenic. Apart from genetic and clinical information, lots of other data are available for PID proteins and genes, including functions and interactions. Thus, it is possible to perform systems biology studies on the effects of PIDs on T-cell physiology and response. To achieve this, we reconstructed a T-cell network model based on literature mining and TPPIN, a previously published core T-cell network, and performed semi-quantitative dynamic network simulations on both normal and T-cell PID failure modes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448570/disease-burden-for-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases-identified-at-reference-hospitals-in-guanajuato-mexico
#10
Eduardo Guaní-Guerra, Ana Isabel Jiménez-Romero, Ulises Noel García-Ramírez, José Manuel Velázquez-Ávalos, Edgar Martínez-Guzmán, Eunice Sandoval-Ramírez, Ignacio Camacho-Meza
BACKGROUND: In addition to the deleterious effect on health, there is considerable economic and psychosocial morbidity associated with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Also, the cost of a late diagnosis frequently results in a heavy disease burden on the patient. The objective of this study was to collect and analyze data on patients with PID in the state of Guanajuato in Mexico, to indirectly estimate the burden of the disease. METHODS: An observational, longitudinal, and comparative study was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448401/clinical-significance-of-incidentally-detected-torus-tubarius-calcification
#11
Karen Buch, Rohini N Nadgir, Muhammad Mustafa Qureshi, Al Ozonoff, Osamu Sakai
OBJECTIVES: Calcification of the torus tubarius has been rarely reported in the literature. Histopathologic studies have previously described cases of Eustachian tube calcification and cite an association with increasing patient age. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of torus tubarius calcification and potential clinical significance on an unrestricted patient population using thin-section computed tomography (CT), which has not been previously reported. METHODS: After the institutional review board approval, 1571 consecutive patients who underwent noncontrast head CT between January 2011 and July 2011 were retrospectively reviewed for torus tubarius calcification...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447927/unexpected-positive-prospective-crossmatches-in-organ-transplant
#12
REVIEW
Judith Desoutter, Marie-Joelle Apithy, Nicolas Guillaume
Preformed donor-specific antibodies against human leukocyte antigen can induce antibody-mediated rejection after organ transplant. Hence, future transplant recipients undergo pretransplant screening for preformed antibodies (ie, virtual crossmatch). Subsequently, prospective (analytic) crossmatching is performed using conventional, complement-dependent cytotoxicity assays and/or flow cytometry-based methods. The present article reviews factors that must be considered when unexpected, positive, prospective crossmatches are observed...
April 27, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447329/immune-response-against-salmonella-enteritidis-is-unsettled-by-hiv-infection
#13
Maira Costa Cacemiro, Milena Sobral Espíndola, Leonardo Judson Galvão-Lima, Luana Silva Soares, Caroline Fontanari, Marco Aurélio Prata, Fábio Campioni, Juliana Pfrimer Falcão, Valdes Roberto Bollela, Fabiani Gai Frantz
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is responsible for more than 2 million new infections per year and opportunistic infections such as Salmonella spp. Gastroenteritis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Monocytes and macrophages play a critical role in the innate immune response against bacterial infections. However during HIV infection the virus can infect these cells and although they are more resistant to the cytopathic effects, they represent an important viral reservoir in these patients...
April 27, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446839/awareness-of-blood-borne-infections-and-burden-of-occupational-exposures-to-blood-and-body-fluids-among-health-care-personnel-in-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#14
Swetharani, K V Vinod, Abdoul Hamide, Tarun K Dutta, K T Harichandrakumar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Occupational exposures (OEs) to blood and body fluids (BBFs) pose significant risk of transmission of blood-borne infections (BBIs) to health care personnel (HCP) and are grossly underreported. We aimed to study the awareness of BBIs and their prevention, burden of OEs, assess factors contributing to them and their poor reporting and assess the practices for their prevention among HCP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital located in south India used a self-administered questionnaire to assess the awareness of BBIs, attitude and practice of HCP for prevention of OEs, and to quantify the burden of exposures...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446799/expanding-the-spectrum-of-skeletal-dysplasia-with-immunodeficiency-a-commentary-on-identification-of-biallelic-extl3-mutations-in-a-novel-type-of-spondylo-epi-metaphyseal-dysplasia
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446667/disparate-contributions-of-human-retrovirus-capsid-subdomains-to-gag-gag-oligomerization-virus-morphology-and-particle-biogenesis
#16
Jessica L Martin, Luiza Mendonça, Isaac Angert, Joachim D Mueller, Wei Zhang, Louis M Mansky
The capsid domain (CA) of the retroviral Gag protein is a primary determinant of Gag oligomerization, which is a critical step for immature Gag lattice formation and virus particle budding. Although the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CA carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) is essential for CA-CA interactions, the CA CTD has been suggested to be largely dispensable for human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) particle biogenesis. To more clearly define the roles of the HTLV-1 CA amino-terminal domain (NTD) and CA CTD in particle biogenesis, we generated and analyzed a panel of Gag proteins with chimeric HIV-1/HTLV-1 CA domains...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446620/how-to-win-the-hiv-1-drug-resistance-hurdle-race-running-faster-or-jumping-higher
#17
REVIEW
Anna Garbelli, Valentina Riva, Emmanuele Crespan, Giovanni Maga
Infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), are still totaling an appalling 36.7 millions worldwide, with 1.1 million AIDS deaths/year and a similar number of yearly new infections. All this, in spite of the discovery of HIV-1 as the AIDS etiological agent more than 30 years ago and the introduction of an effective combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART), able to control disease progression, more than 20 years ago. Although very effective, current cART is plagued by the emergence of drug-resistant viral variants and most of the efforts in the development of novel direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) against HIV-1 have been devoted toward the fighting of resistance...
April 26, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446567/determination-of-a-key-antigen-for-immunological-intervention-to-target-the-latent-stage-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#18
Qila Sa, Eri Ochiai, Ashish Tiwari, Jeremi Mullins, Nilabh Shastri, Corinne Mercier, Marie-France Cesbron-Delauw, Yasuhiro Suzuki
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, establishes a chronic infection by forming cysts preferentially in the brain. Up to one third of the human population worldwide is estimated to be chronically infected with this parasite. However, there is currently no drug effective against the cyst form of the parasite. In addition, the protective immunity against the cysts remains largely unknown. We analyzed the molecular mechanisms by which the immune system detects host cells harboring the cysts to eliminate the latent stage of the parasite using mice with the H-2(d) haplotype, which are genetically resistant to the infection...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446420/measuring-sexual-behavior-stigma-to-inform-effective-hiv-prevention-and-treatment-programs-for-key-populations
#19
Shauna Stahlman, James R Hargreaves, Laurel Sprague, Anne L Stangl, Stefan D Baral
BACKGROUND: The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers...
April 26, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446389/infectious-and-non-infectious-pulmonary-complications-in-primary-immunodeficiencies
#20
R Yazdani, H Abolhassani, M Asgardoon, M Shaghaghi, M Modaresi, G Azizi, A Aghamohammadi
Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) have been described as diseases caused by one or more defects of the immune system. These patients are more likely to experience recurrent and/or severe infections and have a tendency to develop a wide range of complications. Respiratory diseases are the main and initial manifestation for the majority of PID patients and most common complication in this group of patients. Pulmonary complications present a significant cause of morbidity and also mortality among patients suffering from different forms of PIDs...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
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