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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926931/microbial-translocation-and-inflammation-occur-in-hyperacute-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-compromise-host-control-of-virus-replication
#1
Adam J Ericsen, Michael Lauck, Mariel S Mohns, Sarah R DiNapoli, James P Mutschler, Justin M Greene, Jason T Weinfurter, Gabrielle Lehrer-Brey, Trent M Prall, Samantha M Gieger, Connor R Buechler, Kristin A Crosno, Eric J Peterson, Matthew R Reynolds, Roger W Wiseman, Benjamin J Burwitz, Jacob D Estes, Jonah B Sacha, Thomas C Friedrich, Jason M Brenchley, David H O'Connor
Within the first three weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, virus replication peaks in peripheral blood. Despite the critical, causal role of virus replication in determining transmissibility and kinetics of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), there is limited understanding of the conditions required to transform the small localized transmitted founder virus population into a large and heterogeneous systemic infection. Here we show that during the hyperacute "pre-peak" phase of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques, high levels of microbial DNA transiently translocate into peripheral blood...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926762/association-of-arterial-and-lymph-node-inflammation-with-distinct-inflammatory-pathways-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#2
Ahmed Tawakol, Amorina Ishai, Danny Li, Richard A P Takx, Sophia Hur, Yannick Kaiser, Miguel Pampaloni, Adam Rupert, Denise Hsu, Irini Sereti, Rémi Fromentin, Nicolas Chomont, Peter Ganz, Steven G Deeks, Priscilla Y Hsue
Importance: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease and increased arterial inflammation. In HIV, inflammation is also increased within lymph nodes (LNs), tissues known to harbor the virus even among treated and suppressed individuals. Objective: To test the hypothesis that arterial inflammation is linked to HIV disease activity and to inflammation within HIV-infected tissues (LNs). Design, Setting, and Participants: For this case-control study, participants were recruited from the SCOPE (Observational Study of the Consequences of the Protease Inhibitor Era) cohort, a clinic-based cohort of individuals receiving care at San Francisco General Hospital and the San Francisco Veteran's Affairs Medical Center...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926760/epidermal-nerve-fiber-quantification-in-patients-with-erythromelalgia
#3
William G Mantyh, P James B Dyck, Peter J Dyck, Janean K Engelstad, William J Litchy, Paola Sandroni, Mark D P Davis
Importance: Erythromelalgia is a clinical diagnosis based on intermittent warmth, erythema, and pain in the distal extremities. One problem facing physicians is how to objectively test for this disease. Given that other painful conditions of the distal extremities (ie, neuropathy related to human immunodeficiency virus, diabetes, or Fabry disease) can be evaluated with a skin biopsy to visualize pathologically decreased densities of the small nerve fibers that innervate the epidermis, one hypothesis is that erythromelalgia could similarly be associated with a loss of epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD)...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925867/psychosocial-stressors-and-alcohol-use-severity-and-treatment-receipt-across-hiv-status-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-u-s-residents
#4
Emily C Williams, Young Sun Joo, Lauren Lipira, Joseph E Glass
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is stigmatized and disproportionately impacts vulnerable populations. Thus people living with HIV (PLWH) may have greater exposure to psychosocial stressors than those without HIV. Exposure to psychosocial stressors may increase alcohol use and serve as barriers to alcohol treatment receipt. We evaluate whether psychosocial stressors, and alcohol use, symptom severity, and treatment receipt vary across HIV status in a general population sample of U...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925658/pro-b-cells-propagated-in-stromal-cell-free-cultures-reconstitute-functional-b-cell-compartments-in-immunodeficient-mice
#5
Lilly von Muenchow, Panagiotis Tsapogas, Llucia Albertí-Servera, Giuseppina Capoferri, Marianne Doelz, Hannie Rolink, Nabil Bosco, Rhodri Ceredig, Antonius G Rolink
Up to now long-term in vitro growth of pro-B cells was thought to require stromal cells. However, here we show that fetal liver (FL) and bone marrow (BM) derived pro-B cells can be propagated long-term in stromal cell-free cultures supplemented with interleukin-7 (IL-7), stem cell factor and FLT3 ligand. Within a week, most cells expressed surface CD19, CD79A, λ5 and VpreB antigens and had rearranged immunoglobulin D-J heavy chain genes. Both FL and BM pro-B cells reconstituted the B-cell compartments of immuno-incompetent Rag2-deficient mice, with FL pro-B cells generating follicular, marginal zone (MZB) and B1a B cells, and BM pro-B cells giving rise mainly to MZB cells...
December 7, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925407/population-level-decline-in-bmi-and-systolic-blood-pressure-following-mass-hiv-treatment-evidence-from-rural-kwazulu-natal
#6
Pascal Geldsetzer, Andrea B Feigl, Frank Tanser, Dickman Gareta, Deenan Pillay, Till Bärnighausen
OBJECTIVE: Clinic-based studies have shown that patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gain weight after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study aimed to determine whether the scale-up of ART was associated with a population-level increase in body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) in a community with high HIV and obesity prevalence. METHODS: A household survey was conducted in rural KwaZulu-Natal before ART scale-up (in 2004) and when ART coverage had reached 25% (in 2010)...
December 7, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924513/reproductive-health-service-utilization-and-social-determinants-among-married-female-rural-to-urban-migrants-in-two-metropolises-china
#7
Zhi-Yong Liu, Jiang Li, Yang Hong, Lan Yao
Reproductive health (RH) education and services of female migrants in China have become an important health issue. This research aimed to investigate the RH knowledge and utilization among married female migrants, and to explore the influencing factors from the perspectives of population and sociology. We conducted a cross-section survey in Shenzhen and Wuhan, China, using the purposive sampling method. A total of 1021 rural-to-urban married migrants were recruited, with 997 valid survey results obtained. A face-to-face structured questionnaire survey was used, with primary focus on knowledge of fertility, contraception, family planning policy and sexual transmitted diseases/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STD/AIDs), and RH service utilization...
December 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923951/maternal-antibody-responses-and-nonprimary-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-of-hiv-1-exposed-infants
#8
Kristy M Bialas, Daniel Westreich, Eduardo Cisneros de la Rosa, Cody S Nelson, Lawrence M Kauvar, Tong-Ming Fu, Sallie R Permar
Risk of congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) transmission is highly dependent on the presence of preexisting maternal immunity, with the lowest rates observed in CMV-seroimmune populations. Among infants of CMV-seroimmune women, those who are exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of acquiring cCMV infection as compared to HIV-unexposed infants. To better understand the risk factors of nonprimary cCMV transmission in HIV-infected women, we performed a case-control study in which CMV-specific plasma antibody responses from 19 CMV-transmitting and 57 CMV-nontransmitting women with chronic CMV/HIV coinfection were evaluated for the ability to predict the risk of cCMV infection...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923946/prevalence-of-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-in-patients-who-are-not-responding-to-protease-inhibitor-based-treatment-results-from-the-first-national-survey-in-south-africa
#9
K Steegen, M Bronze, M A Papathanasopoulos, G van Zyl, D Goedhals, C Van Vuuren, W Macleod, I Sanne, W S Stevens, S C Carmona
Limited data exist on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resistance in patients who are not responding to protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens in resource-limited settings. This study assessed resistance profiles in adults across South Africa who were not responding to PI-based regimens. pol sequencing was undertaken and submitted to the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database. At least 1 major PI mutation was detected in 16.4% of 350 participants. A total of 53.4% showed intermediate resistance to darunavir/ritonavir, whereas high-level resistance was not observed...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923518/the-impact-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-on-chinese-blood-safety
#10
REVIEW
Miao He, Jingxing Wang, Limin Chen, Jing Liu, Peibin Zeng
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have always been one of the major threats to public health. Although the implementation of mandatory testing for 4 classical transfusion-transmitted infectious-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis-has reduced the transfusion risk of these pathogens, the potential threat of various EID agents and their constantly evolving variants to blood safety in China is not fully understood. This review presents 9 representative EID agents that are autochthonous and epidemic nationally or regionally in China...
November 4, 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923052/filariae-retrovirus-co-infection-in-mice-is-associated-with-suppressed-virus-specific-igg-immune-response-and-higher-viral-loads
#11
Kirsten Katrin Dietze, Ulf Dittmer, Daniel Karim Koudaimi, Simone Schimmer, Martina Reitz, Minka Breloer, Wiebke Hartmann
Worldwide more than 2 billion people are infected with helminths, predominantly in developing countries. Co-infections with viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common due to the geographical overlap of these pathogens. Helminth and viral infections induce antagonistic cytokine responses in their hosts. Helminths shift the immune system to a type 2-dominated immune response, while viral infections skew the cytokine response towards a type 1 immune response. Moreover, chronic helminth infections are often associated with a generalized suppression of the immune system leading to prolonged parasite survival, and also to a reduced defence against unrelated pathogens...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922987/total-joint-arthroplasty-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#12
Kalpit N Shah, Jeremy N Truntzer, Francine Touzard Romo, Lee E Rubin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: JBJS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922667/pituitary-sex-hormones-enhance-the-pro%C3%A2-metastatic-potential-of-human-lung-cancer-cells-by-downregulating-the-intracellular-expression-of-heme-oxygenase%C3%A2-1
#13
Ahmed Abdelbaset-Ismail, Daniel Pedziwiatr, Gabriela Schneider, Jacek Niklinski, Radoslaw Charkiewicz, Marcin Moniuszko, Magda Kucia, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
We report that human lung cancer cell lines express functional receptors for pituitary sex hormones (SexHs) and respond to stimulation by follicle‑stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL). Expression of these receptors has also been confirmed in patient lung cancer samples at the mRNA level. Stimulation of human lung cancer cell lines with FSH, LH, or PRL stimulated migration and chemotaxis, and some cell lines responded by enhanced proliferation. Moreover, priming of human lung cancer cells by exposing them to pituitary SexHs resulted in enhanced seeding efficiency of injected human lung cancer cells into bone marrow, liver, and lungs in an immunodeficient mouse model...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922067/immune-activation-influences-samhd1-expression-and-vpx-mediated-samhd1-degradation-during-chronic-hiv-1-infection
#14
Weihui Fu, Chao Qiu, Mingzhe Zhou, Lingyan Zhu, Yu Yang, Chenli Qiu, Linxia Zhang, Xuan Xu, Ying Wang, Jianqing Xu, Xiaoyan Zhang
SAMHD1 restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in myeloid cells and CD4(+) T cells, while Vpx can mediate SAMHD1 degradation to promote HIV-1 replication. Although the restriction mechanisms of SAMHD1 have been well-described, SAMHD1 expression and Vpx-mediated SAMHD1 degradation during chronic HIV-1 infection were poorly understood. Flow cytometric analysis was used to directly visualize ex vivo, and after in vitro SIV-Vpx treatment, SAMHD1 expression in CD4(+) T cells and monocytes...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921997/comparative-molecular-dynamics-study-of-dimeric-and-monomeric-forms-of-hiv-1-protease-in-ligand-bound-and-unbound-state
#15
Monikaben Padariya, Umesh Kalathiya
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease is a viral-encoded enzyme and it is essential for replication and assembly of the virus. Inactivation of HIV-1 protease causes production of immature, noninfectious viral particles and thus HIV-1 protease is an attractive target in anti-AIDS drug design. In our current work, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) calculations (500 ns) for two different ligands (COM5 - designed in our previous study, and Darunavir) and made effort to understand dynamics behaviour of our designed compound COM5...
December 6, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921058/celiac-crisis-associated-with-herpes-simplex-virus-esophagitis
#16
Alan Chen, Christopher M Linz, Julie L Tsay, Ming Jin, Samer S El-Dika
Celiac crisis is a rare presentation of celiac disease that is characterized by life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and diarrhea. Triggers for celiac crisis include major surgeries, pancreatitis, and infections of cytomegalovirus, and salmonella. A 24-year-old woman presented with celiac crisis associated with severe herpes simplex virus (HSV) esophagitis. This case demonstrates that nutritional deficiencies seen in celiac disease can result in a relative immunodeficiency, which may lead to other infectious complications...
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920422/population-based-screening-for-selective-immunoglobulin-a-iga-deficiency-in-lithuanian-children-using-a-rapid-antibody-based-fingertip-test
#17
Vaidotas Urbonas, Jolita Sadauskaite, Rimante Cerkauskiene, Arvydas Kaminskas, Markku Mäki, Kalle Kurppa
BACKGROUND Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is the most common inherited immunodeficiency disorder worldwide. An early diagnosis is advocated because of the increased risk of infections, autoimmune diseases, and allergic reactions. We investigated the usefulness of a rapid point-of-care test in detecting for IgA deficiency in a population with a previously unknown prevalence. MATERIAL AND METHODS Altogether, 1000 children aged 11-13 years from randomly selected Lithuanian schools were enrolled. A point-of-care test with a fingertip sample was used to screen for the presence of IgA deficiency in children whose parents gave consent...
December 6, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920392/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-health-care-workers-about-viral-hepatitis-b-and-c-in-south-kivu
#18
Tony Akilimali Shindano, Esto Bahizire, René Fiasse, Yves Horsmans
Health-care workers (HCWs) are at risk of infections associated with accidental exposure to blood, including viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV). A survey using a questionnaire was conducted on 250 HCW in Bukavu, an eastern town of the Democratic Republic of Congo, to analyze their attitude and knowledge about these two viruses. A response rate of 86.8% (217/250) was obtained. The mean age of respondents was 39.6 ± 9.8 years, in majority from paramedical staff (66.4%) and with more than 5 years of professional experience (60...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919899/pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-darunavir-administered-once-or-twice-daily-in-combination-with-ritonavir-or-the-three-direct-acting-antiviral-regimen-of-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-and-dasabuvir-in-adults-co-infected-with-hepatitis-c-and-human-immunodeficiency
#19
Jennifer R King, Amit Khatri, Roger Trinh, Rolando M Viani, Bifeng Ding, Jiuhong Zha, Rajeev Menon
BACKGROUND: The three-direct acting antiviral (3D) regimen containing ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir and dasabuvir ± ribavirin (RBV) is approved for treatment of HCV GT1/HIV-1 co-infection. Results of a pharmacokinetic substudy of 3D and darunavir are presented. METHODS: HCV/HIV-1 infected subjects were randomized to maintain a darunavir 800 mg once daily (QD) or switch to a darunavir 600 mg twice daily (BID) based antiretroviral regimen. On Study Day 1, subjects received 3D and RBV plus darunavir for 12 weeks...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919819/patterns-of-constitutively-phosphorylated-kinases-in-b-cells-are-associated-with-disease-severity-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#20
Eli Taraldsrud, Pål Aukrust, Silje Jørgensen, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Johanna Olweus, June H Myklebust, Børre Fevang
Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) constitute a clinically and immunologically heterogeneous group characterized by B-cell dysfunction with hypogammaglobulinemia and defective immunoglobulin class switch of unknown etiology. Current classification systems are insufficient to achieve precise disease management. Characterization of signaling pathways essential for B-cell differentiation and class switch could provide new means to stratify patients. We evaluated constitutive and induced signaling by phospho-specific flow cytometry in 26 CVID patients and 18 healthy blood donors...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
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