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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928531/strengthening-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-tuberculosis-prevention-capacity-among-south-african-healthcare-workers-a-mixed-methods-study-of-a-collaborative-occupational-health-program
#1
Alexandre Liautaud, Prince A Adu, Annalee Yassi, Muzimkhulu Zungu, Jerry M Spiegel, Angeli Rawat, Elizabeth A Bryce, Michelle C Engelbrecht
Background: Insufficient training in infection control and occupational health among healthcare workers (HCWs) in countries with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) burdens requires attention. We examined the effectiveness of a 1-year Certificate Program in Occupational Health and Infection Control conducted in Free State Province, South Africa in an international partnership to empower HCWs to become change agents to promote workplace-based HIV and TB prevention...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928131/identification-of-cd24-as-a-marker-for-tumorigenesis-of-melanoma
#2
Ming-Rui Tang, Jia-Yan Guo, Di Wang, Nan Xu
Objective: Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a common skin cancer. Surgery is still the primary treatment for CM, as melanoma is resistant to chemotherapy. In the recent years, it has been found that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are responsible for this drug resistance. CD24 is a widely used marker to isolate CSCs. In this study, we aimed to analyze the properties of CD24+ and CD24- subpopulation of melanoma cells. Materials and methods: We isolated CD24+ cells CSCs using magnetic-activated cell sorting system...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928045/performance-of-the-hiv-blot-2-2-inno-lia-hiv-i-ii-score-and-geenius-hiv-1-2-confirmatory-assay-for-use-in-hiv-confirmation
#3
Chui Ching Wong, Siew Hoon Lim, Chai Teng Tan, Sook Yin Lui, Yee Leng Lee, Kwai Peng Chan
In view of recent revised recommendations for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) confirmatory testing, the performance of 3 HIV confirmatory assays was compared. Using the HIV Blot 2.2 (MP-WB), the INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score (INNO), and the Geenius HIV 1/2 Confirmatory Assay (Geenius), we tested 199 HIV-1 positive, 161 HIV negative, 65 HIV western blot indeterminate, 26 HIV seroconversion, 34 early HIV infection and 4 HIV-2 positive archived specimens. We show that all 3 assays had comparable test sensitivity in the detection of HIV-1 positive cases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927906/interval-since-last-hiv-test-for-men-and-women-with-recent-risk-for-hiv-infection-united-states-2006-2016
#4
Marc A Pitasi, Kevin P Delaney, Emeka Oraka, Heather Bradley, Elizabeth A DiNenno, John T Brooks, Joseph Prejean
Since 2006, CDC has recommended routine screening of all persons aged 13-64 years for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and at least annual rescreening of persons at higher risk (1). However, national surveillance data indicate that many persons at higher risk for HIV infection are not screened annually, and delays in diagnosis persist (2). CDC analyzed 2006-2016 data from the General Social Survey (GSS)* and estimated that only 39.6% of noninstitutionalized U.S. adults had ever tested for HIV. Among persons ever tested, the estimated median interval since last test was 1,080 days or almost 3 years...
June 22, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927900/strategies-for-improving-hepatitis-c-treatment-access-in-the-united-states-state-officials-address-high-drug-prices-stigma-and-building-treatment-capacity
#5
Shashi N Kapadia, Carrie D Johnston, Kristen M Marks, Bruce R Schackman, Erika G Martin
CONTEXT: Curative treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) can alter the course of a devastating epidemic, but high drug prices have contributed to restrictions on HCV treatment access. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to learn how state health agencies have responded to the challenges of treatment access for HCV. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured key informant interviews focused on aspects of HCV treatment access between June 2016 and March 2017...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927346/the-effect-of-medical-technology-innovations-on-patient-outcomes-1990-2015-results-of-a-physician-survey
#6
David E Wamble, Michael Ciarametaro, Robert Dubois
BACKGROUND: Developments in diagnostics, medical devices, procedures, and prescription drugs have increased life expectancy and quality of life after diagnosis for many diseases. Previous research has shown that, overall, increased investment in medical technology has led to increased health outcomes. In addition, the value of investment in specific innovations, particularly in new pharmaceuticals or biopharmaceuticals, has frequently been shown through an evaluation of the associated health outcomes and costs...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926543/factors-associated-with-persistent-sputum-positivity-at-the-end-of-the-second-month-of-tuberculosis-treatment-in-lithuania
#7
Saulius Diktanas, Edita Vasiliauskiene, Katazyna Polubenko, Edvardas Danila, Indre Celedinaite, Evelina Boreikaite, Kipras Misiunas
BACKGROUND: Non-conversion of sputum smear and culture prolongs the infectivity of the patient and has been associated with unfavorable outcomes. We aimed to evaluate factors associated with persistent sputum positivity at the end of two months of treatment of new case pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Data of 87 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with culture-positive drug-susceptible pulmonary TB admitted to local university hospital between September 2015 and September 2016 were reviewed...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925696/murine-models-of-pneumocystis-infection-recapitulate-human-primary-immune-disorders
#8
Waleed Elsegeiny, Mingquan Zheng, Taylor Eddens, Richard L Gallo, Guixiang Dai, Giraldina Trevejo-Nunez, Patricia Castillo, Kara Kracinovsky, Hillary Cleveland, William Horne, Jonathan Franks, Derek Pociask, Mark Pilarski, John F Alcorn, Kong Chen, Jay K Kolls
Despite the discovery of key pattern recognition receptors and CD4+ T cell subsets in laboratory mice, there is ongoing discussion of the value of murine models to reflect human disease. Pneumocystis is an AIDS-defining illness, in which risk of infection is inversely correlated with peripheral CD4+ T cell counts. Due to medical advances in the control of HIV, the current epidemiology of Pneumocystis infection is predominantly due to primary human immunodeficiencies and immunosuppressive therapies. To this end, we found that every human genetic immunodeficiency associated with Pneumocystis infection that has been tested in mice recapitulated susceptibility...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925666/marginal-effects-of-systemic-ccr5-blockade-with-maraviroc-on-oral-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-transmission-to-infant-macaques
#9
Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Cuiling Xu, Katherine S Wetzel, Mackenzie L Cottrell, Benjamin B Policicchio, Kevin D Raehtz, Dongzhu Ma, Tammy Dunsmore, George S Haret-Richter, Karam Musaitif, Brandon F Keele, Angela D Kashuba, Ronald G Collman, Ivona Pandrea, Cristian Apetrei
Current approaches do not eliminate all HIV-1 maternal-to-infant transmissions (MTIT); new prevention paradigms might help avert new infections. We administered Maraviroc (MVC) to rhesus macaques (RMs) to block CCR5-mediated entry, followed by repeated oral exposure of a CCR5-dependent clone of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac251 (SIVmac766). MVC significantly blocked the CCR5 coreceptor in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tissue cells. All control animals and 60% of MVC-treated infant RMs became infected by the 6th challenge, with no significant difference between the number of exposures (p=0...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925657/recurrent-loss-of-apobec3h-activity-during-primate-evolution
#10
Erin I Garcia, Michael Emerman
Genes in the APOBEC3 family encode cytidine deaminases that provide a barrier against viral infection and retrotransposition. Of all APOBEC3 genes in humans, APOBEC3H ( A3H ) is the most polymorphic: some haplotypes encode stable and active A3H proteins, while others are unstable and poorly antiviral. Such variation in human A3H affects interactions with the lentiviral antagonist Vif, which counteracts A3H via proteasomal degradation. In order to broaden our understanding of A3H-Vif interactions, as well as its evolution in Old World monkeys, we characterized A3H variation within four African green monkey (AGM) subspecies...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925445/detection-of-igg3-antibodies-specific-to-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-hiv-1-p24-protein-as-marker-for-recently-acquired-infection
#11
I F T Viana, D F Coêlho, M L Palma, E J M Nascimento, G Gu, L F O Lima, L Foti, M A Krieger, C Pilcher, C E Calzavara-Silva, R B Mailliard, C R Rinaldo, R Dhalia, E T A Marques
Reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is still a public health priority. The development of effective control strategies relies on the quantification of the effects of prophylactic and therapeutic measures in disease incidence. Although several assays can be used to estimate HIV incidence, these estimates are limited by the poor performance of these assays in distinguishing recent from long-standing infections. To address such limitation, we have developed an assay to titrate p24-specific IgG3 antibodies as a marker of recent infection...
June 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925247/anal-cancer-prevention-perspectives-among-foreign-born-latino-hiv-infected-gay-and-bisexual-men
#12
Alexis M Koskan, Madeline Fernandez-Pineda
This study explores understanding of primary and secondary prevention of anal cancer among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected foreign-born Latino gay and bisexual men (GBM). Between August 2015 and December 2016, researchers conducted 33 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with HIV-infected foreign-born Latino GBM. Interview questions sought to determine participants' knowledge and perceived barriers and facilitators to primary and secondary prevention of anal cancer. Researchers analyzed interview transcripts using a qualitative content analysis approach...
January 2018: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925099/a-systematic-review-on-promoting-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-patients-using-mobile-phone-technology
#13
Yuri Quintana, Eduardo A Gonzalez Martorell, Darren Fahy, Charles Safran
OBJECTIVE:  Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is paramount to successful long-term suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For poorly adherent patients with HIV, barriers to remaining adherent may be overcome by the implementation of targeted interventions delivered via mobile devices. This systematic review is focused specifically on mobile phone technologies to deliver adherence interventions in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) populations. METHODS:  This review (PROSPERO #CRD42017065131) systematically extracted data from published literature from five databases on mobile phone interventions to improve adherence to ART for HIV...
April 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924717/case-259
#14
Decai Tian, Xiaodong Zhu, Rong Xue, Peng Zhao, Yuanrong Yao
History In November 2012, a previously healthy 31-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 2-month history of right-sided numbness, diplopia, and intermittent nausea and dizziness. She did not have a history of fever, weight loss, headache, photophobia, seizure, or extremity weakness. Physical examination revealed left abduction limitation and right-sided hypoesthesia. Kernig and Brudzinski signs were absent, and pathergy test results were negative. Laboratory evaluation revealed normal complete and differential blood counts, normal serum chemistry, and normal immune function...
July 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924218/erythrodermic-psoriasis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-association-and-therapeutic-challenges
#15
Fernando Valenzuela, Javier Fernández, Margarita Sánchez, Andrea Zamudio
Erythrodermic psoriasis is a rare but severe type of psoriasis that may be triggered by human immunodeficiency virus infection. We describe the case of a 65-year-old male patient with chronic psoriasis who presents an exacerbation of his condition over a period of two weeks. Because of the severity of his case and subsequent need for systemic therapy, human immunodeficiency virus enzyme immunoassay was performed and tested positive. He thus began antiretroviral therapy combined with acitretin, showing good clinical response after 8 weeks of treatment...
June 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923694/current-approaches-to-hiv-prevention-treatment-and-care
#16
David Thomas Evans, Mark Dukes
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first labelled as a new illness in 1981; it took two more years to discover a causative virus, which was named human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1985. Nurses who practised during those times may recall the fear, panic, stigma, ethical dilemmas and refusals to care that were associated with the pandemic. Four decades later, HIV can be considered a long-term condition rather than a life-limiting disease, as a result of developments in treatment. However, the UK has the highest number of people living with the virus since the pandemic was first identified, and there remains a need to challenge stigma and prejudice in relation to HIV and AIDS, to ensure that people receive timely access to HIV testing, treatment and preventive measures...
June 20, 2018: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922491/immunological-emergency-in-neonate-case-report-and-role-of-early-screening
#17
Veronica Mugarab Samedi, Amy Shafey, Essa Al Awad, Luis Murguia Favela
Healthy looking newborns may have severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), and neonatologists frequently are the first physicians to encounter these patients. Physicians usually have a high index of suspicion for this condition in presence of certain risk factors (unexplained infants' deaths, consanguinity); however, >80% of infants with SCID have no positive family history. A timely diagnosis of this condition is crucial in decreasing both mortality and morbidity. The only way to detect SCID prior to the onset of infections is newborn screening (NBS)...
April 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921932/clinical-implications-of-systematic-phenotyping-and-exome-sequencing-in-patients-with-primary-antibody-deficiency
#18
Hassan Abolhassani, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Mingyan Fang, Nima Rezaei, Chongyi Jiang, Xiao Liu, Qiang Pan-Hammarström, Lennart Hammarström
PURPOSE: The etiology of 80% of patients with primary antibody deficiency (PAD), the second most common type of human immune system disorder after human immunodeficiency virus infection, is yet unknown. METHODS: Clinical/immunological phenotyping and exome sequencing of a cohort of 126 PAD patients (55.5% male, 95.2% childhood onset) born to predominantly consanguineous parents (82.5%) with unknown genetic defects were performed. The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics criteria were used for validation of pathogenicity of the variants...
June 19, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921470/ttc7a-mutation-must-be-considered-in-patients-with-repeated-intestinal-atresia-associated-with-early-inflammatory-bowel-disease-two-new-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#19
J Fayard, S Collardeau, Y Bertrand, M-P Cordier, C Malcus, R Dubois, P-Y Mure, G de Saint Basile, T Louazon, B Rohmer, A Lachaux, R Duclaux, N Peretti
TTC7A mutations cause multiple neonatal intestinal atresias with early inflammatory bowel disease and severe combined immunodeficiency. There are no treatment protocols for this rare disease. Two new cases are described for which radical early treatment measures - total enterectomy, home parenteral nutrition, immunoglobulin therapy and intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis - have allowed both patients to develop optimally.
June 16, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920588/genome-wide-surveillance-of-genital-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-from-multiple-anatomic-sites-over-time
#20
Mackenzie M Shipley, Daniel W Renner, Mariliis Ott, David C Bloom, David M Koelle, Christine Johnston, Moriah L Szpara
Here we present genomic and in vitro analyses of temporally separated episodes of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) shedding by an HSV-1-seropositive and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HSV-2-seronegative individual who has frequent recurrences of genital HSV-1. Using oligonucleotide enrichment, we compared viral genomes from uncultured swab specimens collected on different days and from distinct genital sites. We found that viral genomes from 7 swab specimens and 3 cultured specimens collected over a 4-month period from the same individual were 98...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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