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Pain pill addictions

Nalini Vadivelu, Leandro Lumermann, Richard Zhu, Gopal Kodumudi, Amir O Elhassan, Alan David Kaye
Drug addiction is present in a significant proportion of the population in the USA and worldwide. Drug addiction can occur with the abuse of many types of substances including cocaine, marijuana, stimulants, alcohol, opioids, and tranquilizers. There is a high likelihood that clinicians will encounter patients with substance abuse disorders on a regular basis with the prevalence of the use of illicit substances and the high rate of abuse of prescription drugs. The use of abuse deterrent formulations of prescription opioid agents, pill counts, and urine drug abuse screenings are all useful strategies...
May 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Y E Tian, Li-Rong Teng, Zhen-Zuo Wang, Min Zhao, Qing-Fan Meng, Jia-Hui Lu, Jian-Ming Tian, Wei-Wei Zhang, Xiaoyi Zheng, D I Wang, LE-Sheng Teng
Jia-Yuan-Qing pill (JYQP) composed of Porcellio laevis Latreille, Corydalis Rhizoma and Radix Cynanchi Paniculati at a ratio of 9:7:7 has been found to be an effective analgesic agent. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety, addictive potential and anti-cancer pain activity of JYQP in a rat model. During the 6-month chronic toxicity test, no significant changes in general behavior, defecation, postural abnormalities, dietary or water intake or blood biochemical parameters were observed in male and female rats...
June 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Catherine S Hwang, Lydia W Turner, Stefan P Kruszewski, Andrew Kolodny, G Caleb Alexander
OBJECTIVES: Physicians are a key stakeholder in the epidemic of prescription opioid abuse. Therefore, we assessed their knowledge of opioid abuse and diversion, as well as their support for clinical and regulatory interventions to reduce opioid-related morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative postal mail survey of 1000 practicing internists, family physicians, and general practitioners in the United States between February and May 2014...
April 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
Abolfazl Goreishi, Zahra Shajari
BACKGROUND: In order to assess the status of drug abuse and likely addiction among university students, a descriptive study was designed. METHODS: 1200 subjects among the students of three universities in Zanjan were selected by stratified random sampling and their demographic information and history of substance abuse including hookah, cigarette, codeine, ibuprofen, alcohol, diazepam, tramadol, cannabis, opium, grass, heroin, crack, X pill, morphine, marijuana, Librium, and LSD were assessed by a standard questionnaire and were analyzed in 2010...
January 2013: Addiction & Health
Jooyoung Lee
How do gunshot victims manage pain without health care? This paper examines this question through ethnographic data of a single gunshot victim who self-medicated with Percocet. The observations for this paper were collected in Philadelphia between January of 2010 and October of 2011, and were part of a larger ethnographic study that included 40 gunshot victims recruited from an outpatient trauma clinic. Although this victim was able to manage his pain, he ultimately became addicted to Percocet and became entangled in the personal stress and conflicts of his pill hustlers...
December 2013: Social Science & Medicine
Raminta Daniulaityte, Russel Falck, Robert G Carlson
BACKGROUND: There has been a rise in the illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids ("pain pills") in the United States. Conducted with young adult non-medical users of pharmaceutical opioids, this study uses qualitative methods and cultural consensus analysis to describe risk perceptions associated with pharmaceutical opioids and to determine patterns of cultural sharing and intra-cultural variation of these views. METHODS: The qualitative sub-sample (n=47) was selected from a larger sample of 396 young adults (18-23 years old), who were participating in a natural history study of illicit pharmaceutical opioid use...
September 2012: International Journal on Drug Policy
Richard B Francoeur
This article proposes and develops novel components of community-oriented programs for creating and affording access to safe medication dispensing centers in existing retail pharmacies and in permanent or travelling pharmacy clinics that are guarded by assigned or off-duty police officers. Pharmacists at these centers would work with police, medical providers, social workers, hospital administrators, and other professionals in: planning and overseeing the safe storage of controlled substance medications in off-site community safe-deposit boxes; strengthening communication and cooperation with the prescribing medical provider; assisting the prescribing medical provider in patient monitoring (checking the state prescription registry, providing pill counts and urine samples); expanding access to lower-cost, and in some cases, abuse-resistant formulations of controlled substance medications; improving transportation access for underserved patients and caregivers to obtain prescriptions; and integrating community agencies and social networks as resources for patient support and monitoring...
2011: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Bill H McCarberg
OBJECTIVE: To determine the current status of performing urine drug tests (UDTs) for monitoring chronic pain therapy, with an emphasis on their use in opioid treatment and the need for improved physician education about UDTs. RESULTS: Although opioids are commonly used in the treatment of chronic pain, their use is associated with an increased risk for drug abuse, addiction, diversion, and overdose in chronic pain patients. Thus, adherence with opioid therapy is central to optimal chronic pain management...
November 2011: Postgraduate Medicine
Joanne C Lin, Reem K Jan, HeeSeung Lee, Maree-Ann Jensen, Rob R Kydd, Bruce R Russell
RATIONALE: ‘Party Pills’ containing benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) have been used in a recreational context since the 1990s and, prior to April 2008, were legally available in New Zealand. Taken together, they have been reported to produce a ‘high’ similar to that produced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). OBJECTIVES: There has been little research on the subjective effects of piperazines in humans. The purpose of this study is to further investigate the subjective and physiological responses following an oral dose of BZP combined with TFMPP in males...
April 2011: Psychopharmacology
Peggy Compton, Priscilla Kehoe, Karabi Sinha, Matt A Torrington, Walter Ling
Individuals on methadone maintenance for the treatment of addiction (MM) are demonstrated to be hyperalgesic to cold-pressor pain in comparison to matched controls and ex-opioid addicts, a finding described as clinical evidence of opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Interestingly, opioids induce hyperalgesia via many of the same neuro-inflammatory and central sensitization processes that occur with the development of neuropathic pain. Evaluated in this study was the efficacy of a key pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain, gabapentin (GPN), to reverse OIH in MM patients...
June 1, 2010: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Steven D Passik
Both chronic pain and prescription opioid abuse are prevalent and exact a high toll on patients, physicians, and society. Health care professionals must balance aggressive treatment of chronic pain with the need to minimize the risks of opioid abuse, misuse, and diversion. A thorough, ongoing assessment can help fashion a multimodal therapeutic plan, stratify patients by risk, and identify those who may exhibit aberrant behaviors after receiving opioid therapy. Appropriate safeguards (eg, urine drug screens, pill counts) may be used when necessary...
July 2009: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Sudie E Back, Rebecca A Payne, Angela E Waldrop, Arthur Smith, Scott Reeves, Kathleen T Brady
OBJECTIVES: Patients who are prescribed opioids often display 1 or more aberrant prescription use behaviors (eg, requesting early refills, borrowing medication from family), which raise concern among healthcare professionals. Little is known about the sex differences in specific types of aberrant behaviors or sex-specific predictors of such behaviors. The current study is aimed to begin addressing this gap in the literature. METHODS: A battery of anonymous, self-report assessments was administered to 121 (49 men, 72 women) chronic pain patients enrolled in an outpatient pain management clinic...
July 2009: Clinical Journal of Pain
Marilyn H Byrne, Laura Lander, Martha Ferris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2009: Health & Social Work
Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, Deborah DaCosta, Mark A Ware, Yoram Shir
UNLABELLED: We have examined the characteristics of the pain experience as well as barriers to optimal pain management in 60 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) consecutively attending a specialist rheumatology practice. Pain was reported to be moderate to severe in 32 (53%) and mild to absent in 28 (47%). Sixty-five percent of all patients, including almost half of those with moderate to severe pain, reported satisfaction with current pain control. The average number of barriers to pain management for individual patients was 2...
March 2009: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Howard S Smith
Although there is no "ideal analgesic," scientists and clinicians alike continue to search for compounds with qualities which may approach the "ideal analgesic." Characteristics of an "ideal" analgesic may include: the agent is a full agonist providing optimal/maximal analgesia for a wide range/variety of pain states (e.g., broad spectrum analgesic activity), it does not exhibit tolerance, it produces no unwanted effects and minimal adverse effects, it has no addictive potential, it does not facilitate pain/hyperalgesia, it has a long duration, it has high oral bioavailability, it is not vulnerable to important drug interactions, it is not significantly bound to plasma proteins, it has no active metabolites, it has linear kinetics, and it is eliminated partly by hydrolysis to an inactive metabolite (without involvement of oxidative and conjugative enzymes)...
March 2008: Pain Physician
James E Lessenger, Steven D Feinberg
The nonmedical use of prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medications implies that the user is using them for reasons other than those indicated in the prescribing literature or on the box label. The abuse of these medications is a national issue. Intentional drug abuse of prescribed and OTC medicines has climbed steadily. Data from the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health demonstrated that 6.4 million (2.6%) people aged 12 or older had used prescription drugs for nonmedical reasons during the past month...
January 2008: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Anna Waldstein
This paper describes the ethnopharmacological knowledge of women in an urban Mexican migrant community in Athens, GA, USA. Data were collected using free-list, pile-sort and semi-structured interviews. The pharmacopoeia of this community includes herbal remedies, over-the-counter medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and prescription medicines. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis of pile-sort data revealed that Mexican women living in Athens classify medicines into four categories: herbal remedies, salves, pastillas (pills-both prescription and non-prescription) and other commercial preparations...
November 24, 2006: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kenneth L Kirsh, Steven D Passik
Palliative care with terminally ill drug addicts is a major challenge for medical professionals to face. With growing problems of prescription drug abuse in this country, the problem is only going to continue to grow and be faced more often. To date, very little has been done focusing on this special population of end-of-life care patients. This review article attempts to explore the terminology and definitions for identifying addiction in the terminally ill as well as exploring management options for healthcare professionals...
June 2006: Cancer Investigation
David Loxterkamp
The crisis of opioid addiction in America has been fueled by the diversion of prescription pain pills and the emergence of pure and inexpensive heroin. Until recently, benefits of and access to therapy were limited. This situation changed in 2003 with Food and Drug Administration approval of buprenorphine for the office-based treatment of opioid dependence. Now armed with a potent drug, primary care physicians can treat addicted patients in their own practice and from their own neighborhood, but first we must overcome deficiencies in our training and personal biases about addicts and what they need...
March 2006: Annals of Family Medicine
Evan Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2003: Newsweek
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