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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537385/the-psychiatric-impact-of-hiv
#1
Michael T Nedelcovych, Arena A Manning, Svetlana Semenova, Charlene Gamaldo, Norman J Haughey, Barbara S Slusher
This Viewpoint is based on a recent panel featured at the 2017 Winter Conference on Brain Research in which the psychiatric comorbidities of HIV infection were discussed. Psychiatric comorbid conditions occur at high rates in HIV infected patients, complicating treatment and contributing to poor outcomes. A complex relationship between HIV infection and psychiatric comorbidity is an active area of investigation, but increased awareness of the impact of psychiatric complications of NeuroAIDS is needed in both the laboratory and the clinic to better understand and treat these interrelated conditions...
May 24, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533442/the-role-of-shed-prp-c-in-the-neuropathogenesis-of-hiv-infection
#2
Bezawit W Megra, Eliseo A Eugenin, Joan W Berman
HIV-1 enters the CNS soon after peripheral infection and causes chronic neuroinflammation and neuronal damage that leads to cognitive impairment in 40-70% of HIV-infected people. The nonpathogenic cellular isoform of the human prion protein (PrP(c)) is an adhesion molecule constitutively expressed in the CNS. Previously, our laboratory showed that shed PrP(c) (sPrP(c)) is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected people with cognitive deficits as compared with infected people with no impairment. In this article, we demonstrate that CCL2 and TNF-α, inflammatory mediators that are elevated in the CNS of HIV-infected people, increase shedding of PrP(c) from human astrocytes by increasing the active form of the metalloprotease ADAM10...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445538/gene-expression-patterns-associated-with-neurological-disease-in-human-hiv-infection
#3
Pietro Paolo Sanna, Vez Repunte-Canonigo, Eliezer Masliah, Celine Lefebvre
The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND) remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI) in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) algorithm was used for pathway analyses in conjunction with the Molecular Signatures Database collection of canonical pathways (MSigDb)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328546/temporal-patterns-and-drug-resistance-in-csf-viral-escape-among-art-experienced-hiv-1-infected-adults
#4
Shibani S Mukerji, Vikas Misra, David Lorenz, Anna M Cervantes-Arslanian, Jennifer Lyons, Spyridon Chalkias, Alysse Wurcel, Deirdre Burke, Nagagopal Venna, Susan Morgello, Igor J Koralnik, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape is an increasingly recognized clinical event among HIV-1-infected adults. We analyzed longitudinal data and drug-resistance mutations to characterize profiles of HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy with discordant CSF and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. METHODS: Forty-one cases of CSF escape defined as detectable CSF HIV-1 RNA when plasma levels were undetectable, or HIV-1 RNA >0.5-log higher in CSF than plasma, were identified from Boston Hospitals and National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC) from 2005-2016...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288515/measures-of-physical-and-mental-independence-among-hiv-positive-individuals-impact-of-substance-use-disorder
#5
Bianca Christensen, Zijian Qin, Desiree A Byrd, Fang Yu, Susan Morgello, Benjamin B Gelman, David J Moore, Igor Grant, Elyse J Singer, Howard S Fox, Lorena Baccaglini
With the transition of HIV infection from an acute to a chronic disease after the introduction of antiretroviral medications, there has been an increased focus on long-term neurocognitive and other functional outcomes of HIV patients. Thus, we assessed factors, particularly history of a substance use disorder, associated with time to loss of measures of physical or mental independence among HIV-positive individuals. Data were obtained from the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the time since HIV diagnosis to loss of independence, and to identify associated risk factors...
April 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057474/hiv-1-tat-disrupts-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-increases-phagocytic-perivascular-macrophages-and-microglia-in-the-dorsal-striatum-of-transgenic-mice
#6
Crystal R Leibrand, Jason J Paris, M Said Ghandour, Pamela E Knapp, Woong-Ki Kim, Kurt F Hauser, MaryPeace McRae
HIV-1 infection results in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which acts as a rate-limiting step for HIV-1 entry into the CNS and for subsequent neuroinflammatory/neurotoxic actions. One mechanism by which HIV may destabilize the BBB involves actions of the HIV-1 regulatory protein, trans-activator of transcription (Tat). We utilized a conditional, Tat-expressing transgenic murine model to examine the influence of Tat1-86 expression on BBB integrity and to assess the relative numbers of phagocytic perivascular macrophages and microglia within the CNS in vivo...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919862/spinal-cord-injury-assessing-tolerability-and-use-of-combined-rehabilitation-and-neuroaid-saturn-study-protocol-of-an-exploratory-study-in-assessing-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-neuroaid-amongst-people-who-sustain-severe-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Ramesh Kumar, Ohnmar Htwe, Azmi Baharudin, Mohammad Hisam Ariffin, Shaharuddin Abdul Rhani, Kamalnizat Ibrahim, Aishah Rustam, Robert Gan
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with limited therapeutic options despite decades of research. Current treatment options include use of steroids, surgery, and rehabilitation. Nevertheless, many patients with SCI remain disabled. MLC601 (NeuroAiD), a combination of natural products, has been shown to be safe and to aid neurological recovery after brain injuries and may have a potential role in improving recovery after SCI. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of NeuroAiD amongst people who sustain SCI in the study setting...
December 5, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875832/remediating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-via-cognitive-training-a-perspective-on-neurocognitive-aging
#8
David E Vance, Shameka L Cody, Linda Moneyham
Over 50% of adults with HIV exhibit some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, ranging from mild asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to HIV-associated dementia. As adults age with HIV and become susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, the prevalence and severity of such neurocognitive disorders are likely to increase. With compromised renal and hepatic functioning often accompanying HIV, pharmaceutical interventions to address such neurocognitive disorders may not be the best strategy and are not without risks...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855616/editorial-thematic-issue-neuroaids-past-present-and-future
#9
Pankaj Seth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846631/prognostic-factors-and-pattern-of-long-term-recovery-with-mlc601-neuroaid%C3%A2-in-the-chinese-medicine-neuroaid-efficacy-on-stroke-recovery-extension-study
#10
Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Chun Fan Lee, Sherry H Young, San San Tay, Thirugnanam Umapathi, Annabelle Y Lao, Herminigildo H Gan, Alejandro C Baroque Ii, Jose C Navarro, Hui Meng Chang, Joel M Advincula, Sombat Muengtaweepongsa, Bernard P L Chan, Carlos L Chua, Nirmala Wijekoon, H Asita de Silva, John Harold B Hiyadan, Nijasri C Suwanwela, K S Lawrence Wong, Niphon Poungvarin, Gaik Bee Eow, Christopher L H Chen
BACKGROUND: The Chinese Medicine NeuroAiD Efficacy on Stroke recovery - Extension (CHIMES-E) study is among the few acute stroke trials with long-term outcome data. We aimed to evaluate the recovery pattern and the influence of prognostic factors on treatment effect of MLC601 over 2 years. METHODS: The CHIMES-E study evaluated the 2 years outcome of subjects aged ≥18 years with acute ischemic stroke, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score 6-14, pre-stroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤1 included in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MLC601 for 3 months...
2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833967/diagnosing-hiv-associated-cerebral-diseases-the-importance-of-neuropathology-in-understanding-hiv
#11
Ioan Alexandru Diaconu, LaurenŢiu MihăiŢă Stratan, Luciana Nichita, Victoria Aramă, Valentina Ruxandra Moroti Constantinescu, Alexandra Ioana Diaconu, Daniela Adriana Ion
The study aims to compare two aspects concerning the diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated central nervous system (CNS) pathology (neuroAIDS): clinical diagnoses issued ante mortem with pathology results issued post mortem. The group of 39 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients was created over 23 years and is limited by marked heterogeneity. The enrolled cases were treated at the "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Bucharest, Romania, deceased due to AIDS-related complications and underwent brain necropsies performed in the Pathology Laboratory at the "Colentina" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807176/hiv-tat-impairs-neurogenesis-through-functioning-as-a-notch-ligand-and-activation-of-notch-signaling-pathway
#12
Yan Fan, Xiang Gao, Jinhui Chen, Ying Liu, Johnny J He
Alterations in adult neurogenesis have been noted in the brain of HIV-infected individuals and are likely linked to HIV-associated neurocognitive deficits, including those in learning and memory. But the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In the study, we took advantage of doxycycline-inducible and astrocyte-specific HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice (iTat) and determined the relationship between Tat expression and neurogenesis. Tat expression in astrocytes was associated with fewer neuron progenitor cells (NPCs), fewer immature neurons, and fewer mature neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of the mouse brain...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798498/hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#13
David B Clifford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated neurocognitive disease is the most active topic for neuroAIDS investigations at present. Although impairment is mild in patients successfully treated with modern antiviral regimens, it remains an ongoing problem for HIV patients. It is important to update the emerging research concerning HIV-associated neurocognitive disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The virus enters the brain during acute infection, with evidence for abnormal functioning that may occur early and often persists...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784824/durability-of-the-beneficial-effect-of-mlc601-neuroaid%C3%A2-on-functional-recovery-among-stroke-patients-from-the-philippines-in-the-chimes-and-chimes-e-studies
#14
Jose C Navarro, Christopher Lh Chen, Chun F Lee, Herminigildo H Gan, Annabelle Y Lao, Alejandro C Baroque, John Harold B Hiyadan, Carlos L Chua, Ma Cristina San Jose, Joel M Advincula, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian
BACKGROUND AND AIM: A pre-specified country analysis of subjects from the Philippines in the CHInese Medicine NeuroAiD Efficacy on Stroke recovery (CHIMES) Study showed significantly improved functional and neurological outcomes on MLC601 at month (M) 3. We aimed to assess these effects on long-term functional recovery in the Filipino cohort. METHODS: The CHIMES-E (extension) Study evaluated subjects who completed three months of randomized placebo-controlled treatment in CHIMES up to two years...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763640/methamphetamine-potentiates-hiv-1-gp120-mediated-autophagy-via-beclin-1-and-atg5-7-as-a-pro-survival-response-in-astrocytes
#15
Lu Cao, Mingui Fu, Santosh Kumar, Anil Kumar
Methamphetamine (METH), a commonly used controlled substance, is known to exacerbate neuropathological dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals. The neuropathological manifestation results from cell death or dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) wherein autophagy is expected to have an important role. Autophagy is generally considered protective during deprivation/stress. However, excessive autophagy can be destructive, leading to autophagic cell death. This study was designed to investigate if METH and HIV-1 gp120 interact to induce autophagy in SVGA astrocytes, and whether autophagy is epiphenomenal or it has a role in METH- and gp120-induced cytotoxicity...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761954/novel-insights-into-role-of-mir-320a-vdac1-axis-in-astrocyte-mediated-neuronal-damage-in-neuroaids
#16
Mahar Fatima, Bharat Prajapati, Kanza Saleem, Rina Kumari, Chitra Mohindar Singh Singal, Pankaj Seth
Astroglia are indispensable component of the tripartite synapse ensheathing innumerous soma and synapses. Its proximity to neurons aids the regulation of neuronal functions, health and survival through dynamic neuroglia crosstalk. Susceptibility of astrocyte to HIV-1 infection and subsequent latency culminates in compromised neuronal health. The viral protein HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is neurotoxic. HIV-1 Tat is detected in brain of AIDS patients even in cases where viral load is non-detectable due to successful HAART therapy...
February 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759956/a-positive-correlation-exists-between-neurotrauma-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-containing-microglia-in-rats
#17
Chung-Ching Chio, Mao-Tsun Lin, Ching-Ping Chang, Hung-Jung Lin
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) regulates many processes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Both Neuro AiD™ (MLC601) and astragaloside (AST) attenuate microglia activation in rats with TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MLC601 or AST improves output of TBI by affecting microglial expression of TGF-β1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (120 in number) were used to investigate the contribution of TGF-β1-containing microglia in the MLC601-mediated or the AST-mediated neuroprotection in the brain trauma condition using lateral fluid percussion injury...
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720326/exploration-of-bivalent-ligands-targeting-putative-mu-opioid-receptor-and-chemokine-receptor-ccr5-dimerization
#18
Christopher K Arnatt, Bethany A Falls, Yunyun Yuan, Thomas J Raborg, Ruturaj R Masvekar, Nazira El-Hage, Dana E Selley, Anthony V Nicola, Pamela E Knapp, Kurt F Hauser, Yan Zhang
Modern antiretroviral therapies have provided HIV-1 infected patients longer lifespans and better quality of life. However, several neurological complications are now being seen in these patients due to HIV-1 associated injury of neurons by infected microglia and astrocytes. In addition, these effects can be further exacerbated with opiate use and abuse. One possible mechanism for such potentiation effects of opiates is the interaction of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) with the chemokine receptor CCR5 (CCR5), a known HIV-1 co-receptor, to form MOR-CCR5 heterodimer...
November 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609520/hiv-1-tat-induces-unfolded-protein-response-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-astrocytes-and-causes-neurotoxicity-through-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-gfap-activation-and-aggregation
#19
Yan Fan, Johnny J He
HIV-1 Tat is a major culprit for HIV/neuroAIDS. One of the consistent hallmarks of HIV/neuroAIDS is reactive astrocytes or astrocytosis, characterized by increased cytoplasmic accumulation of the intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). We have shown that that Tat induces GFAP expression in astrocytes and that GFAP activation is indispensable for astrocyte-mediated Tat neurotoxicity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. In this study, we showed that Tat expression or GFAP expression led to formation of GFAP aggregates and induction of unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in astrocytes...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609518/hiv-1-tat-promotes-lysosomal-exocytosis-in-astrocytes-and-contributes-to-astrocyte-mediated-tat-neurotoxicity
#20
Yan Fan, Johnny J He
Tat interaction with astrocytes has been shown to be important for Tat neurotoxicity and HIV/neuroAIDS. We have recently shown that Tat expression leads to increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and aggregation and activation of unfolded protein response/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in astrocytes and causes neurotoxicity. However, the exact molecular mechanism of astrocyte-mediated Tat neurotoxicity is not defined. In this study, we showed that neurotoxic factors other than Tat protein itself were present in the supernatant of Tat-expressing astrocytes...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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