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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800366/proceedings-of-the-isev-symposium-on-hiv-neuroaids-drug-abuse-evs
#1
Guoku Hu, Kenneth W Witwer, Vincent C Bond, Norman Haughey, Fatah Kashanchi, Lynn Pulliam, Shilpa Buch
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are globular, membrane bound nanovesicles (30-100 nm range) that are shed both during normal cellular functioning and under pathological conditions by most cell types. In recent years, there has been significant interest in the study of these vesicles as conduits for the delivery of information between cells from both analogous and disparate tissues. Their ability to carry specialised cargo including signalling mediators, proteins, messenger RNA and miRNAs characterises these vesicles as primary facilitators of cell-to-cell communication and regulation...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792504/common-gene-network-signature-of-different-neurological-disorders-and-their-potential-implications-to-neuroaids
#2
Vidya Sagar, S Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Paola C Martinez, V S R Atluri, M Nair
The neurological complications of AIDS (neuroAIDS) during the infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are symptomized by non-specific, multifaceted neurological conditions and therefore, defining a specific diagnosis/treatment mechanism(s) for this neuro-complexity at the molecular level remains elusive. Using an in silico based integrated gene network analysis we discovered that HIV infection shares convergent gene networks with each of twelve neurological disorders selected in this study. Importantly, a common gene network was identified among HIV infection, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and age macular degeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762183/novel-nanoformulation-to-mitigate-co-effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-hiv-1-infection-towards-the-treatment-of-neuroaids
#3
Rahul Dev Jayant, Venkata S R Atluri, Sneham Tiwari, Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Ajeet Kaushik, Adriana Yndart, Madhavan Nair
Drug abuse (e.g., methamphetamine-Meth or cocaine-Coc) is one of the major risk factors for becoming infected with HIV-1, and studies show that in combination, drug abuse and HIV-1 lead to significantly greater damage to CNS. To overcome these issues, we have developed a novel nanoformulation (NF) for drug-abusing population infected with HIV-1. In this work, a novel approach was developed for the co-encapsulation of Nelfinavir (Nel) and Rimcazole (Rico) using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled magnetic nanoformulation for the cure of neuroAIDS...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754798/frontline-science-cxcr7-mediates-cd14-cd16-monocyte-transmigration-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-neuroaids
#4
Mike Veenstra, Dionna W Williams, Tina M Calderon, Kathryn Anastos, Susan Morgello, Joan W Berman
CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes transmigrate into the CNS of HIV-positive people in response to chemokines elevated in the brains of infected individuals, including CXCL12. Entry of these cells leads to viral reservoirs, neuroinflammation, and neuronal damage. These may eventually lead to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly improved the lives of HIV-infected people, the prevalence of cognitive deficits remains unchanged despite ART, still affecting >50% of infected individuals...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723939/assessing-health-related-resiliency-in-hiv-latin-women-preliminary-psychometric-findings
#5
Gladys J Jimenez-Torres, Valerie Wojna, Ernesto Rosario, Rosa Hechevarría, Ada M Alemán-Batista, Miriam Ríos Matos, Alok Madan, Richard L Skolasky, Summer F Acevedo
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated vulnerabilities-especially those linked to psychological issues-and limited mental health-treatment resources have the potential to adversely affect the health statuses of individuals. The concept of resilience has been introduced in the literature to shift the emphasis from vulnerability to protective factors. Resilience, however, is an evolving construct and is measured in various ways, though rarely among underserved, minority populations. Herein, we present the preliminary psychometric properties of a sample of HIV-seropositive Puerto Rican women, measured using a newly developed health-related resilience scale...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646196/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-nrtis-induce-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-the-cns-via-wnt5a-signaling
#6
Ting Wu, Juan Zhang, Mingxing Geng, Shao-Jun Tang, Wenping Zhang, Jianhong Shu
HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication in patients. However, patients staying on long-term HAART still develop various HIV-associated neurological disorders, even when the viral load is low. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms are largely unknown. Emerging evidence implicated that persistent neuroinflammation plays an important role in NeuroAIDS. Although residual virus or viral proteins are commonly thought as the causal factors, we are interested in the alternative possibility that HAART critically contributes to the neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640909/hiv-tat-regulates-macrophage-gene-expression-in-the-context-of-neuroaids
#7
Loreto Carvallo, Lillie Lopez, Jorge E Fajardo, Matias Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Andras Fiser, Joan W Berman
Despite the success of cART, greater than 50% of HIV infected people develop cognitive and motor deficits termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Macrophages are the major cell type infected in the CNS. Unlike for T cells, the virus does not kill macrophages and these long-lived cells may become HIV reservoirs in the brain. They produce cytokines/chemokines and viral proteins that promote inflammation and neuronal damage, playing a key role in HIV neuropathogenesis. HIV Tat is the transactivator of transcription that is essential for replication and transcriptional regulation of the virus and is the first protein to be produced after HIV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537385/the-psychiatric-impact-of-hiv
#8
Michael T Nedelcovych, Arena A Manning, Svetlana Semenova, Charlene Gamaldo, Norman J Haughey, Barbara S Slusher
This Viewpoint is based on a recent panel featured at the 2017 Winter Conference on Brain Research in which the psychiatric comorbidities of HIV infection were discussed. Psychiatric comorbid conditions occur at high rates in HIV infected patients, complicating treatment and contributing to poor outcomes. A complex relationship between HIV infection and psychiatric comorbidity is an active area of investigation, but increased awareness of the impact of psychiatric complications of NeuroAIDS is needed in both the laboratory and the clinic to better understand and treat these interrelated conditions...
May 24, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533442/the-role-of-shed-prp-c-in-the-neuropathogenesis-of-hiv-infection
#9
Bezawit W Megra, Eliseo A Eugenin, Joan W Berman
HIV-1 enters the CNS soon after peripheral infection and causes chronic neuroinflammation and neuronal damage that leads to cognitive impairment in 40-70% of HIV-infected people. The nonpathogenic cellular isoform of the human prion protein (PrP(c)) is an adhesion molecule constitutively expressed in the CNS. Previously, our laboratory showed that shed PrP(c) (sPrP(c)) is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected people with cognitive deficits as compared with infected people with no impairment. In this article, we demonstrate that CCL2 and TNF-α, inflammatory mediators that are elevated in the CNS of HIV-infected people, increase shedding of PrP(c) from human astrocytes by increasing the active form of the metalloprotease ADAM10...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445538/gene-expression-patterns-associated-with-neurological-disease-in-human-hiv-infection
#10
Pietro Paolo Sanna, Vez Repunte-Canonigo, Eliezer Masliah, Celine Lefebvre
The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND) remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI) in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) algorithm was used for pathway analyses in conjunction with the Molecular Signatures Database collection of canonical pathways (MSigDb)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328546/temporal-patterns-and-drug-resistance-in-csf-viral-escape-among-art-experienced-hiv-1-infected-adults
#11
Shibani S Mukerji, Vikas Misra, David Lorenz, Anna M Cervantes-Arslanian, Jennifer Lyons, Spyridon Chalkias, Alysse Wurcel, Deirdre Burke, Nagagopal Venna, Susan Morgello, Igor J Koralnik, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape is an increasingly recognized clinical event among HIV-1-infected adults. We analyzed longitudinal data and drug-resistance mutations to characterize profiles of HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy with discordant CSF and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. METHODS: Forty-one cases of CSF escape defined as detectable CSF HIV-1 RNA when plasma levels were undetectable, or HIV-1 RNA >0.5-log higher in CSF than plasma were identified from Boston Hospitals and National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC) from 2005 to 2016...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288515/measures-of-physical-and-mental-independence-among-hiv-positive-individuals-impact-of-substance-use-disorder
#12
Bianca Christensen, Zijian Qin, Desiree A Byrd, Fang Yu, Susan Morgello, Benjamin B Gelman, David J Moore, Igor Grant, Elyse J Singer, Howard S Fox, Lorena Baccaglini
With the transition of HIV infection from an acute to a chronic disease after the introduction of antiretroviral medications, there has been an increased focus on long-term neurocognitive and other functional outcomes of HIV patients. Thus, we assessed factors, particularly history of a substance use disorder, associated with time to loss of measures of physical or mental independence among HIV-positive individuals. Data were obtained from the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the time since HIV diagnosis to loss of independence, and to identify associated risk factors...
April 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057474/hiv-1-tat-disrupts-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-increases-phagocytic-perivascular-macrophages-and-microglia-in-the-dorsal-striatum-of-transgenic-mice
#13
Crystal R Leibrand, Jason J Paris, M Said Ghandour, Pamela E Knapp, Woong-Ki Kim, Kurt F Hauser, MaryPeace McRae
HIV-1 infection results in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which acts as a rate-limiting step for HIV-1 entry into the CNS and for subsequent neuroinflammatory/neurotoxic actions. One mechanism by which HIV may destabilize the BBB involves actions of the HIV-1 regulatory protein, trans-activator of transcription (Tat). We utilized a conditional, Tat-expressing transgenic murine model to examine the influence of Tat1-86 expression on BBB integrity and to assess the relative numbers of phagocytic perivascular macrophages and microglia within the CNS in vivo...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919862/spinal-cord-injury-assessing-tolerability-and-use-of-combined-rehabilitation-and-neuroaid-saturn-study-protocol-of-an-exploratory-study-in-assessing-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-neuroaid-amongst-people-who-sustain-severe-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Ramesh Kumar, Ohnmar Htwe, Azmi Baharudin, Mohammad Hisam Ariffin, Shaharuddin Abdul Rhani, Kamalnizat Ibrahim, Aishah Rustam, Robert Gan
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with limited therapeutic options despite decades of research. Current treatment options include use of steroids, surgery, and rehabilitation. Nevertheless, many patients with SCI remain disabled. MLC601 (NeuroAiD), a combination of natural products, has been shown to be safe and to aid neurological recovery after brain injuries and may have a potential role in improving recovery after SCI. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of NeuroAiD amongst people who sustain SCI in the study setting...
December 5, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875832/remediating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-via-cognitive-training-a-perspective-on-neurocognitive-aging
#15
David E Vance, Shameka L Cody, Linda Moneyham
Over 50% of adults with HIV exhibit some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, ranging from mild asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to HIV-associated dementia. As adults age with HIV and become susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, the prevalence and severity of such neurocognitive disorders are likely to increase. With compromised renal and hepatic functioning often accompanying HIV, pharmaceutical interventions to address such neurocognitive disorders may not be the best strategy and are not without risks...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855616/editorial-thematic-issue-neuroaids-past-present-and-future
#16
Pankaj Seth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846631/prognostic-factors-and-pattern-of-long-term-recovery-with-mlc601-neuroaid%C3%A2-in-the-chinese-medicine-neuroaid-efficacy-on-stroke-recovery-extension-study
#17
Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Chun Fan Lee, Sherry H Young, San San Tay, Thirugnanam Umapathi, Annabelle Y Lao, Herminigildo H Gan, Alejandro C Baroque Ii, Jose C Navarro, Hui Meng Chang, Joel M Advincula, Sombat Muengtaweepongsa, Bernard P L Chan, Carlos L Chua, Nirmala Wijekoon, H Asita de Silva, John Harold B Hiyadan, Nijasri C Suwanwela, K S Lawrence Wong, Niphon Poungvarin, Gaik Bee Eow, Christopher L H Chen
BACKGROUND: The Chinese Medicine NeuroAiD Efficacy on Stroke recovery - Extension (CHIMES-E) study is among the few acute stroke trials with long-term outcome data. We aimed to evaluate the recovery pattern and the influence of prognostic factors on treatment effect of MLC601 over 2 years. METHODS: The CHIMES-E study evaluated the 2 years outcome of subjects aged ≥18 years with acute ischemic stroke, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score 6-14, pre-stroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤1 included in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MLC601 for 3 months...
2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833967/diagnosing-hiv-associated-cerebral-diseases-the-importance-of-neuropathology-in-understanding-hiv
#18
Ioan Alexandru Diaconu, LaurenŢiu MihăiŢă Stratan, Luciana Nichita, Victoria Aramă, Valentina Ruxandra Moroti Constantinescu, Alexandra Ioana Diaconu, Daniela Adriana Ion
The study aims to compare two aspects concerning the diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated central nervous system (CNS) pathology (neuroAIDS): clinical diagnoses issued ante mortem with pathology results issued post mortem. The group of 39 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients was created over 23 years and is limited by marked heterogeneity. The enrolled cases were treated at the "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Bucharest, Romania, deceased due to AIDS-related complications and underwent brain necropsies performed in the Pathology Laboratory at the "Colentina" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807176/hiv-tat-impairs-neurogenesis-through-functioning-as-a-notch-ligand-and-activation-of-notch-signaling-pathway
#19
Yan Fan, Xiang Gao, Jinhui Chen, Ying Liu, Johnny J He
Alterations in adult neurogenesis have been noted in the brain of HIV-infected individuals and are likely linked to HIV-associated neurocognitive deficits, including those in learning and memory. But the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In the study, we took advantage of doxycycline-inducible and astrocyte-specific HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice (iTat) and determined the relationship between Tat expression and neurogenesis. Tat expression in astrocytes was associated with fewer neuron progenitor cells (NPCs), fewer immature neurons, and fewer mature neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of the mouse brain...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798498/hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#20
David B Clifford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated neurocognitive disease is the most active topic for neuroAIDS investigations at present. Although impairment is mild in patients successfully treated with modern antiviral regimens, it remains an ongoing problem for HIV patients. It is important to update the emerging research concerning HIV-associated neurocognitive disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The virus enters the brain during acute infection, with evidence for abnormal functioning that may occur early and often persists...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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