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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611892/mlc901-neuroaid-ii-%C3%A2-for-cognition-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-pilot-randomised-clinical-trial
#1
Alice Theadom, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Kelly M Jones, Priya Parmar, Rohit Bhattacharjee, Valery L Feigin
BACKGROUND: Treatments to facilitate recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are urgently needed. To examine the safety and potential effects of herbal supplement MLC901 (NeuroAiD IITM ) on cognitive functioning following TBI, we conducted a nine-month pilot, randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. METHODS: Adults aged 18-65 years, 1-12-months post-mild or moderate TBI, were randomised to receive MLC901 (0.8g capsules/day) or placebo for 6-months. The primary outcome was cognitive functioning assessed by the CNS-Vital Signs online neuropsychological test...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604987/neuroaids-in-children
#2
Jo M Wilmshurst, Charles K Hammond, Kirsty Donald, Jacqueline Hoare, Karen Cohen, Brian Eley
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the central nervous system compartment within the first few weeks of systemic HIV infection and may cause a spectrum of neurologic complications. Without combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 50-90% of all HIV-infected infants and children develop some form of neuroAIDS. Of the estimated 2.3 million children less than 15 years of age who were living in sub-Saharan Africa at the end of 2014, only 30% were receiving cART, suggesting that there is a large burden of neuroAIDS among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604983/animal-models-of-hiv-associated-disease-of-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Jaclyn Mallard, Kenneth C Williams
It is difficult to study the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in living patients because central nervous system (CNS) tissues are only available post mortem. Rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) models of HAND allow for longitudinal analysis of HIV-associated CNS pathology and efficacy studies of novel therapeutics. Rodent models of HAND allow for studies with large sample sizes, short duration, and relatively low cost. These models include humanized mice used to study HIV-associated neuropathogenesis and transgenic mice used to study neurotoxic effects of viral proteins without infection...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568548/safety-of-lumbar-puncture-procedure-in-an-international-research-setting-during-acute-hiv-infection
#4
EDITORIAL
Phillip Chan, Joanna Hellmuth, Donn Colby, Eugene Kroon, Carlo Sacdalan, James Fletcher, Payal Patel, Suteera Pinyakorn, Victor Valcour, Jintanat Ananworanich, Serena Spudich
Background:  Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling at the time of acute HIV infection (AHI) is crucial in understanding NeuroAIDS pathogenesis. Here, we report on the safety of performing a lumbar puncture (LP) during untreated AHI and follow-up after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods:  We reviewed clinical records of participants who took part in an AHI protocol in Bangkok, Thailand, including untreated AHI subjects (baseline), and longitudinal visits following immediate initiation of cART to assess rates and risk of post-lumbar puncture headaches (PLPH)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435829/an-siv-macaque-model-of-siv-and-hand-the-need-for-adjunctive-therapies-in-hiv-that-target-activated-monocytes-and-macrophages
#5
REVIEW
Jaclyn Mallard, Kenneth Williams
Non-human primate models of AIDS and neuroAIDS are critical to study HIV infection of the CNS, neuropathology, and immune activation and macrophage accumulation that occurs in HAND. SIV, similar to HIV, infects CD4+ T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Virus enters the CNS early, and macrophage activation correlates with CNS disease, as well as inflammation outside of the CNS. Antiretroviral in HIV+ humans and SIV+ Rhesus macaques results in non-detectable plasma virus, decreased or non-detectable viral RNA or protein in the CNS...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280055/sirtuin-1-chromatin-binding-dynamics-points-to-a-common-mechanism-regulating-inflammatory-targets-in-siv-infection-and-in-the-aging-brain
#6
Nikki Bortell, Liana Basova, Julia A Najera, Brenda Morsey, Howard S Fox, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes
Microglia and macrophages are the main non-neuronal subsets of myeloid origin in the brain, and are critical regulators in neurodegenerative disorders, where inflammation is a key factor. Since HIV infection results in neurological perturbations that are similar to those in aging, we examined microglial and infiltrating myeloid subsets in the search for changes that might resemble the ones in aging. For that, we used the SIV infection in rhesus macaques to model neuroAIDS. We found that Sirt-1, a molecule that impacts survival and health in many models, was decreased in cell preparations containing a majority of microglia and myeloid cells from the brain of infected macaques...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259541/connexin43-containing-gap-junction-channels-facilitate-hiv-bystander-toxicity-implications-in-neurohiv
#7
Shaily Malik, Martin Theis, Eliseo A Eugenin
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection compromises the central nervous system (CNS) in a significant number of infected individuals, resulting in neurological dysfunction that ranges from minor cognitive deficits to frank dementia. While macrophages/microglia are the predominant CNS cells infected by HIV, our laboratory and others have shown that HIV-infected astrocytes, although present in relatively low numbers with minimal to undetectable viral replication, play key role in NeuroAIDS pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247305/neurologic-disease-in-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-disease-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-interventions-for-neuroaids
#8
Christopher Power
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes immunosuppression through virus-mediated CD4+ T cell depletion in feline species. FIV infection is complicated by virus-induced disease in the nervous system. FIV enters the brain soon after primary infection and is detected as FIV-encoded RNA, DNA, and proteins in microglia, macrophages, and astrocytes. FIV infection activates neuroinflammatory pathways including cytokines, chemokines, proteases, and ROS with accompanying neuronal injury and loss...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143286/doxycycline-inducible-and-astrocyte-specific-hiv-1-tat-transgenic-mice-itat-as-an-hiv-neuroaids-model
#9
Dianne Langford, Byung Oh Kim, Wei Zou, Yan Fan, Pejman Rahimain, Ying Liu, Johnny J He
HIV-1 Tat is known to be neurotoxic and important for HIV/neuroAIDS pathogenesis. However, the overwhelming majority of the studies involved use of recombinant Tat protein. To understand the contributions of Tat protein to HIV/neuroAIDS and the underlying molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 Tat neurotoxicity in the context of a whole organism and independently of HIV-1 infection, a doxycycline-inducible astrocyte-specific HIV-1 Tat transgenic mouse (iTat) was created. Tat expression in the brains of iTat mice was determined to be in the range of 1-5 ng/ml and led to astrocytosis, loss of neuronal dendrites, and neuroinflammation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075998/transgenic-mice-expressing-hiv-1-envelope-protein-gp120-in-the-brain-as-an-animal-model-in-neuroaids-research
#10
Victoria E Thaney, Ana B Sanchez, Jerel A Fields, Arpi Minassian, Jared W Young, Ricky Maung, Marcus Kaul
HIV-1 infection causes injury to the central nervous system (CNS) and is often associated with neurocognitive disorders. One model for brain damage seen in AIDS patients is the transgenic (tg) mouse expressing a soluble envelope protein gp120 of HIV-1 LAV in the brain in astrocytes under the control of the promoter of glial fibrillary acidic protein. These GFAP-gp120tg mice manifest several key neuropathological features observed in AIDS brains, such as decreased synaptic and dendritic density, increased numbers of activated microglia, and pronounced astrocytosis...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991888/commonly-prescribed-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-and-incidence-of-aids-defining-neurological-conditions
#11
Ellen C Caniglia, Andrew Phillips, Kholoud Porter, Caroline A Sabin, Alan Winston, Roger Logan, John Gill, Marie-Anne Vandenhende, Diana Barger, Sara Lodi, Santiago Moreno, José Ramón Arribas, Antonio Pacheco, Sandra W Cardoso, George Chrysos, Charalabos Gogos, Sophie Abgrall, Dominique Costagliola, Laurence Meyer, Remonie Seng, Ard van Sighem, Peter Reiss, Roberto Muga, Santiago Pérez Hoyos, Dominique Braun, Christoph Hauser, Pilar Barrufet, Maria Leyes, Janet Tate, Amy Justice, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: The differential effects of commonly prescribed combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens on AIDS-defining neurological conditions (neuroAIDS) remain unknown. SETTING: Prospective cohort studies of HIV-positive individuals from Europe and the Americas included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: Individuals who initiated a first-line cART regimen in 2004 or later containing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone and either atazanavir, lopinavir, darunavir, or efavirenz were followed from cART initiation until death, lost to follow-up, pregnancy, the cohort-specific administrative end of follow-up, or the event of interest, whichever occurred earliest...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987321/the-role-of-human-dopamine-transporter-in-neuroaids
#12
REVIEW
Jun Zhu, Subramaniam Ananthan, Chang-Guo Zhan
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains highly prevalent in HIV infected individuals and represents a special group of neuropathological disorders, which are associated with HIV-1 viral proteins, such as transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein. Cocaine abuse increases the incidence of HAND and exacerbates its severity by enhancing viral replication. Perturbation of dopaminergic transmission has been implicated as a risk factor of HAND. The presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is essential for DA homeostasis and dopaminergic modulation of the brain function including cognition...
March 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978127/hiv-1-gp120-clade-b-c-induces-a-grp78-driven-cytoprotective-mechanism-in-astrocytoma
#13
Sheila N López, Madeline Rodríguez-Valentín, Mariela Rivera, Maridaliz Rodríguez, Mohan Babu, Luis A Cubano, Huangui Xiong, Guangdi Wang, Lilia Kucheryavykh, Nawal M Boukli
HIV-1 clades are known to be one of the key factors implicated in modulating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. HIV-1 B and C clades account for the majority of HIV-1 infections, clade B being the most neuropathogenic. The mechanisms behind HIV-mediated neuropathogenesis remain the subject of active research. We hypothesized that HIV-1 gp120 clade B and C proteins may exert differential proliferation, cell survival and NeuroAIDS effects in human astrocytoma cells via the Unfolded Protein Response, an endoplasmic reticulum- based cytoprotective mechanism...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956014/development-of-a-primary-microglia-screening-assay-and-its-use-to-characterize-inhibition-of-system-x-c-by-erastin-and-its-analogs
#14
Mariana Figuera-Losada, Ajit G Thomas, Marigo Stathis, Brent R Stockwell, Camilo Rojas, Barbara S Slusher
The inflammatory response in the central nervous system involves activated microglia. Under normal conditions they remove damaged neurons by phagocytosis. On the other hand, neurodegenerative diseases are thought to involve chronic microglia activation resulting in release of excess glutamate, proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, leading to neuronal death. System xC - cystine/glutamate antiporter (SXC), a sodium independent heterodimeric transporter found in microglia and astrocytes in the CNS, imports cystine into the cell and exports glutamate...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931681/insights-into-the-impact-of-cd8-immune-modulation-on-human-immunodeficiency-virus-evolutionary-dynamics-in-distinct-anatomical-compartments-by-using-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-macaque-models-of-aids-progression
#15
Brittany Rife Magalis, David J Nolan, Patrick Autissier, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Marco Salemi
A thorough understanding of the role of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intrahost evolution in AIDS pathogenesis has been limited by the need for longitudinally sampled viral sequences from the vast target space within the host, which are often difficult to obtain from human subjects. CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) provide an increasingly utilized model of pathogenesis due to clinical manifestations similar to those for HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression, as well as a characteristic rapid disease onset...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886986/role-of-connexin-and-pannexin-containing-channels-in-hiv-infection-and-neuroaids
#16
REVIEW
Shaily Malik, Eliseo A Eugenin
Neuron-Glia crosstalk is essential for efficient synaptic communication, cell growth and differentiation, neuronal activity, neurotransmitter recycling, and brain immune response. The master regulators of this neuron-glia communication are connexin containing Gap Junctions (GJs) and Hemichannels (HCs) as well as pannexin HCs. However, the role of these channels under pathological conditions, especially in infectious diseases is still in exploratory stages. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) is one such infectious agent that takes advantage of the host intercellular communication systems, GJs and HCs, to exacerbate viral pathogenesis in the brain in spite of the antiretroviral therapy effectively controlling viral replication in the periphery...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866957/nanocarriers-for-brain-specific-delivery-of-anti-retro-viral-drugs-challenges-and-achievements
#17
Nila Mary Varghese, Venkatachalam Senthil, Shailendra K Saxena
HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic and the deleterious effects of human immunodeficiency virus in the brain cannot be overlooked. Though the current anti-retro viral therapy is able to reduce the virus load in the peripheral tissues of the body, the inability of the anti-retro viral drugs to cross the blood brain barrier, as such, limits its therapeutic effect in the brain. The development of newer, successful nanoparticulate drug delivery systems to enhance the feasibility of the anti-retro viral drugs to the brain, offers a novel strategy to treat the AIDS-related neuronal degradation...
March 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800366/proceedings-of-the-isev-symposium-on-hiv-neuroaids-drug-abuse-evs
#18
Guoku Hu, Kenneth W Witwer, Vincent C Bond, Norman Haughey, Fatah Kashanchi, Lynn Pulliam, Shilpa Buch
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are globular, membrane bound nanovesicles (30-100 nm range) that are shed both during normal cellular functioning and under pathological conditions by most cell types. In recent years, there has been significant interest in the study of these vesicles as conduits for the delivery of information between cells from both analogous and disparate tissues. Their ability to carry specialised cargo including signalling mediators, proteins, messenger RNA and miRNAs characterises these vesicles as primary facilitators of cell-to-cell communication and regulation...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792504/common-gene-network-signature-of-different-neurological-disorders-and-their-potential-implications-to-neuroaids
#19
Vidya Sagar, S Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Paola C Martinez, V S R Atluri, M Nair
The neurological complications of AIDS (neuroAIDS) during the infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are symptomized by non-specific, multifaceted neurological conditions and therefore, defining a specific diagnosis/treatment mechanism(s) for this neuro-complexity at the molecular level remains elusive. Using an in silico based integrated gene network analysis we discovered that HIV infection shares convergent gene networks with each of twelve neurological disorders selected in this study. Importantly, a common gene network was identified among HIV infection, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and age macular degeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762183/novel-nanoformulation-to-mitigate-co-effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-hiv-1-infection-towards-the-treatment-of-neuroaids
#20
Rahul Dev Jayant, Venkata S R Atluri, Sneham Tiwari, Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Ajeet Kaushik, Adriana Yndart, Madhavan Nair
Drug abuse (e.g., methamphetamine-Meth or cocaine-Coc) is one of the major risk factors for becoming infected with HIV-1, and studies show that in combination, drug abuse and HIV-1 lead to significantly greater damage to CNS. To overcome these issues, we have developed a novel nanoformulation (NF) for drug-abusing population infected with HIV-1. In this work, a novel approach was developed for the co-encapsulation of Nelfinavir (Nel) and Rimcazole (Rico) using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled magnetic nanoformulation for the cure of neuroAIDS...
August 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
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