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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875832/remediating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-via-cognitive-training-a-perspective-on-neurocognitive-aging
#1
David E Vance, Shameka L Cody, Linda Moneyham
Over 50% of adults with HIV exhibit some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, ranging from mild asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to HIV-associated dementia. As adults age with HIV and become susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, the prevalence and severity of such neurocognitive disorders are likely to increase. With compromised renal and hepatic functioning often accompanying HIV, pharmaceutical interventions to address such neurocognitive disorders may not be the best strategy and are not without risks...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855616/editorial-thematic-issue-neuroaids-past-present-and-future
#2
Pankaj Seth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846631/prognostic-factors-and-pattern-of-long-term-recovery-with-mlc601-neuroaid%C3%A2-in-the-chinese-medicine-neuroaid-efficacy-on-stroke-recovery-extension-study
#3
Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Chun Fan Lee, Sherry H Young, San San Tay, Thirugnanam Umapathi, Annabelle Y Lao, Herminigildo H Gan, Alejandro C Baroque Ii, Jose C Navarro, Hui Meng Chang, Joel M Advincula, Sombat Muengtaweepongsa, Bernard P L Chan, Carlos L Chua, Nirmala Wijekoon, H Asita de Silva, John Harold B Hiyadan, Nijasri C Suwanwela, K S Lawrence Wong, Niphon Poungvarin, Gaik Bee Eow, Christopher L H Chen
BACKGROUND: The Chinese Medicine NeuroAiD Efficacy on Stroke recovery - Extension (CHIMES-E) study is among the few acute stroke trials with long-term outcome data. We aimed to evaluate the recovery pattern and the influence of prognostic factors on treatment effect of MLC601 over 2 years. METHODS: The CHIMES-E study evaluated the 2 years outcome of subjects aged ≥18 years with acute ischemic stroke, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score 6-14, pre-stroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤1 included in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MLC601 for 3 months...
November 15, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833967/diagnosing-hiv-associated-cerebral-diseases-the-importance-of-neuropathology-in-understanding-hiv
#4
Ioan Alexandru Diaconu, LaurenŢiu MihăiŢă Stratan, Luciana Nichita, Victoria Aramă, Valentina Ruxandra Moroti Constantinescu, Alexandra Ioana Diaconu, Daniela Adriana Ion
The study aims to compare two aspects concerning the diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated central nervous system (CNS) pathology (neuroAIDS): clinical diagnoses issued ante mortem with pathology results issued post mortem. The group of 39 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients was created over 23 years and is limited by marked heterogeneity. The enrolled cases were treated at the "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Bucharest, Romania, deceased due to AIDS-related complications and underwent brain necropsies performed in the Pathology Laboratory at the "Colentina" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807176/hiv-tat-impairs-neurogenesis-through-functioning-as-a-notch-ligand-and-activation-of-notch-signaling-pathway
#5
Yan Fan, Xiang Gao, Jinhui Chen, Ying Liu, Johnny J He
: Alterations in adult neurogenesis have been noted in the brain of HIV-infected individuals and are likely linked to HIV-associated neurocognitive deficits, including those in learning and memory. But the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In the study, we took advantage of doxycycline-inducible and astrocyte-specific HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice (iTat) and determined the relationship between Tat expression and neurogenesis. Tat expression in astrocytes was associated with fewer neuron progenitor cells (NPCs), fewer immature neurons, and fewer mature neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of the mouse brain...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798498/hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#6
David B Clifford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated neurocognitive disease is the most active topic for neuroAIDS investigations at present. Although impairment is mild in patients successfully treated with modern antiviral regimens, it remains an ongoing problem for HIV patients. It is important to update the emerging research concerning HIV-associated neurocognitive disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The virus enters the brain during acute infection, with evidence for abnormal functioning that may occur early and often persists...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784824/durability-of-the-beneficial-effect-of-mlc601-neuroaid%C3%A2-on-functional-recovery-among-stroke-patients-from-the-philippines-in-the-chimes-and-chimes-e-studies
#7
Jose C Navarro, Christopher Lh Chen, Chun F Lee, Herminigildo H Gan, Annabelle Y Lao, Alejandro C Baroque, John Harold B Hiyadan, Carlos L Chua, Ma Cristina San Jose, Joel M Advincula, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian
BACKGROUND AND AIM: A pre-specified country analysis of subjects from the Philippines in the CHInese Medicine NeuroAiD Efficacy on Stroke recovery (CHIMES) Study showed significantly improved functional and neurological outcomes on MLC601 at month (M) 3. We aimed to assess these effects on long-term functional recovery in the Filipino cohort. METHODS: The CHIMES-E (extension) Study evaluated subjects who completed three months of randomized placebo-controlled treatment in CHIMES up to two years...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763640/methamphetamine-potentiates-hiv-1-gp120-mediated-autophagy-via-beclin-1-and-atg5-7-as-a-pro-survival-response-in-astrocytes
#8
Lu Cao, Mingui Fu, Santosh Kumar, Anil Kumar
Methamphetamine (METH), a commonly used controlled substance, is known to exacerbate neuropathological dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals. The neuropathological manifestation results from cell death or dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) wherein autophagy is expected to have an important role. Autophagy is generally considered protective during deprivation/stress. However, excessive autophagy can be destructive, leading to autophagic cell death. This study was designed to investigate if METH and HIV-1 gp120 interact to induce autophagy in SVGA astrocytes, and whether autophagy is epiphenomenal or it has a role in METH- and gp120-induced cytotoxicity...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761954/novel-insights-into-role-of-mir-320a-vdac1-axis-in-astrocyte-mediated-neuronal-damage-in-neuroaids
#9
Mahar Fatima, Bharat Prajapati, Kanza Saleem, Rina Kumari, Chitra Mohindar Singh Singal, Pankaj Seth
Astroglia are indispensable component of the tripartite synapse ensheathing innumerous soma and synapses. Its proximity to neurons aids the regulation of neuronal functions, health and survival through dynamic neuroglia crosstalk. Susceptibility of astrocyte to HIV-1 infection and subsequent latency culminates in compromised neuronal health. The viral protein HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is neurotoxic. HIV-1 Tat is detected in brain of AIDS patients even in cases where viral load is non-detectable due to successful HAART therapy...
October 20, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759956/a-positive-correlation-exists-between-neurotrauma-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-containing-microglia-in-rats
#10
Chung-Ching Chio, Mao-Tsun Lin, Ching-Ping Chang, Hung-Jung Lin
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) regulates many processes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Both Neuro AiD™ (MLC601) and astragaloside (AST) attenuate microglia activation in rats with TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MLC601 or AST improves output of TBI by affecting microglial expression of TGF-β1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (120 in number) were used to investigate the contribution of TGF-β1-containing microglia in the MLC601-mediated or the AST-mediated neuroprotection in the brain trauma condition using lateral fluid percussion injury...
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720326/exploration-of-bivalent-ligands-targeting-putative-mu-opioid-receptor-and-chemokine-receptor-ccr5-dimerization
#11
Christopher K Arnatt, Bethany A Falls, Yunyun Yuan, Thomas J Raborg, Ruturaj R Masvekar, Nazira El-Hage, Dana E Selley, Anthony V Nicola, Pamela E Knapp, Kurt F Hauser, Yan Zhang
Modern antiretroviral therapies have provided HIV-1 infected patients longer lifespans and better quality of life. However, several neurological complications are now being seen in these patients due to HIV-1 associated injury of neurons by infected microglia and astrocytes. In addition, these effects can be further exacerbated with opiate use and abuse. One possible mechanism for such potentiation effects of opiates is the interaction of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) with the chemokine receptor CCR5 (CCR5), a known HIV-1 co-receptor, to form MOR-CCR5 heterodimer...
November 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609520/hiv-1-tat-induces-unfolded-protein-response-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-astrocytes-and-causes-neurotoxicity-through-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-gfap-activation-and-aggregation
#12
Yan Fan, Johnny J He
HIV-1 Tat is a major culprit for HIV/neuroAIDS. One of the consistent hallmarks of HIV/neuroAIDS is reactive astrocytes or astrocytosis, characterized by increased cytoplasmic accumulation of the intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). We have shown that that Tat induces GFAP expression in astrocytes and that GFAP activation is indispensable for astrocyte-mediated Tat neurotoxicity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. In this study, we showed that Tat expression or GFAP expression led to formation of GFAP aggregates and induction of unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in astrocytes...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609518/hiv-1-tat-promotes-lysosomal-exocytosis-in-astrocytes-and-contributes-to-astrocyte-mediated-tat-neurotoxicity
#13
Yan Fan, Johnny J He
Tat interaction with astrocytes has been shown to be important for Tat neurotoxicity and HIV/neuroAIDS. We have recently shown that Tat expression leads to increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and aggregation and activation of unfolded protein response/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in astrocytes and causes neurotoxicity. However, the exact molecular mechanism of astrocyte-mediated Tat neurotoxicity is not defined. In this study, we showed that neurotoxic factors other than Tat protein itself were present in the supernatant of Tat-expressing astrocytes...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544476/non-human-primate-models-of-siv-infection-and-cns-neuropathology
#14
REVIEW
Kenneth Williams, Andrew Lackner, Jaclyn Mallard
Non-human primate models of AIDS and neuroAIDS are the premiere model of HIV infection of the CNS and neuropathogenesis. This review discusses current SIV infection models of neuroAIDS emphasizing findings in the last two years. Consistent in these findings is the interplay between host factors that regulate immune responses to virus and viral replication. Several rapid models of AIDS with consistent CNS pathogenesis exist, each of which modulates by antibody treatment or viruses that cause rapid immune suppression and replicate well in macrophages...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535703/hiv-and-cocaine-impact-glial-metabolism-energy-sensor-amp-activated-protein-kinase-role-in-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-epigenetic-remodeling
#15
Thangavel Samikkannu, Venkata S R Atluri, Madhavan P N Nair
HIV infection and cocaine use have been identified as risk factors for triggering neuronal dysfunction. In the central nervous system (CNS), energy resource and metabolic function are regulated by astroglia. Glia is the major reservoir of HIV infection and disease progression in CNS. However, the role of cocaine in accelerating HIV associated energy deficit and its impact on neuronal dysfunction has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism of HIV associated neuropathogenesis in cocaine abuse and how it accelerates the energy sensor AMPKs and its subsequent effect on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), BRSKs, CDC25B/C, MAP/Tau, Wee1 and epigenetics remodeling complex SWI/SNF...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473196/proceedings-from-the-nimh-symposium-on-neuroaids-in-africa-neurological-and-neuropsychiatric-complications-of-hiv
#16
Shilpa Buch, Ernest T Chivero, Jackie Hoare, Jibreel Jumare, Noeline Nakasujja, Victor Mudenda, Robert Paul, Georgette D Kanmogne, Ned Sacktor, Charles Wood, Walter Royal, Jeymohan Joseph
Despite major advances in HIV-1 treatment, the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains a problem, particularly as individuals on suppressive treatment continue to live longer. To facilitate discussion on emerging and future directions in HAND research, a meeting was held in Durban, South Africa in March 2015 as part of the Society of Neuroscientists of Africa (SONA) conference. The objective of the meeting was to assess the impact of HIV subtype diversity on HAND and immunological dysfunction...
October 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469414/sex-and-the-treatment-effect-in-the-chinese-medicine-neuroaid-efficacy-on-stroke-recovery-chimes-trial
#17
Natasha L Fabiaña, Christopher L H Chen, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Chun Fan Lee, K S Lawrence Wong, Deidre Anne De Silva
In the randomized controlled trial of NeuroAiD versus placebo following ischemic stroke, there was a trend for sex influencing the treatment effect of NeuroAiD in improving functional outcome following ischemic stroke (p=0.075).
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292092/verbal-list-learning-and-memory-profiles-in-hiv-infected-adults-alzheimer-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-an-evaluation-of-the-cortical-hypothesis-of-neuroaids
#18
Nicoletta Ciccarelli, Silio Limiti, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Eleonora Baldonero, Benedetta Milanini, Silvia Lamonica, Roberto Cauda, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Maria Caterina Silveri
HIV+ population is getting older because of progress in treatments. Yet, there are concerns that Older HIV+ individuals (OHIV+) may be more vulnerable for developing a "cortical" dementia such as Alzheimer Disease (AD). Our aim was to explore the hypothesis that the cognitive deficit extends to ''cortical'' functions in OHIV+ by comparing serial position effects (SPE) in different groups of participants affected by "cortical" or "subcortical" damage. We enrolled a total of 122 subjects: 22 OHIV+ (≥60 years of age), 31 Younger HIV+ (YHIV+) (<60 years of age), 18 participants with AD, 23 subjects with Parkinson Disease (PD), and 28 healthy subjects...
June 13, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280058/role-of-biosensing-technology-for-neuroaids-management
#19
R D Jayant, M Nair
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of biosensors & bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278547/use-of-western-neuropsychological-test-battery-in-detecting-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-hand-in-zambia
#20
Norma Kabuba, J Anitha Menon, Donald R Franklin, Robert K Heaton, Knut A Hestad
This is a study of neuroAIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, involving 266 Zambian adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), clade C. All HIV+ participants were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (CART), and were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological (NP) test battery covering seven ability domains that are frequently affected by neuroAIDS. The battery was developed in the U.S. but has been validated in other international settings and has demographically-corrected normative standards based upon 324 healthy Zambian adults...
June 8, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
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