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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449332/behavioural-disinhibition-in-the-general-population-during-the-antiretroviral-therapy-roll-out-in-sub-saharan-africa-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Eva M Legemate, Jan A C Hontelez, Caspar W N Looman, Sake J De Vlas
OBJECTIVES: Improved life expectancy and reduced transmission probabilities due to ART may result in behavioural disinhibition - i.e. an increase in sexual risk behaviour in response to a perceived lower risk of HIV. We examined trends in sexual risk behaviour in the general population of sub-Saharan African countries 1999 - 2015. METHODS: We systematically reviewed scientific literature of sexual behaviour, and reviewed trends in Demographic and Health Surveys...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449198/systematic-review-of-sex-work-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa-examining-combination-prevention-approaches
#2
George Awungafac, Therese Delvaux, Bea Vuylsteke
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections is disproportionately high among sex workers (SW). We aimed to update the evidence on the effectiveness of SW interventions in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide more insights into combination prevention. METHODS: Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines in a search of PUBMED and POPLINE for peer-reviewed literature published between January 1, 2000 and July 22, 2016 (registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42016042529)...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448914/reconciling-agriculture-and-stream-restoration-in-europe-a-review-relating-to-the-eu-water-framework-directive
#3
REVIEW
H M Flávio, P Ferreira, N Formigo, J C Svendsen
Agriculture is widespread across the EU and has caused considerable impacts on freshwater ecosystems. To revert the degradation caused to streams and rivers, research and restoration efforts have been developed to recover ecosystem functions and services, with the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) playing a significant role in strengthening the progress. Analysing recent peer-reviewed European literature (2009-2016), this review explores 1) the conflicts and difficulties faced when restoring agriculturally impacted streams, 2) the aspects relevant to effectively reconcile agricultural land uses and healthy riverine ecosystems and 3) the effects and potential shortcomings of the first WFD management cycle...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447823/the-promise-of-demand-side-employer-based-strategies-to-increase-employment-rates-for-people-living-with-serious-mental-illnesses
#4
Jonathan Delman, Lynn Kovich, Sara Burke, Kevin Martone
OBJECTIVE: This article describes current and promising demand-side strategies to increase job retention and employment rates of people living with serious mental illnesses. The article raises awareness of the potential impact of demand side strategies and generates considerations to implement and evaluate these strategies. METHOD: Information is drawn from peer reviewed research, policy articles and documents, and the authors' direct experiences. RESULTS: Employees with serious mental illnesses struggle to retain jobs due to workplace stigma, difficulty accessing reasonable accommodations, and noneligibility for health benefits...
April 27, 2017: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447485/empirical-estimation-of-under-reporting-in-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration-adverse-event-reporting-system-faers
#5
Yasser M Alatawi, Richard A Hansen
OBJECTIVE: To examine how closely reporting rates in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) reflect expected rates of known adverse drug events (ADEs). METHODS: We selected three groups of drugs to reflect hypothesized variation in sensitivity to reporting, including statins, biologics, and narrow therapeutics index drugs (NTI). The numbers of ADEs in FAERS were divided by utilization estimates from ambulatory health care data (NAMCS/NHAMCS) to calculate a reported proportion...
April 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447363/tobacco-packaging-design-for-reducing-tobacco-use
#6
REVIEW
Ann McNeill, Shannon Gravely, Sara C Hitchman, Linda Bauld, David Hammond, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging...
April 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447301/management-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-pediatric-patients
#7
REVIEW
Rudolph M Navari
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life and is perceived by patients as a major adverse effect of the treatment. This review summarizes the safety and efficacy of current antiemetic agents for the prevention of CINV in children. Information on antiemetic prophylaxis for CINV in children was obtained from a literature review of current peer-reviewed articles and recent international guidelines. The literature review and the international antiemetic guidelines provide recommendations for use of specific antiemetics in children based on the emetogenicity of the chemotherapy...
April 21, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446526/impact-of-different-dietary-approaches-on-blood-pressure-in-hypertensive-and-prehypertensive-patients-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#8
Lukas Schwingshackl, Anna Chaimani, Georg Hoffmann, Carolina Schwedhelm, Heiner Boeing
INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle modification is one of the cornerstones in the management of hypertension. According to the most recent guidelines by the American Heart Association, all patients with hypertension should adopt the following dietary advices: increased consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products and sodium reduction. The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy of different dietary approaches on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with hypertension and high normal blood pressure in a systematic review including a pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomised trials...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446524/experiences-attitudes-and-possibilities-for-improvement-concerning-the-cooperation-between-occupational-physicians-rehabilitation-physicians-and-general-practitioners-in-germany-from-the-perspectives-of-the-medical-groups-and-rehabilitation-patients-a-protocol
#9
Susanne Voelter-Mahlknecht, Jan M Stratil, Rainer Kaluscha, Gert Krischak, Monika A Rieger
INTRODUCTION: Rehabilitation measures for patients in the working age primarily aim at maintaining employability, restoring fitness for work or timely return to work (RTW). To facilitate RTW after long sick leave in Germany, both rehabilitation physicians' knowledge about the patients' workplace and communication between the rehabilitation physician and the occupational physician need to be improved. This research will record the experiences and attitudes of occupational physicians, rehabilitation physicians and general practitioners, as well as of rehabilitation patients, to indicate barriers and possibilities for improvement concerning the intersection between workplace and rehabilitation institution...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446523/evaluation-of-the-coping-parent-online-universal-programme-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Dawn Adele Owen, Nia Griffith, Judy Hutchings
TRIAL SPONSOR: Bangor University, Brigantia Building, College Road, Bangor, LL57 2AS, UK INTRODUCTION: The COPING parent online universal programme is a web-based parenting intervention for parents of children aged 3-8 years with an interest in positive parenting. The programme focuses on strengthening parent-child relationships and encouraging positive child behaviour. This trial will evaluate whether the intervention is effective in increasing the use of positive parenting strategies outlined in the programme using parent report and blind observation measures...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446521/comparison-of-ticagrelor-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-in-stemi-and-nstemi-patients-pinpoint-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-single-centre-study
#11
Piotr Adamski, Małgorzata Ostrowska, Joanna Sikora, Karolina Obońska, Katarzyna Buszko, Magdalena Krintus, Grażyna Sypniewska, Michał Piotr Marszałł, Marek Koziński, Jacek Kubica
INTRODUCTION: The most common classification of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is based on electrocardiographic findings and distinguishes ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Both types of AMI differ concerning their epidemiology, clinical approach and early outcomes. Ticagrelor is a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, constituting the first-line treatment for STEMI and NSTEMI. According to available data, STEMI may be associated with lower plasma concentration of ticagrelor in the first hours of AMI, but currently there are no studies directly comparing ticagrelor pharmacokinetics or antiplatelet effect in patients with STEMI versus NSTEMI...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446455/the-economic-burden-of-physical-inactivity-a-systematic-review-and-critical-appraisal
#12
REVIEW
Ding Ding, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Binh Nguyen, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Michael Pratt, Kenny D Lawson
OBJECTIVE: To summarise the literature on the economic burden of physical inactivity in populations, with emphases on appraising the methodologies and providing recommendations for future studies. DESIGN: Systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO registration number CRD42016047705). DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases for peer-reviewed and grey literature were systematically searched, followed by reference searching and consultation with experts...
April 26, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445263/acupuncture-for-enhancing-early-recovery-of-bowel-function-in-cancer-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#13
Yi-Hua Liu, Yang Ye, Jia-Bin Zheng, Xue-Qian Wang, Ying Zhang, Hong-Sheng Lin
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients undergoing surgical procedure often suffer from bowel dysfunction and postoperative ileus (POI). Cancer management for early recovery of bowel function is still a challenging topic. Acupuncture has been commonly used in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of acupuncture therapy to reduce the duration of POI and enhance bowel function in cancer patients. METHODS: We will systematically screen all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through electronically and hand searching...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445220/catalyzing-interdisciplinary-research-and-training-initial-outcomes-and-evolution-of-the-affinity-research-collaboratives-model
#14
Katya Ravid, Francesca Seta, David Center, Gloria Waters, David Coleman
Team science has been recognized as critical to solving increasingly complex biomedical problems and advancing discoveries in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human disease. In 2009, the Evans Center for Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research (ECIBR) was established in the Department of Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine as a new organizational paradigm to promote interdisciplinary team science. The ECIBR is made up of affinity research collaboratives (ARCs), consisting of investigators from different departments and disciplines who come together to study biomedical problems that are relevant to human disease and not under interdisciplinary investigation at the university...
April 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444323/effectiveness-of-rotavirus-vaccination-a-systematic-review-of-the-first-decade-of-global-post-licensure-data-2006-2016
#15
Christine L Jonesteller, Eleanor Burnett, Catherine Yen, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
Two rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix (RV1) and RotaTeq (RV5), were licensed for global use in 2006. A systematic review of 48 peer-reviewed articles with post-licensure data from 24 countries showed a median RV1 vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 84%, 75%, and 57% in low, medium, and high child mortality countries, respectively, and RV5 VE of 90% in low and 45% in high child mortality countries. A partial vaccine series provided considerable protection, but not to the same level as a full series. VE tended to decline in the second year of life, particularly in medium and high mortality settings, and tended to be greater against more severe rotavirus disease...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441275/peer-reviewers-are-our-strength
#16
Matthew D Barber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439405/the-start-back-tool-in-chiropractic-practice-a-narrative-review
#17
REVIEW
Yasmeen Khan
BACKGROUND: The Keele STarT Back Tool was designed for primary care medical physicians in the UK to determine the risk for persistent disabling pain in patients with musculoskeletal pain and to tailor treatments accordingly. In medical and physical therapy settings, STarT Back Tool's tailored care plans improved patients' low back pain outcomes and lowered costs. OBJECTIVE: Review studies using the STarT Back Tool in chiropractic patient populations. METHODS: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Index to Chiropractic Literature, and Science Direct databases were searched...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439363/developing-your-expertise-as-a-peer-reviewer
#18
Barbara G Jericho, Deborah Simpson, Gail M Sullivan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439218/pediatric-reference-intervals-for-biochemical-markers-gaps-and-challenges-recent-national-initiatives-and-future-perspectives
#19
Houman Tahmasebi, Victoria Higgins, Angela W S Fung, Dorothy Truong, Nicole M A White-Al Habeeb, Khosrow Adeli
Reference intervals provide valuable information to medical practitioners in their interpretation of quantitative laboratory test results, and are critical in the assessment of patient health and in clinical decision-making. The reference interval serves as a health-associated benchmark with which to compare an individual test result. While the concept of reference intervals and their utility appear straightforward, the process of establishing accurate and reliable reference intervals is considerably complex and involved...
March 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439105/autism-spectrum-disorders-a-meta-analysis-of-executive-function
#20
E A Demetriou, A Lampit, D S Quintana, S L Naismith, Y J C Song, J E Pye, I Hickie, A J Guastella
Evidence of executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across development remains mixed and establishing its role is critical for guiding diagnosis and intervention. The primary objectives of this meta-analysis is to analyse executive function (EF) performance in ASD, the fractionation across EF subdomains, the clinical utility of EF measures and the influence of multiple moderators (for example, age, gender, diagnosis, measure characteristics). The Embase, Medline and PsychINFO databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed studies published since the inclusion of Autism in DSM-III (1980) up to end of June 2016 that compared EF in ASD with neurotypical controls...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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