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Rabeea'h W Aslam, Vickie Bates, Yenal Dundar, Juliet Hounsome, Marty Richardson, Ashma Krishan, Rumona Dickson, Angela Boland, Eleanor Kotas, Joanne Fisher, Sudip Sikdar, Louise Robinson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a growing public health concern, and is one of the most distinctive characteristics of all dementias. The timely recognition of dementia syndromes can be beneficial, as some causes of dementia are treatable and are fully or partially reversible. Several automated cognitive assessment tools for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia are now available. Proponents of these tests cite as benefits the tests' repeatability and robustness and the saving of clinicians' time...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
David J Meyers, Al Ozonoff, Ashma Baruwal, Sami Pande, Alex Harsha, Ranju Sharma, Dan Schwarz, Ryan K Schwarz, Deepak Bista, Scott Halliday, Duncan S R Maru
BACKGROUND: Surveillance systems are increasingly relying upon community-based or crowd-sourced data to complement traditional facilities-based data sources. Data collected by community health workers during the routine course of care could combine the early warning power of community-based data collection with the predictability and diagnostic regularity of facility data. These data could inform public health responses to epidemics and spatially-clustered endemic diseases. Here, we analyze data collected on a daily basis by community health workers during the routine course of clinical care in rural Nepal...
2016: PloS One
Ashma Baruwal, Pedro Arcos González, Rafael Castro Delgado, Ganesh Kumar Jimee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Manjari Jonnalagadda, Heather Norton, Shantanu Ozarkar, Shaunak Kulkarni, Richa Ashma
OBJECTIVES: South Asians exhibit extensive variation in skin melanin index (MI) which is observed across the broader region of South Asia as well as within restricted geographic regions. However, the genetic variants associated with variation in the skin pigmentation phenotype are poorly understood in these populations. The present study examines the association between MI measures and genetic variants from 5 candidate pigmentation genes among 533 individuals representing 6 populations of West Maharashtra...
September 10, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Ashma Begum, Preetismita Borah, Pritish Chowdhury
Synthetic steryl ferulates [3-O-(trans-4-feruloyl)-sterols] are currently gaining considerable importance in recent years to be used as nutraceuticals and food additives as well as in pharmaceutical applications substituting γ-oryzanol - a class of naturally occurring steryl ferulates having potent antioxidant and other organoleptic properties. Considering the importance of this class of compounds coupled with green technology associated with microwave energy (MW) in organic synthesis, we report here an expedited and high yield synthesis of steryl ferulates from abundant steroids, viz...
March 2016: Steroids
Chaitali Botre, Arjun Shahu, Neeraj Adkar, Yogesh Shouche, Saroj Ghaskadbi, Richa Ashma
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of osteoporosis. The present cross-sectional study focuses on mapping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) gene in Asian Indians. The bone mineral density (BMD) of study subjects was assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Individuals were classified as normal (n = 82) or osteoporotic (n = 98). Biochemical parameters such as vitamin D, total oxidant status (TOS) and SOD2 enzyme activity were estimated from plasma samples...
December 2015: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
Manjari Jonnalagadda, Shantanu Ozarkar, Richa Ashma, Shaunak Kulkarni
OBJECTIVES: Global patterns of skin pigmentation have evolved as an adaptation to local ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Indian populations exposed to intense UVR show great variation in skin pigmentation. The UVR-based selection model cannot satisfactorily address the high prevalence of light skin among these populations. Thus, the present study examines pigmentation variation among populations of West Maharashtra and the Indian subcontinent within the context of population structure and social hierarchy...
January 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Janet Hanley, Peter Fairbrother, Ashma Krishan, Lucy McCloughan, Paul Padfield, Mary Paterson, Hilary Pinnock, Aziz Sheikh, Cathie Sudlow, Allison Todd, Brian McKinstry
BACKGROUND: Good blood pressure (BP) control reduces the risk of recurrence of stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Although there is strong evidence that BP telemonitoring helps achieve good control, none of the major trials have considered the effectiveness in stroke/TIA survivors. We therefore conducted a feasibility study for a trial of BP telemonitoring for stroke/TIA survivors with uncontrolled BP in primary care. METHOD: Phase 1 was a pilot trial involving 55 patients stratified by stroke/TIA randomised 3:1 to BP telemonitoring for 6 months or usual care...
2015: Trials
Timothy S Walsh, Lisa G Salisbury, Judith L Merriweather, Julia A Boyd, David M Griffith, Guro Huby, Susanne Kean, Simon J Mackenzie, Ashma Krishan, Stephanie C Lewis, Gordon D Murray, John F Forbes, Joel Smith, Janice E Rattray, Alastair M Hull, Pamela Ramsay
IMPORTANCE: Critical illness results in disability and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but the optimum timing and components of rehabilitation are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of increasing physical and nutritional rehabilitation plus information delivered during the post-intensive care unit (ICU) acute hospital stay by dedicated rehabilitation assistants on subsequent mobility, HRQOL, and prevalent disabilities. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A parallel group, randomized clinical trial with blinded outcome assessment at 2 hospitals in Edinburgh, Scotland, of 240 patients discharged from the ICU between December 1, 2010, and January 31, 2013, who required at least 48 hours of mechanical ventilation...
June 2015: JAMA Internal Medicine
Andrew Stoddart, Marjon van der Pol, Hilary Pinnock, Janet Hanley, Lucy McCloughan, Allison Todd, Ashma Krishan, Brian McKinstry
We compared the costs and cost-effectiveness of telemonitoring vs usual care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 256 patients were randomised to either telemonitoring or usual care. In the telemonitoring arm, the touch-screen telemonitoring equipment transmitted data to clinical teams monitoring the patients. Total healthcare costs were estimated over a 12-month period from a National Health Service perspective and quality adjusted life year (QALYs) were estimated by the EQ-5D tool...
March 2015: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Jo Hoeflok, Fiona Press, Cristina Gandolfi, Brian Jurewitsch, Yee Wah Ng, Joan Park, Ashma Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Dan Schwarz, Ranju Sharma, Chhitij Bashyal, Ryan Schwarz, Ashma Baruwal, Gregory Karelas, Bibhusan Basnet, Nirajan Khadka, Jesse Brady, Zach Silver, Joia Mukherjee, Jason Andrews, Duncan Smith-Rohrberg Maru
BACKGROUND: Nepal's Female Community Health Volunteer (FCHV) program has been described as an exemplary public-sector community health worker program. However, despite its merits, the program still struggles to provide high-quality, accessible services nation-wide. Both in Nepal and globally, best practices for community health worker program implementation are not yet known: there is a dearth of empiric research, and the research that has been done has shown inconsistent results. METHODS: Here we evaluate a pilot program designed to strengthen the Nepali government's FCHV network...
2014: BMC Health Services Research
Colin B Josephson, Philip M White, Ashma Krishan, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman
BACKGROUND: Intracranial vascular malformations (brain or pial/dural arteriovenous malformations/fistulae, and aneurysms) are the leading cause of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in young adults. Early identification of the intracranial vascular malformation may improve outcome if treatment can prevent ICH recurrence. Catheter intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) is considered the reference standard for the detection an intracranial vascular malformation as the cause of ICH...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hilary Pinnock, Janet Hanley, Lucy McCloughan, Allison Todd, Ashma Krishan, Stephanie Lewis, Andrew Stoddart, Marjon van der Pol, William MacNee, Aziz Sheikh, Claudia Pagliari, Brian McKinstry
OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of telemonitoring integrated into existing clinical services such that intervention and control groups have access to the same clinical care. DESIGN: Researcher blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: UK primary care (Lothian, Scotland). PARTICIPANTS: Adults with at least one admission for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the year before randomisation...
2013: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Timothy S Walsh, Julia A Boyd, Douglas Watson, David Hope, Steff Lewis, Ashma Krishan, John F Forbes, Pamela Ramsay, Rupert Pearse, Charles Wallis, Christopher Cairns, Stephen Cole, Duncan Wyncoll
OBJECTIVES: To compare hemoglobin concentration (Hb), RBC use, and patient outcomes when restrictive or liberal blood transfusion strategies are used to treat anemic (Hb≤90 g/L) critically ill patients of age≥55 years requiring≥4 days of mechanical ventilation in ICU. DESIGN: Parallel-group randomized multicenter pilot trial. SETTING: Six ICUs in the United Kingdom participated between August 2009 and December 2010. PATIENTS: One hundred patients (51 restrictive and 49 liberal groups)...
October 2013: Critical Care Medicine
Mehrunnisa Raje, Chaitali Botre, Richa Ashma
The large amount of positive genetic association data in a number of bone diseases suggests functional consequences of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism. In the present study, four microsatellite markers viz., D12S1633, D12S1635, D12S347, and D12S96, that lie in the vicinity of the VDR gene on chromosome 12 were selected to assess the allele distribution pattern and diversity among three groups of individuals - normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Genetic association study was performed using allele frequency data...
2013: International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics
Andrew Stoddart, Janet Hanley, Sarah Wild, Claudia Pagliari, Mary Paterson, Steff Lewis, Aziz Sheikh, Ashma Krishan, Paul Padfield, Brian McKinstry
OBJECTIVES: To compare the costs and cost-effectiveness of managing patients with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) using telemonitoring versus usual care from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS). DESIGN: Within trial post hoc economic evaluation of data from a pragmatic randomised controlled trial using an intention-to-treat approach. SETTING: 20 socioeconomically diverse general practices in Lothian, Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 401 primary care patients aged 29-95 with uncontrolled daytime ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) (≥135/85, but <210/135 mm Hg)...
2013: BMJ Open
Jillian T Henderson, Mahesh Puri, Maya Blum, Cynthia C Harper, Ashma Rana, Geeta Gurung, Neelam Pradhan, Kiran Regmi, Kasturi Malla, Sudha Sharma, Daniel Grossman, Lata Bajracharya, Indira Satyal, Shridhar Acharya, Prabhat Lamichhane, Philip D Darney
BACKGROUND: Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. METHODS: We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001-2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications...
2013: PloS One
Brian McKinstry, Janet Hanley, Sarah Wild, Claudia Pagliari, Mary Paterson, Steff Lewis, Aziz Sheikh, Ashma Krishan, Andrew Stoddart, Paul Padfield
OBJECTIVE: To determine if an intervention consisting of telemonitoring and supervision by usual primary care clinicians of home self measured blood pressure and optional patient decision support leads to clinically important reductions in daytime systolic and diastolic ambulatory blood pressure in patients with uncontrolled blood pressure. DESIGN: Multicentre randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 20 primary care practices in south east Scotland...
2013: BMJ: British Medical Journal
David E Newby, Michelle C Williams, Andrew D Flapan, John F Forbes, Allister D Hargreaves, Stephen J Leslie, Steff C Lewis, Graham McKillop, Scott McLean, John H Reid, James C Sprat, Neal G Uren, Edwin J van Beek, Nicholas A Boon, Liz Clark, Peter Craig, Marcus D Flather, Chiara McCormack, Giles Roditi, Adam D Timmis, Ashma Krishan, Gillian Donaldson, Marlene Fotheringham, Fiona J Hall, Paul Neary, Louisa Cram, Sarah Perkins, Fiona Taylor, Hany Eteiba, Alan P Rae, Kate Robb, Dawn Barrie, Kim Bissett, Adelle Dawson, Scot Dundas, Yvonne Fogarty, Prasad Guntur Ramkumar, Graeme J Houston, Deborah Letham, Linda O'Neill, Stuart D Pringle, Valerie Ritchie, Thiru Sudarshan, Jonathan Weir-McCall, Alistair Cormack, Iain N Findlay, Stuart Hood, Clare Murphy, Eileen Peat, Barbara Allen, Andrew Baird, Danielle Bertram, David Brian, Amy Cowan, Nicholas L Cruden, Marc R Dweck, Laura Flint, Samantha Fyfe, Collette Keanie, Tom J MacGillivray, David S Maclachlan, Margaret MacLeod, Saeed Mirsadraee, Avril Morrison, Nicholas L Mills, Fiona C Minns, Alyson Phillips, Laura J Queripel, Nicholas W Weir, Fiona Bett, Frances Divers, Katie Fairley, Ashok J Jacob, Edith Keegan, Tricia White, John Gemmill, Margo Henry, James McGowan, Lorraine Dinnel, C Mark Francis, Dennis Sandeman, Ajay Yerramasu, Colin Berry, Heather Boylan, Ammani Brown, Karen Duffy, Alison Frood, Janet Johnstone, Kirsten Lanaghan, Ross MacDuff, Martin MacLeod, Deborah McGlynn, Nigel McMillan, Laura Murdoch, Colin Noble, Victoria Paterson, Tracey Steedman, Nikolaos Tzemos
BACKGROUND: Rapid access chest pain clinics have facilitated the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease and angina. Despite this important service provision, coronary heart disease continues to be under-diagnosed and many patients are left untreated and at risk. Recent advances in imaging technology have now led to the widespread use of noninvasive computed tomography, which can be used to measure coronary artery calcium scores and perform coronary angiography in one examination...
2012: Trials
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