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Silicon detector

Junwei Du, Xiaowei Bai, Alberto Gola, Fabio Acerbi, Alessandro Ferri, Claudio Piemonte, Yongfeng Yang, Simon R Cherry
The goal of this study was to exploit the excellent spatial resolution characteristics of a position-sensitive silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and develop a high-resolution depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector module. The detector consists of a 30 x 30 array of 0.445 mm x 0.445 mm x 20 mm polished LYSO crystals coupled to two 15.5 mm x 15.5 mm linearly-graded SiPM (LG-SiPM) arrays at both ends. The flood histograms show that all the crystals in the LYSO array can be resolved...
January 11, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
S Deshpande, S J Blake, A Xing, P E Metcalfe, L C Holloway, P Vial
PURPOSE: To demonstrate a new model for implementing a transit dosimetry system as a means of in vivo dose verification with a water-equivalent electronic portal imaging device (WE-EPID) and a conventional treatment planning system (TPS). METHOD AND MATERIALS: A standard amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPID was modified to a WE-EPID configuration by replacing the metal-plate/phosphor screen situated above the photodiode detector with a 3 cm thick water equivalent plastic x-ray converter material...
January 3, 2018: Medical Physics
Tim Gehrke, Carlo Amato, Simon Berke, Maria Martisikova
Ion-beam radiography (iRAD) could potentially improve the quality control of ion-beam therapy. The main advantage of iRAD is the possibility to directly measure the integrated stopping power. Until now there is no clinical implementation of iRAD. Topics of ongoing research include developing dedicated detection systems to achieve the desired spatial resolution (SR) and investigating different ion types as imaging radiation. This work focuses on the theoretical and experimental comparison of proton (pRAD) and helium-beam radiography (αRAD)...
January 9, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Y Tanimura, M Yoshizawa
A high-efficiency proton recoil telescope was developed to determine neutron fluences in neutron fields using the 3H(d,n)4He reaction. A 2-mm thick plastic scintillation detector was employed as a radiator to increase the detection efficiency and compensate for the energy loss of the recoil proton within. Two silicon detectors were employed as the ΔE and E detectors. The distance between the radiator and the E detector was varied between 50 and 150 mm. The telescope had detection efficiencies of 3.5 × 10-3 and 7...
December 22, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Hiroki Kamehama, Shoji Kawahito, Sumeet Shrestha, Syunta Nakanishi, Keita Yasutomi, Ayaki Takeda, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Yasuo Arai
This paper presents a novel full-depletion Si X-ray detector based on silicon-on-insulator pixel (SOIPIX) technology using a pinned depleted diode structure, named the SOIPIX-PDD. The SOIPIX-PDD greatly reduces stray capacitance at the charge sensing node, the dark current of the detector, and capacitive coupling between the sensing node and SOI circuits. These features of the SOIPIX-PDD lead to low read noise, resulting high X-ray energy resolution and stable operation of the pixel. The back-gate surface pinning structure using neutralized p-well at the back-gate surface and depleted n-well underneath the p-well for all the pixel area other than the charge sensing node is also essential for preventing hole injection from the p-well by making the potential barrier to hole, reducing dark current from the Si-SiO₂ interface and creating lateral drift field to gather signal electrons in the pixel area into the small charge sensing node...
December 23, 2017: Sensors
Linyue Liu, Jinliang Liu, Jianfu Zhang, Liang Chen, Xianpeng Zhang, Zhongbing Zhang, Jinlu Ruan, Peng Jin, Song Bai, Xiaoping Ouyang
Silicon carbide radiation detectors are attractive in the measurement of the total numbers of pulsed fast neutrons emitted from nuclear fusion and fission devices because of high neutron-gamma discrimination and good radiation resistance. A fast-neutron detection system was developed based on a large-area 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector and a 235U fission target. Excellent pulse-height spectra of fission fragments induced by mono-energy deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion neutrons and continuous energy fission neutrons were obtained...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Hartmut F-W Sadrozinski, Abraham Seiden, Nicolò Cartiglia
The evolution of particle detectors has always pushed the technological limit in order to provide enabling technologies to researchers in all fields of science. One archetypal example is the evolution of silicon detectors, from a system with a few channels 30 years ago, to the tens of millions of independent pixels currently used to track charged particles in all major particle physics experiments. Nowadays, silicon detectors are ubiquitous not only in research laboratories but in almost every high-tech apparatus, from portable phones to hospitals...
December 18, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Nabeel A Riza, Mohsin A Mazhar
Demonstrated is the code division multiple access (CDMA)-mode coded access optical sensor (CAOS) smart camera suited for bright target scenarios. Deploying a silicon CMOS sensor and a silicon point detector within a digital micro-mirror device (DMD)-based spatially isolating hybrid camera design, this smart imager first engages the DMD starring mode with a controlled factor of 200 high optical attenuation of the scene irradiance to provide a classic unsaturated CMOS sensor-based image for target intelligence gathering...
December 11, 2017: Optics Express
Shai Tsesses, Daniel Aronovich, Assaf Grinberg, Evgeny Hahamovich, Amir Rosenthal
With recent advances in optical technology, interferometric sensing has grown into a highly versatile approach for ultrasound detection, with many interferometric detectors relying on optical waveguides to achieve high levels of sensitivity and miniaturization. In this Letter, we establish a practical model for assessing the sensitivity of silicon-photonics waveguides to acoustic waves. The analysis is performed for different polarizations, waveguide dimensions, and acoustic wave types. Our model was validated experimentally in the acoustic frequency band of 1-13 MHz by measuring the sensitivities of the two polarization modes in a silicon strip waveguide...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Jishi Cui, Zhiping Zhou
We investigated the Ge-on-Si photodetector's performance enhancement by optimizing the detector length, therefore, the location of the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). Since the unabsorbed signal light in the photodetector oscillates between the germanium and silicon layers, but the DBR is on the silicon layer, the optimized location of the DBR will result in shorter devices, with increased bandwidth, reduced dark current, and consistent responsivity. The 5 μm long photodetector with an optimized DBR location shows responsivity of 0...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Roberto Massari, Antonio Ucci, Annunziata D'Elia, Costantino Campisi, Emilio Bertani, Alessandro Soluri
The sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy technique has highly evolved during the last twenty years. Consequently, the intraoperative use of Gamma Probes (GPs) for SLN mapping is increased. This preliminary study evaluates a novel directional GP prototype. This proof-of-concept prototype is designed to identify the direction of radiopharmaceuticals uptakes, by combining the information from multiple detectors. The purpose of this work is to develop a tool able to effectively guide the surgeon reducing the surgery time...
December 13, 2017: Medical Physics
Yong Meng Sua, Heng Fan, Amin Shahverdi, Jia-Yang Chen, Yu-Ping Huang
Quantum correlated, highly non-degenerate photons can be used to synthesize disparate quantum nodes and link quantum processing over incompatible wavelengths, thereby constructing heterogeneous quantum systems for otherwise unattainable superior performance. Existing techniques for correlated photons have been concentrated in the visible and near-IR domains, with the photon pairs residing within one micron. Here, we demonstrate direct generation and detection of high-purity photon pairs at room temperature with 3...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tim Gehrke, Raya Gallas, Oliver Jäkel, Maria Martišíková
PURPOSE: Hadron therapy has the capability to provide a high dose conformation to tumor regions. However, it requires an accurate target positioning. Thus, the precise monitoring of the patient's anatomical positioning during treatment is desirable. For this purpose, hadron-beam radiography with protons (pRad) and ions (iRad) could be an attractive tool complementing the conventional imaging technologies. On the pathway to an envisaged clinical application, several challenges have to be addressed...
December 12, 2017: Medical Physics
Zhonghua Kuang, Ziru Sang, Xiaohui Wang, Xin Fu, Ning Ren, Xianming Zhang, Yunfei Zheng, Qian Yang, Zhanli Hu, Junwei Du, Dong Liang, Xin Liu, Hairong Zheng, Yongfeng Yang
PURPOSE: The performance of current small animal PET scanners is mainly limited by the detector performance and depth encoding detectors are required to develop PET scanner to simultaneously achieve high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. Among all depth encoding PET detector approaches, dual-ended readout detector has the advantage to achieve the highest depth of interaction (DOI) resolution and spatial resolution. Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is believed to be the photodetector of the future for PET detector due to its excellent properties as compared to the traditional photodetectors such as photomultiplier tube (PMT) and avalanche photodiode (APD)...
December 9, 2017: Medical Physics
Yicheng Shi, Janet Zheng Jie Lim, Hou Shun Poh, Peng Kian Tan, Peiyu Amelia Tan, Alexander Ling, Christian Kurtsiefer
Quantum key distribution (QKD) at telecom wavelengths (1260 - 1625 nm) has the potential for fast deployment due to existing optical fibre infrastructure and mature telecom technologies. At these wavelengths, Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) avalanche photodiode (APD) based detectors are the preferred choice for photon detection. Similar to their Silicon counterparts used at shorter wavelengths, they exhibit fluorescence from recombination of electron-hole pairs generated in the avalanche breakdown process...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Sharon Lefler, Roi Vizel, Ella Yeor, Eran Granot, Omri Heifler, Moria Kwiat, Vadim Krivitsky, Miguel Weil, Yuval E Yaish, Fernando Patolsky
Silicon-based photodetectors cannot distinguish between different wavelengths. Therefore, these detectors relay on color-specific filters to achieve color separation. Color filters add complexity to color sensitive device fabrication, and hinder miniaturization of such devices. Here we report an ultra-small (as small as ~20 nm by 300 nm), red-green-blue-violet (RGBV) filter-free spectrally-gated FET (SGFET) detectors. These photodetectors are based on organic-SiNW hybrid FET devices, capable of detecting specific visible wavelength spectrum with FWHM under 100 nm...
December 4, 2017: Nano Letters
H C Shin, D Deterra, J Park, H Kim, M Nishikiori, Ch Uetrecht, P G Ahlquist, M Arbulu, R H Blick
Conventional time of flight ion detectors are based on secondary electron multipliers encountering a significant loss in detection efficiency, sensitivity and resolution with protein mass above 50kDa. In this work we employ a silicon nanomembrane detector in a Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization coupled to time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. The operating principle relies on phonon-assisted field emission with excellent performance in the high mass range from 0.001-2MDa. In addition to the analysis of standard proteins the nanomembrane detector (NMD) has the potential for the detection and structural investigation of complex macromolecular assemblies through non-covalent interactions...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Kananan Utitsarn, Ziyad A Alrowaili, Nauljan Stansook, Marco Petasecca, Martin Carolan, Vladimir L Perevertaylo, Michael Lerch, Anatoly Rosenfeld
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect on surface dose, as a function of different field sizes and distances from the solid water phantom to transmission detector (Dsd), of using the monolithic silicon detector MP512T in transmission mode. METHODS: The influence of operating the MP512T in transmission mode on the surface dose of a phantom for SSD 100cm was evaluated by using a Markus IC. The MP512T was fixed to an adjustable stand holder and was positioned at different Dsd, ranging from 0...
November 2017: Physica Medica: PM
Mehdi Sohrabi
A novel development is made here by inventing panorama single-cell mega-size electrochemical etching (MS-ECE) chamber systems for processing panorama position-sensitive mega-size polycarbonate ion image detectors (MS-PCIDs) of potential for many neutron and ion detection applications in particular hydrogen ions or proton tracks and images detected for the first time in polycarbonates in this study. The MS-PCID is simply a large polycarbonate sheet of a desired size. The single-cell MS-ECE invented consists of two large equally sized transparent Plexiglas sheets as chamber walls holding a MS-PCID and the ECE chamber components tightly together...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Hideyuki Yamazaki, Mitsuo Koike, Masumi Saitoh, Mitsuhiro Tomita, Ryo Yokogawa, Naomi Sawamoto, Motohiro Tomita, Daisuke Kosemura, Atsushi Ogura
Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for revealing spatial heterogeneity in solid-state structures but heretofore has not been able to measure spectra from multiple positions on a sample within a short time. Here, we report a novel Raman spectroscopy approach to study the spatial heterogeneity in thermally annealed amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films. Raman spectroscopy employs both a galvano-mirror and a two-dimensional charge-coupled device detector system, which can measure spectra at 200 nm intervals at every position along a sample in a short time...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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