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Silicon detector

Samantha Melroy, Christopher Bauer, Matthew McHugh, Garret Carden, Alexander Stolin, Stan Majewski, Julie Brefczynski-Lewis, Thorsten Wuest
Several applications exist for a whole brain positron-emission tomography (PET) brain imager designed as a portable unit that can be worn on a patient's head. Enabled by improvements in detector technology, a lightweight, high performance device would allow PET brain imaging in different environments and during behavioral tasks. Such a wearable system that allows the subjects to move their heads and walk-the Ambulatory Microdose PET (AM-PET)-is currently under development. This imager will be helpful for testing subjects performing selected activities such as gestures, virtual reality activities and walking...
May 19, 2017: Sensors
Zhiyang Qi, Yusheng Zhai, Long Wen, Qilong Wang, Qin Chen, Sami Iqbal, Guangdian Chen, Ji Xu, Yan Tu
Heterojunction between metal and silicon (Si) is an attractive route to extend the response of Si-based photodiodes into the near-infrared (NIR) region, so-called Schottky barrier diodes. Photons absorbed into a metallic nanostructure excite the surface plasmon resonances (SPRs), which can be damped non-radiatively through the creation of hot electrons. Unfortunately, quantum efficiency of hot electron detectors remains low due to low optical absorption and poor electron injection efficiency. In this study, we propose an efficient and low-cost plasmonic hot electron NIR photodetector based on Au nanoparticle (Au NP)-decorated Si pyramid Schottky junction...
May 22, 2017: Nanotechnology
Andrew J Hoteling, William F Nichols, Patricia S Harmon, Shawn M Conlon, Ivan M Nuñez, Joseph Hoff, Orlando M Cabarcos, Robert B Steffen, Daniel J Hook
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) has been incorporated over the years into numerous hydrogel contact lenses as both a primary matrix component and an internal wetting agent to increase lens wettability. In this study, complementary analytical techniques were used to characterize the PVP wetting agent component of senofilcon A and samfilcon A contact lenses, both in terms of chemical composition and amount present. Photo-differential scanning calorimetry (photo-DSC), gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID), and high-resolution/accurate mass (HR/AM) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques confirmed dual phase reaction and curing of the samfilcon A silicone hydrogel material...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
L Minkevičius, S Indrišiūnas, R Šniaukas, B Voisiat, V Janonis, V Tamošiūnas, I Kašalynas, G Račiukaitis, G Valušis
Multilevel phase Fresnel lenses (MPFLs) with a high numerical aperture for 0.58 THz frequencies were developed. The components based on a monocrystalline silicon wafer are prepared by patterning by a high-speed industrial-scale laser direct writing (LDW) system. Two consistent series of the terahertz-MPFLs with phase quantization levels varying between 2 and the continuous kinoform shape for the focal lengths of 5 and 10 mm were produced employing inherent flexibility of the LDW fabrication process. The focusing performance was studied at the optimal 0...
May 15, 2017: Optics Letters
M Mancinelli, A Trenti, S Piccione, G Fontana, J S Dam, P Tidemand-Lichtenberg, C Pedersen, L Pavesi
Quantum measurements using single-photon detectors are opening interesting new perspectives in diverse fields such as remote sensing, quantum cryptography and quantum computing. A particularly demanding class of applications relies on the simultaneous detection of correlated single photons. In the visible and near infrared wavelength ranges suitable single-photon detectors do exist. However, low detector quantum efficiency or excessive noise has hampered their mid-infrared (MIR) counterpart. Fast and highly efficient single-photon detectors are thus highly sought after for MIR applications...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
Andre Z Kyme, Martin Judenhofer, Kuang Gong, Julien Bec, Aaron Selfridge, Junwei Du, Jinyi Qi, Simon Cherry, Steven Meikle
'Open-field' PET, where an animal can move freely during imaging, enables functional changes in the brain to be correlated with an animal's behavioural response to environmental or pharmacologic stimuli. Previously we showed the feasibility of this technique for rats by applying motion compensation techniques to a commercially available scanner. However, this approach is limited by the scanner's inherent geometric and performance constraints. The goal of this project is to develop a purpose-built open-field PET system, based on an innovative sliding tomograph concept, optimised for imaging the mouse brain...
May 5, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Sung Heo, Jooho Lee, Seong Heon Kim, Dong-Jin Yun, Jong-Bong Park, Kihong Kim, NamJeong Kim, Yongsung Kim, Dongwook Lee, Kyu-Sik Kim, Hee Jae Kang
An advanced organic photodetector (OPD) with a butter layer of Si-rich silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) was fabricated. The detector structure is as follows: Indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate/SiOxNy(10 nm)/naphthalene-based donor:C60(1:1)/ITO. Values of x and y in SiOxNy were carefully controlled and the detector performances such as dark current and thermal stability were investigated. When the values of x and y are 0.16 and 0.66, the detector illustrates low dark current as well as excellent thermal stability...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
David Fc Hsu, Ezgi Ilan, William T Peterson, Jorge Uribe, Mark Lubberink, Craig S Levin
This article presents system performance studies of the Discovery MI PET/CT system, a new time-of-flight (TOF) system based on silicon photomultipliers. System performance and clinical imaging comparisons were made between this next-generation system and other commercially available PET/CT and PET/MR systems, as well as between different reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Spatial resolution, sensitivity, NECR, scatter fraction, count rate accuracy, and image quality were characterized with the NEMA NU-2 2012 standards...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Jeffrey A Steidle, Michael L Fanto, Stefan F Preble, Christopher C Tison, Gregory A Howland, Zihao Wang, Paul M Alsing
Silicon photonic chips have the potential to realize complex integrated quantum information processing circuits, including photon sources, qubit manipulation, and integrated single-photon detectors. Here, we present the key aspects of preparing and testing a silicon photonic quantum chip with an integrated photon source and two-photon interferometer. The most important aspect of an integrated quantum circuit is minimizing loss so that all of the generated photons are detected with the highest possible fidelity...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Marit Ulset Nordsveen, Chi Kwong Tang, Jarle Gran
We demonstrate the use of a dual-mode detector for determining the internal quantum deficiency of a silicon photodiode without the use of an external reference. This is achieved by combining two different principles for measuring optical power in one device, where the photodiode is used as absorber for both thermal and photon detection. Thermal detection is obtained by the same principle as for an electrical substitution radiometer (ESR), with a type A measurement uncertainty of 0.34 % in unstabilized room temperature...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
Naema Othman, Pierre Berini
We propose and investigate a Schottky contact detector where the contact metal is a nanoscale metal stripe waveguide supporting surface plasmons with strong localization along the Schottky contact. We consider Au for the metal stripe, p-doped silicon for the semiconductor, operation in the infrared (at λ<sub>0</sub>=1550  nm), and internal photoemission as the sub-bandgap detection mechanism. We find that the main surface plasmon mode of operation of the Au stripe exhibits diverging real and imaginary parts of n<sub>eff</sub> with decreasing stripe dimensions, commensurate with increasing confinement...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Nicolas Brodusch, Raynald Gauvin
Electron channelling is known to affect the x-ray production when an accelerated electron beam is applied to a crystalline material and is highly dependent on the local crystal orientation. This effect, unless very long counting time are used, is barely noticeable on x-ray energy spectra recorded with conventional silicon drift detectors (SDD) located at a small elevation angle. However, the very high count rates provided by the new commercially available annular SDDs permit now to observe this effect routinely and may, in some circumstances, hide the true elemental x-ray variations due to the local true specimen composition...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Min Sun Lee, Kyeong Yun Kim, Guen Bae Ko, Jae Sung Lee
In this study, we developed a proof-of-concept prototype PET system using a pair of depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET detectors based on the proposed DOI-encoding method and digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM). Our novel cost-effective DOI measurement method is based on a triangular-shaped reflector that requires only a single-layer pixelated crystal and single-ended signal readout. The DOI detector consisted of an 18  ×  18 array of unpolished LYSO crystal (1.47  ×  1.47  ×  15 mm(3)) wrapped with triangular-shaped reflectors...
May 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Joshua W Cates, Matthew F Bieniosek, Craig S Levin
Maintaining excellent timing resolution in the generation of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) systems requires a large number of high-speed, high-bandwidth electronic channels and components. To minimize the cost and complexity of a system's back-end architecture and data acquisition, many analog signals are often multiplexed to fewer channels using techniques that encode timing, energy, and position information. With progress in the development SiPMs having lower dark noise, after pulsing, and cross talk along with higher photodetection efficiency, a coincidence timing resolution (CTR) well below 200 ps FWHM is now easily achievable in single pixel, bench-top setups using 20-mm length, lutetium-based inorganic scintillators...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
Satadal Dutta, Vishal Agarwal, Raymond J E Hueting, Jurriaan Schmitz, Anne-Johan Annema
This work presents a monolithic laterally-coupled wide-spectrum (350 nm < λ < 1270 nm) optical link in a silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. The link consists of a silicon (Si) light-emitting diode (LED) as the optical source and a Si photodiode (PD) as the detector; both realized by vertical abrupt n<sup>+</sup>p junctions, separated by a shallow trench isolation composed of silicon dioxide. Medium trench isolation around the devices along with the buried oxide layer provides galvanic isolation...
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
Y Nakano, Y Enomoto, T Masunaga, S Menk, P Bertier, T Azuma
A new electrostatic ion storage ring, the RIKEN cryogenic electrostatic ring, has been commissioned with a 15-keV ion beam under cryogenic conditions. The ring was designed with a closed ion beam orbit of about 2.9 m, where the ion beam is guided entirely by electrostatic components. The vacuum chamber of the ring is cooled using a liquid-He-free cooling system to 4.2 K with a temperature difference of 0.4 K at most within all the positions measured by calibrated silicon diode sensors. The first cryogenic operation with a 15-keV Ne(+) beam was successfully performed in August 2014...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jiawen Lu, Xuexi Sheng, Guoqing Tong, Zhongwei Yu, Xiaolin Sun, Linwei Yu, Xiangxin Xu, Junzhuan Wang, Jun Xu, Yi Shi, Kunji Chen
Inorganic CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I, or hybrid among them) perovskite quantum dots (IPQDs) are promising building blocks for exploring high performance optoelectronic applications. In this work, the authors report a new hybrid structure that marries CsPbX3 IPQDs to silicon nanowires (SiNWs) radial junction structures to achieve ultrafast and highly sensitive ultraviolet (UV) detection in solar-blind spectrum. A compact and uniform deployment of CsPbX3 IPQDs upon the sidewall of low-reflective 3D radial junctions enables a strong light field excitation and efficient down-conversion of the ultraviolet incidences, which are directly tailored into emission bands optimized for a rapid photodetection in surrounding ultrathin radial p-i-n junctions...
March 29, 2017: Advanced Materials
Haewook Park, Guen Bae Ko, Jae Sung Lee
Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is widely utilized in various positron emission tomography (PET) detectors and systems. However, the individual recording of SiPM output signals is still challenging owing to the high granularity of the SiPM; thus, charge division multiplexing is commonly used in PET detectors. Resistive charge division method is well established for reducing the number of output channels in conventional multi-channel photosensors, but it degrades the timing performance of SiPM-based PET detectors by yielding a large resistor-capacitor (RC) constant...
April 3, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
S E Brunner, D R Schaart
Due to detector developments in the last decade, the time-of-flight (TOF) method is now commonly used to improve the quality of positron emission tomography (PET) images. Clinical TOF-PET systems based on L(Y)SO:Ce crystals and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) with coincidence resolving times (CRT) between 325 ps and 400 ps FWHM have recently been developed. Before the introduction of L(Y)SO:Ce, BGO was used in many PET systems. In addition to a lower price, BGO offers a superior attenuation coefficient and a higher photoelectric fraction than L(Y)SO:Ce...
March 30, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
T Frigge, B Hafke, T Witte, B Krenzer, C Streubühr, A Samad Syed, V Mikšić Trontl, I Avigo, P Zhou, M Ligges, D von der Linde, U Bovensiepen, M Horn-von Hoegen, S Wippermann, A Lücke, S Sanna, U Gerstmann, W G Schmidt
Transient control over the atomic potential-energy landscapes of solids could lead to new states of matter and to quantum control of nuclear motion on the timescale of lattice vibrations. Recently developed ultrafast time-resolved diffraction techniques combine ultrafast temporal manipulation with atomic-scale spatial resolution and femtosecond temporal resolution. These advances have enabled investigations of photo-induced structural changes in bulk solids that often occur on timescales as short as a few hundred femtoseconds...
April 13, 2017: Nature
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