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Silicon detector

Angelo Gulinatti, Francesco Ceccarelli, Ivan Rech, Massimo Ghioni
In order to fulfill the requirements of many applications, we recently developed a new technology aimed at combining the advantages of traditional thin and thick silicon Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD). In particular we demonstrated single-pixel detectors with a remarkable improvement in the Photon Detection Efficiency in the red/near-infrared spectrum (e.g. 40% at 800nm) while maintaining a timing jitter better than 100ps. In this paper we discuss the limitations of such Red-Enhanced (RE) technology from the point of view of the fabrication of small arrays of SPAD and we propose modifications to the structure aimed at overcoming these issues...
April 17, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Andreas Vetter, Simone Ferrari, Patrik Rath, Rasoul Alaee, Oliver Kahl, Vadim Kovalyuk, Silvia Diewald, Gregory N Goltsman, Alexander Korneev, Carsten Rockstuhl, Wolfram Hp Pernice
Ultrafast single-photon detectors with high efficiency are of utmost importance for many applications in the context of integrated quantum photonic circuits. Detectors based on superconductor nanowires attached to optical waveguides are particularly appealing for this purpose. However, their speed is limited because the required high absorption efficiency necessitates long nanowires deposited on top of the waveguide. This enhances the kinetic inductance and makes the detectors slow. Here, we solve this problem by aligning the nanowire, contrary to usual choice, perpendicular to the waveguide to realize devices with a length below 1 µm...
October 19, 2016: Nano Letters
Anandram Venkatasubramanian, Vincent T K Sauer, Swapan K Roy, Mike Xia, David S Wishart, Wayne K Hiebert
Micro-Gas Chromatography (GC) is promising for portable chemical analysis. We demonstrate a nano-optomechanical system (NOMS) as an ultrasensitive mass detector in gas chromatography. Bare, native oxide, silicon surfaces are sensitive enough to monitor volatile organic compounds at ppm levels, while simultaneously demonstrating chemical selectivity. The NOMS is able to sense GC peaks from derivatized metabolites at physiological concentrations. This is an important milestone for small-molecule quantitation assays in next generation metabolite analyses for applications such as disease diagnosis and personalized medicine...
October 17, 2016: Nano Letters
H Kim, C-T Chen, N Eclov, A Ronzhin, P Murat, E Ramberg, S Los, C-M Kao
A strip-line and waveform sampling based readout is a signal multiplexing method that can efficiently reduce the readout channels while fully exploiting the fast time characteristics of photo-detectors such as the SiPM. We have applied this readout method for SiPM-based time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) detectors. We have prototyped strip-line boards in which 8 SiPMs (pitch 5.2 mm) are connected by using a single strip-line, and the signals appearing at the ends of the strip-line are acquired by using the DRS4 waveform sampler at a nominal sampling frequency of 1-5 GS/s...
September 11, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
M F Bieniosek, J W Cates, C S Levin
Time of flight (TOF) and depth of interaction (DOI) capabilities can significantly enhance the quality and uniformity of positron emission tomography (PET) images. Many proposed TOF/DOI PET detectors require complex readout systems using additional photosensors, active cooling, or waveform sampling. This work describes a high performance, low complexity, room temperature TOF/DOI PET module. The module uses multiplexed timing channels to significantly reduce the electronic readout complexity of the PET detector while maintaining excellent timing, energy, and position resolution...
November 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Na Li, Xiuhong Li, Yuzhu Wang, Guangfeng Liu, Ping Zhou, Hongjin Wu, Chunxia Hong, Fenggang Bian, Rongguang Zhang
The beamline BL19U2 is located in the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) and is its first beamline dedicated to biological material small-angle X-ray scattering (BioSAXS). The electrons come from an undulator which can provide high brilliance for the BL19U2 end stations. A double flat silicon crystal (111) monochromator is used in BL19U2, with a tunable monochromatic photon energy ranging from 7 to 15 keV. To meet the rapidly growing demands of crystallographers, biochemists and structural biologists, the BioSAXS beamline allows manual and automatic sample loading/unloading...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Crystallography
Taylor Woehl, Robert Keller
An annular dark field (ADF) detector was placed beneath a specimen in a field emission scanning electron microscope operated at 30kV to calibrate detector response to incident beam current, and to create transmission images of gold nanoparticles on silicon nitride (SiN) substrates of various thicknesses. Based on the linear response of the ADF detector diodes to beam current, we developed a method that allowed for direct determination of the percentage of that beam current forward scattered to the ADF detector from the sample, i...
August 6, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
Christopher E Bauer, Julie Brefczynski-Lewis, Gary Marano, Mary-Beth Mandich, Alexander Stolin, Peter Martone, James W Lewis, Gangadhar Jaliparthi, Raymond R Raylman, Stan Majewski
BACKGROUND: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is traditionally used to image patients in restrictive positions, with few devices allowing for upright, brain-dedicated imaging. Our team has explored the concept of wearable PET imagers which could provide functional brain imaging of freely moving subjects. To test feasibility and determine future considerations for development, we built a rudimentary proof-of-concept prototype (Helmet_PET) and conducted tests in phantoms and four human volunteers...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
J T Taylor, C Waltham, T Price, N M Allinson, P P Allport, G L Casse, A Kacperek, S Manger, N A Smith, I Tsurin
For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today...
September 21, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Wai Son Ko, Indrasen Bhattacharya, Thai-Truong D Tran, Kar Wei Ng, Stephen Adair Gerke, Connie Chang-Hasnain
Highly sensitive and fast photodetectors can enable low power, high bandwidth on-chip optical interconnects for silicon integrated electronics. III-V compound semiconductor direct-bandgap materials with high absorption coefficients are particularly promising for photodetection in energy-efficient optical links because of the potential to scale down the absorber size, and the resulting capacitance and dark current, while maintaining high quantum efficiency. We demonstrate a compact bipolar junction phototransistor with a high current gain (53...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jun Yeon Won, Guen Bae Ko, Jae Sung Lee
In this paper, we propose a fully time-based multiplexing and readout method that uses the principle of the global positioning system. Time-based multiplexing allows simplifying the multiplexing circuits where the only innate traces that connect the signal pins of the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) channels to the readout channels are used as the multiplexing circuit. Every SiPM channel is connected to the delay grid that consists of the traces on a printed circuit board, and the inherent transit times from each SiPM channel to the readout channels encode the position information uniquely...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Pauline Fournier, Iwan Cornelius, Mattia Donzelli, Herwig Requardt, Christian Nemoz, Marco Petasecca, Elke Bräuer-Krisch, Anatoly Rosenfeld, Michael Lerch
Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a novel irradiation technique for brain tumours treatment currently under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The technique is based on the spatial fractionation of a highly brilliant synchrotron X-ray beam into an array of microbeams using a multi-slit collimator (MSC). After promising pre-clinical results, veterinary trials have recently commenced requiring the need for dedicated quality assurance (QA) procedures. The quality of MRT treatment demands reproducible and precise spatial fractionation of the incoming synchrotron beam...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
D Lo Presti, D L Bonanno, F Longhitano, D G Bongiovanni, G V Russo, E Leonora, N Randazzo, S Reito, V Sipala, G Gallo
This paper describes the design and characterization of a charged particle imaging system composed of a position sensitive detector and residual range detector. The position detector consists of two identical overlying and orthogonal planes each of which consists of two layers of pre-aligned and juxtaposed scintillating fibres. The 500μm square section fibres are optically coupled to two Silicon Photomultiplier arrays using a channel reduction system patented by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The residual range detector consists of sixty parallel layers of the same fibres used in the position detector each of which is optically coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier array by wavelength shifting fibres...
September 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Lorenzo Baldacci, Alessandro Pitanti, Luca Masini, Andrea Arcangeli, Francesco Colangelo, Daniel Navarro-Urrios, Alessandro Tredicucci
We demonstrate the use of a compound optical cavity as linear displacement detector, by measuring the thermal motion of a silicon nitride suspended membrane acting as the external mirror of a near-infrared Littrow laser diode. Fluctuations in the laser optical power induced by the membrane vibrations are collected by a photodiode integrated within the laser, and then measured with a spectrum analyzer. The dynamics of the membrane driven by a piezoelectric actuator is investigated as a function of air pressure and actuator displacement in a homodyne configuration...
2016: Scientific Reports
N Scozzaro, W Ruchotzke, A Belding, J Cardellino, E C Blomberg, B A McCullian, V P Bhallamudi, D V Pelekhov, P C Hammel
The availability of compact, low-cost magnetic resonance imaging instruments would further broaden the substantial impact of this technology. We report highly sensitive detection of magnetic resonance using low-stress silicon nitride (SiNx) membranes. We use these membranes as low-loss, high-frequency mechanical oscillators and find they are able to mechanically detect spin-dependent forces with high sensitivity enabling ultrasensitive magnetic resonance detection. The high force detection sensitivity stems from their high mechanical quality factor Q∼10(6)[1,2] combined with the low mass of the resonator...
October 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Toshihiro Kogure, Noriko Yamaguchi, Hiroyo Segawa, Hiroki Mukai, Satoko Motai, Kotone Akiyama-Hasegawa, Masanori Mitome, Toru Hara, Tsuyoshi Yaita
Microparticles of radioactive cesium (Cs)-bearing silicate glass emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant were investigated mainly using state-of-the-art energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopes. Precise elemental maps of the particles were obtained using double silicon drift detectors with a large collection angle of X-rays, and qualitative elemental analysis was performed using high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with a microcalorimetry detector. Beside the substantial elements (O, Si, Cl, K, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sn and Cs) as previously reported, Mn and Ba were also common, though their amounts were small...
October 2016: Microscopy
Raymond R Unocic, Andrew R Lupini, Albina Y Borisevich, David A Cullen, Sergei V Kalinin, Stephen Jesse
The highly energetic electron beam (e-beam) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can induce local changes in the state of matter, ranging from knock-on and atomic movement, to amorphization/crystallization, and to localized chemical/electrochemical reactions. To date, fundamental studies of e-beam induced phenomena and practical applications have been limited by conventional STEM e-beam rastering modes that allow only for uniform e-beam exposures. Here, an automated liquid phase nanolithography method has been developed that enables the direct writing of nanometer scaled features within microfabricated liquid cells...
August 25, 2016: Nanoscale
John P Sutter, Roberto Boada, Daniel T Bowron, Sergey A Stepanov, Sofía Díaz-Moreno
EXAFS studies on dilute samples are usually carried out by collecting the fluorescence yield using a large-area multi-element detector. This method is susceptible to the 'glitches' produced by all single-crystal monochromators. Glitches are sharp dips or spikes in the diffracted intensity at specific crystal orientations. If incorrectly compensated, they degrade the spectroscopic data. Normalization of the fluorescence signal by the incident flux alone is sometimes insufficient to compensate for the glitches...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Crystallography
Laura Masi, Serenella Russo, Paolo Francescon, Raffaela Doro, Maria Cristina Frassanito, Maria Luisa Fumagalli, Giacomo Reggiori, Marco Marinelli, Irene Redaelli, Maria Pimpinella, Gianluca Verona Rinati, Carmelo Siragusa, Sabrina Vigorito, Pietro Mancosu
PURPOSE: New promising detectors are available for measuring small field size output factors (OFs). This study focused on a multicenter evaluation of two new generation detectors for OF measurements on CyberKnife systems. METHODS: PTW-60019 microDiamond and W1 plastic scintillation detector (PSD) were used to measure OFs on eight CyberKnife units of various generations for 5-60mm fixed cones. MicroDiamond and PSD OF were compared to routinely used silicon diodes data corrected applying published Monte Carlo (MC) factors...
August 4, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Shreyas Potnis, Amar C Vutha
The Pound-Drever-Hall laser stabilization technique requires a fast, low-noise photodetector. We present a simple photodetector design that uses a transformer as an intermediary between a photodiode and cascaded low-noise radio-frequency amplifiers. Our implementation using a silicon photodiode yields a detector with 50 MHz bandwidth, gain >10(5) V/A, and input current noise <4 pA/Hz, allowing us to obtain shot-noise-limited performance with low optical power.
July 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
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