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Photon counting detector silicon

Andreas Vetter, Simone Ferrari, Patrik Rath, Rasoul Alaee, Oliver Kahl, Vadim Kovalyuk, Silvia Diewald, Gregory N Goltsman, Alexander Korneev, Carsten Rockstuhl, Wolfram Hp Pernice
Ultrafast single-photon detectors with high efficiency are of utmost importance for many applications in the context of integrated quantum photonic circuits. Detectors based on superconductor nanowires attached to optical waveguides are particularly appealing for this purpose. However, their speed is limited because the required high absorption efficiency necessitates long nanowires deposited on top of the waveguide. This enhances the kinetic inductance and makes the detectors slow. Here, we solve this problem by aligning the nanowire, contrary to usual choice, perpendicular to the waveguide to realize devices with a length below 1 µm...
October 19, 2016: Nano Letters
E Martinenghi, L Di Sieno, D Contini, M Sanzaro, A Pifferi, A Dalla Mora
We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field)...
July 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Subhrajit Mukherjee, Rishi Maiti, Ajit K Katiyar, Soumen Das, Samit K Ray
Silicon compatible wafer scale MoS2 heterojunctions are reported for the first time using colloidal quantum dots. Size dependent direct band gap emission of MoS2 dots are presented at room temperature. The temporal stability and decay dynamics of excited charge carriers in MoS2 quantum dots have been studied using time correlated single photon counting spectroscopy technique. Fabricated n-MoS2/p-Si 0D/3D heterojunctions exhibiting excellent rectification behavior have been studied for light emission in the forward bias and photodetection in the reverse bias...
2016: Scientific Reports
Shouleh Nikzad, Michael Hoenk, April D Jewell, John J Hennessy, Alexander G Carver, Todd J Jones, Timothy M Goodsall, Erika T Hamden, Puneet Suvarna, J Bulmer, F Shahedipour-Sandvik, Edoardo Charbon, Preethi Padmanabhan, Bruce Hancock, L Douglas Bell
Ultraviolet (UV) studies in astronomy, cosmology, planetary studies, biological and medical applications often require precision detection of faint objects and in many cases require photon-counting detection. We present an overview of two approaches for achieving photon counting in the UV. The first approach involves UV enhancement of photon-counting silicon detectors, including electron multiplying charge-coupled devices and avalanche photodiodes. The approach used here employs molecular beam epitaxy for delta doping and superlattice doping for surface passivation and high UV quantum efficiency...
2016: Sensors
Justyna Aleksandra Wojdyla, Ezequiel Panepucci, Isabelle Martiel, Simon Ebner, Chia-Ying Huang, Martin Caffrey, Oliver Bunk, Meitian Wang
A fast continuous grid scan protocol has been incorporated into the Swiss Light Source (SLS) data acquisition and analysis software suite on the macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines. Its combination with fast readout single-photon counting hybrid pixel array detectors (PILATUS and EIGER) allows for diffraction-based identification of crystal diffraction hotspots and the location and centering of membrane protein microcrystals in the lipid cubic phase (LCP) in in meso in situ serial crystallography plates and silicon nitride supports...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Crystallography
David Schug, Christoph Lerche, Bjoern Weissler, Pierre Gebhardt, Benjamin Goldschmidt, Jakob Wehner, Peter Michael Dueppenbecker, Andre Salomon, Patrick Hallen, Fabian Kiessling, Volkmar Schulz
Hyperion-II(D) is a positron emission tomography (PET) insert which allows simultaneous operation in a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. To read out the scintillation light of the employed lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal arrays with a pitch of 1 mm and 12 mm in height, digital silicon photomultipliers (DPC 3200-22, Philips Digital Photon Counting) (DPC) are used. The basic PET performance in terms of energy resolution, coincidence resolution time (CRT) and sensitivity as a function of the operating parameters, such as the operating temperature, the applied overvoltage, activity and configuration parameters of the DPCs, has been evaluated at system level...
April 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Sudhir Kumar, Deepak D Deshpande, Alan E Nahum
Cavity theory is fundamental to understanding and predicting dosimeter response. Conventional cavity theories have been shown to be consistent with one another by deriving the electron (+positron) and photon fluence spectra with the FLURZnrc user-code (EGSnrc Monte-Carlo system) in large volumes under quasi-CPE for photon beams of 1 MeV and 10 MeV in three materials (water, aluminium and copper) and then using these fluence spectra to evaluate and then inter-compare the Bragg-Gray, Spencer-Attix and 'large photon' 'cavity integrals'...
April 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
P Monnin, H Bosmans, F R Verdun, N W Marshall
A version of cascaded systems analysis was developed specifically with the aim of studying quantum noise propagation in x-ray detectors. Signal and quantum noise propagation was then modelled in four types of x-ray detectors used for digital mammography: four flat panel systems, one computed radiography and one slot-scan silicon wafer based photon counting device. As required inputs to the model, the two dimensional (2D) modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured for six mammography systems that utilized these different detectors...
March 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Francescopaolo Mattioli Della Rocca, Jakub Nedbal, David Tyndall, Nikola Krstajić, David Day-Uei Li, Simon M Ameer-Beg, Robert K Henderson
Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) is a fundamental fluorescence lifetime measurement technique offering high signal to noise ratio (SNR). However, its requirement for complex software algorithms for histogram processing restricts throughput in flow cytometers and prevents on-the-fly sorting of cells. We present a single-point digital silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detector accomplishing real-time fluorescence lifetime-activated actuation targeting cell sorting applications in flow cytometry. The sensor also achieves burst-integrated fluorescence lifetime (BIFL) detection by TCSPC...
February 15, 2016: Optics Letters
Christoph W Lerche, André Salomon, Benjamin Goldschmidt, Sarah Lodomez, Björn Weissler, Torsten Solf
An algorithm for determining the crystal pixel and the gamma ray energy with scintillation detectors for PET is presented. The algorithm uses Likelihood Maximisation (ML) and therefore is inherently robust to missing data caused by defect or paralysed photo detector pixels. We tested the algorithm on a highly integrated MRI compatible small animal PET insert. The scintillation detector blocks of the PET gantry were built with the newly developed digital Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) technology from Philips Digital Photon Counting and LYSO pixel arrays with a pitch of 1 mm and length of 12 mm...
February 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
R A Shukla, V G Achanta, S R Dugad, J Freeman, C S Garde, S K Gupta, P D Khandekar, A M Kurup, S S Lokhandwala, S Los, S S Prabhu, P S Rakshe
Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are increasingly becoming popular for discrete photon counting applications due to the wealth of advantages they offer over conventional photo-detectors such as photo-multiplier tubes and hybrid photo-diodes. SiPMs are used in variety of applications ranging from high energy physics and nuclear physics experiments to medical diagnostics. The gain of a SiPM is directly proportional to the difference between applied and breakdown voltage of the device. However, the breakdown voltage depends critically on the ambient temperature and has a large temperature co-efficient in the range of 40-60 mV/°C resulting in a typical gain variation of 3%-5%/°C [Dinu et al...
January 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jean Rinkel, Debora Magalhães, Franz Wagner, Florian Meneau, Flavio Cesar Vicentin
Synchrotron-radiation-based X-ray imaging techniques using tender X-rays are facing a growing demand, in particular to probe the K absorption edges of low-Z elements. Here, a mathematical model has been developed for estimating the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero spatial frequency in the tender X-ray energy range for photon-counting detectors by taking into account the influence of electronic noise. The experiments were carried out with a Medipix3RX ASIC bump-bonded to a 300 µm silicon sensor at the Soft X-ray Spectroscopy beamline (D04A-SXS) of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS, Campinas, Brazil)...
January 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Steve Ross, Michael Haji-Sheikh, Andrew Huntington, David Kline, Adam Lee, Yuelin Li, Jehyuk Rhee, Mary Tarpley, Donald A Walko, Gregg Westberg, George Williams, Haifeng Zou, Eric Landahl
The Voxtel VX-798 is a prototype X-ray pixel array detector (PAD) featuring a silicon sensor photodiode array of 48 × 48 pixels, each 130 µm × 130 µm × 520 µm thick, coupled to a CMOS readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The first synchrotron X-ray characterization of this detector is presented, and its ability to selectively count individual X-rays within two independent arrival time windows, a programmable energy range, and localized to a single pixel is demonstrated. During our first trial run at Argonne National Laboratory's Advance Photon Source, the detector achieved a 60 ns gating time and 700 eV full width at half-maximum energy resolution in agreement with design parameters...
January 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Esther Ciarrocchi, Nicola Belcari, Alberto Del Guerra, Simon R Cherry, Adrienne Lehnert, William C J Hunter, Wendy McDougald, Robert S Miyaoka, Paul E Kinahan
BACKGROUND: A feasibility study was done to assess the capability of digital silicon photomultipliers to measure the Cherenkov luminescence emitted by a β source. Cherenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is possible with a charge coupled device (CCD) based technology, but a stand-alone technique for quantitative activity measurements based on Cherenkov luminescence has not yet been developed. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are photon counting devices with a fast impulse response and can potentially be used to quantify β-emitting radiotracer distributions by CLI...
December 2015: EJNMMI Physics
Mohsen K Akhlaghi, Ellen Schelew, Jeff F Young
At the core of an ideal single-photon detector is an active material that absorbs and converts every incident photon to a discriminable signal. A large active material favours efficient absorption, but often at the expense of conversion efficiency, noise, speed and timing accuracy. In this work, short (8.5 μm long) and narrow (8 × 35 nm(2)) U-shaped NbTiN nanowires atop silicon-on-insulator waveguides are embedded in asymmetric nanobeam cavities that render them as near-perfect absorbers despite their small volume...
2015: Nature Communications
Vojtěch Michálek, Ivan Procházka, Josef Blažej
During last two decades, several photon counting detectors have been developed in our laboratory. One of the most promising detector coming from our group silicon K14 Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) is presented with its valuable features and space applications. Based on the control electronics, it can be operated in both gated and non-gated mode. Although it was designed for photon counting detection, it can be employed for multiphoton detection as well. With respect to control electronics employed, the timing jitter can be as low as 20 ps RMS...
2015: Sensors
Hyo-Min Cho, Huanjun Ding, William C Barber, Jan S Iwanczyk, Sabee Molloi
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of detecting breast microcalcification (μCa) with a dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) system based on energy-resolved photon-counting silicon (Si) strip detectors. METHODS: The proposed photon-counting breast CT system and a bench-top prototype photon-counting breast CT system were simulated using a simulation package written in matlab to determine the smallest detectable μCa. A 14 cm diameter cylindrical phantom made of breast tissue with 20% glandularity was used to simulate an average-sized breast...
July 2015: Medical Physics
M Bazalova-Carter, M Ahmad, L Xing, R Fahrig
PURPOSE: To experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of L-shell x-ray fluorescence CT (XFCT) imaging of gold contrast. METHODS: We have built an experimental L-shell XFCT imaging system consisting of two photon-counting detectors, a silicon drift detector (SDD) and a CdTe detector, a miniature x-ray tube, and a programmable translation/rotation stage. A 2.8-mm diameter water phantom containing 4-mm vials with gold solutions of 0.06%, 0.08%, and 0.1% Au located at 4mm depth was constructed...
June 2015: Medical Physics
H Cho, H Ding, D Sennung, N Kumar, S Molloi
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of measuring breast lesion composition with spectral mammography using physical phantoms and bovine tissue. METHODS: Phantom images were acquired with a spectral mammography system with a silicon-strip based photon-counting detector. Plastic water and adipose-equivalent phantoms were used to calibrate the system for dual-energy material decomposition. The calibration phantom was constructed in range of 2-8 cm thickness and water densities in the range of 0% to 100%...
June 2015: Medical Physics
Hee Jung Lee, Heonoh Kim, Myoungsik Cha, Han Seb Moon
We demonstrate a 711-nm-wavelength efficient photon-pair source under the condition of non-collinear type-0 quasi-phase-matching configuration in a periodically poled MgO-doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate (PPSLT) crystal pumped by a 355.7-nm laser. Such degenerate visible photon-pairs in the wavelength region of 710 nm are practically useful for increasing the data collection rate in silicon-based single photon detectors. We confirm that the visible photon pairs in the PPSLT crystal form a bright, high-purity source of correlated photons...
June 1, 2015: Optics Express
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