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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214909/-obesity-and-diabetes-a-global-problem-what-does-recent-data-tell-us
#1
Simona Giampaoli, Serena Vannucchi
The authors discuss the latest data regarding obesity and diabetes worldwide and in Italy. Two very important articles were recently published by the Non Communicable Disease Risk Factor Collaboration which employs hundreds of researchers around the world. The two articles respectively describe trends in Body Mass Index and diabetes, in different countries in the past 40 years, and show that there has been a startling increase in the number of obese people and people suffering from diabetes worldwide. The number of obese people (BMI>=30 Kg/m2) has risen globally from 105 million in 1975 to 641 million in 2014...
November 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214725/child-mortality-commodity-price-volatility-and-the-resource-curse
#2
Yousef Makhlouf, Neil M Kellard, Dmitri Vinogradov
Given many developing economies depend on primary commodities, the fluctuations of commodity prices may imply significant effects for the wellbeing of children. To investigate, this paper examines the relationship between child mortality and commodity price movements as reflected by country-specific commodity terms-of-trade. Employing a panel of 69 low and lower-middle income countries over the period 1970-2010, we show that commodity terms-of-trade volatility increases child mortality in highly commodity-dependent importers suggesting a type of 'scarce' resource curse...
February 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213582/a-scale-up-mock-up-comparison-of-student-learning-gains-in-high-and-low-tech-active-learning-environments
#3
Paula A G Soneral, Sara A Wyse
Student-centered learning environments with upside-down pedagogies (SCALE-UP) are widely implemented at institutions across the country, and learning gains from these classrooms have been well documented. This study investigates the specific design feature(s) of the SCALE-UP classroom most conducive to teaching and learning. Using pilot survey data from instructors and students to prioritize the most salient SCALE-UP classroom features, we created a low-tech "Mock-up" version of this classroom and tested the impact of these features on student learning, attitudes, and satisfaction using a quasi--experimental setup...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210884/energy-balance-and-obesity-what-are-the-main-drivers
#4
Isabelle Romieu, Laure Dossus, Simón Barquera, Hervé M Blottière, Paul W Franks, Marc Gunter, Nahla Hwalla, Stephen D Hursting, Michael Leitzmann, Barrie Margetts, Chizuru Nishida, Nancy Potischman, Jacob Seidell, Magdalena Stepien, Youfa Wang, Klaas Westerterp, Pattanee Winichagoon, Martin Wiseman, Walter C Willett
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence of the association between energy balance and obesity. METHODS: In December 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France convened a Working Group of international experts to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). RESULTS: The global epidemic of obesity and the double burden, in LMICs, of malnutrition (coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition) are both related to poor quality diet and unbalanced energy intake...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209623/access-to-contraception-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-information-post-abortion-a-systematic-review-of-literature-from-low-and-middle-income-countries
#5
REVIEW
Claire Rogers, Jaya A R Dantas
AIM: This systematic literature review documented, analysed and critiqued the accessibility of contraception and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information for women living in low- and middle-income countries who have undergone medical or surgical abortion. METHODOLOGY: This review systematically collated relevant and recent empirical evidence regarding women's access to contraception and SRH information post-abortion within low- and middle-income countries...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209185/health-literacy-in-a-community-with-low-levels-of-education-findings-from-chakaria-a-rural-area-of-bangladesh
#6
Susmita Das, Mohammad Nahid Mia, Syed Manzoor Ahmed Hanifi, Shahidul Hoque, Abbas Bhuiya
BACKGROUND: Health literacy (HL) helps individuals to make effective use of available health services. In low-income countries such as Bangladesh, the less than optimum use of services could be due to low levels of HL. Bangladesh's health service delivery is pluralistic with a mix of public, private and informally trained healthcare providers. Emphasis on HL has been inadequate. Thus, it is important to assess the levels of HL and service utilization patterns. The findings from this study aim to bridge the knowledge gap...
February 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209131/support-for-the-feasibility-of-the-ages-and-stages-questionnaire-as-a-developmental-screening-tool-a-cross-sectional-study-of-south-african-and-zambian-children-aged-2-60-months
#7
Alastair van Heerden, Celia Hsiao, Beatrice Matafwali, Julia Louw, Linda Richter
BACKGROUND: There is a growing global acknowledgement that improving child survival rates is no longer sufficient. Emphasis is shifting to the improvement of health and developmental trajectories in early childhood. Screening and measurement of these trajectories in low and middle income countries is difficult, however, as they currently rely on developmental tests standardised among populations of children growing up in resource rich environments. METHODS: This paper presents a comparison of one such tool adapted for use with children living in Southern Africa to children from the United States, Norway, Korea and Spain...
February 16, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209120/factors-influencing-utilisation-of-maternal-health-services-by-adolescent-mothers-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#8
Oluwasola Eniola Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi Oluwabusayo Banke-Thomas, Charles Anawo Ameh
BACKGROUND: Adolescent mothers aged 15-19 years are known to have greater risks of maternal morbidity and mortality compared with women aged 20-24 years, mostly due to their unique biological, sociological and economic status. Nowhere Is the burden of disease greater than in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Understanding factors that influence adolescent utilisation of essential maternal health services (MHS) would be critical in improving their outcomes. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the literature for articles published until December 2015 to understand how adolescent MHS utilisation has been assessed in LMICs and factors affecting service utilisation by adolescent mothers...
February 16, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209084/the-effect-of-number-of-siblings-on-adult-mortality-evidence-from-swedish-registers-for-cohorts-born-between-1938-and-1972
#9
Anna Baranowska-Rataj, Kieron Barclay, Martin Kolk
Demographic research has paid much attention to the impact of childhood conditions on adult mortality. We focus on one of the key aspects of early life conditions, sibling group size, and examine the causal effect of growing up in a large family on mortality. While previous studies have focused on low- or middle-income countries, we examine whether growing up in a large family is a disadvantage in Sweden, a context where most parents have adequate resources, which are complemented by a generous welfare state...
March 2017: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208897/a-validation-of-an-examination-protocol-for-cerebral-visual-impairment-among-children-in-a-clinical-population-in-india
#10
Swetha Sara Philip, Sherab Tsherlinga, Maya Mary Thomas, Gordon N Dutton, Richard Bowman
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is a leading cause of vision impairment in developed and developing countries due to and increased survival of preterm and low birth weight infants. There are few data concerning the validity of protocols available to diagnose CVI. AIM: This study aimed to document the face, content and construct validity of an assessment protocol namely, a 15-domain, Structured Clinical Question Inventory (SCQI), which is based on structured history taking and clinical examination, for the diagnosis of CVI in a clinical population of India...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208813/perceptions-of-improved-biomass-and-liquefied-petroleum-gas-stoves-in-puno-peru-implications-for-promoting-sustained-and-exclusive-adoption-of-clean-cooking-technologies
#11
Jacqueline Hollada, Kendra N Williams, Catherine H Miele, David Danz, Steven A Harvey, William Checkley
Many households in low- and middle-income countries cook with inefficient biomass-burning stoves, which cause high levels of household air pollution and threaten long-term health. Although clean stoves and fuels are available, uptake and consistent use has been low. Using observations and in-depth interviews, we assessed the attitudes, preferences, and beliefs about traditional versus liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves in rural Puno, Peru. A total of 31 in-depth interviews were conducted with primary cooks and their families, health workers, community leaders, and improved stove contractors...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207797/mutation-increasing-%C3%AE-carotene-concentrations-does-not-adversely-affect-concentrations-of-essential-mineral-elements-in-pepper-fruit
#12
Nasya B Tomlekova, Philip J White, Jacqueline A Thompson, Emil A Penchev, Stephan Nielen
Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are prevalent in human populations throughout the world. Vitamin A deficiency affects hundreds of millions of pre-school age children in low income countries. Fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can be a major dietary source of precursors to Vitamin A biosynthesis, such as β-carotene. Recently, pepper breeding programs have introduced the orange-fruited (of) trait of the mutant variety Oranzheva kapiya, which is associated with high fruit β-carotene concentrations, to the mutant variety Albena...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207425/evidence-based-interventions-for-improvement-of-maternal-and-child-nutrition-in-low-income-settings-what-s-new
#13
Tyler Vaivada, Michelle F Gaffey, Jai K Das, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal and child malnutrition continues to disproportionately affect low and middle-income countries, contributing to high rates of morbidity, mortality, and suboptimal development. This article reviews evidence from recent systematic reviews and studies on the effectiveness of interventions to improve nutritional status in these especially vulnerable populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Macronutrients provided to expectant mothers in the form of balanced protein energy supplements can improve fetal growth and birth outcomes, and new research suggests that lipid nutrient supplements can reduce both stunting and wasting in newborns...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207339/measuring-socioeconomic-inequalities-with-predicted-absolute-incomes-rather-than-wealth-quintiles-a-comparative-assessment-using-child-stunting-data-from-national-surveys
#14
Günther Fink, Cesar G Victora, Kenneth Harttgen, Sebastian Vollmer, Luís Paulo Vidaletti, Aluisio J D Barros
OBJECTIVES: To compare the predictive power of synthetic absolute income measures with that of asset-based wealth quintiles in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) using child stunting as an outcome. METHODS: We pooled data from 239 nationally representative household surveys from LMICs and computed absolute incomes in US dollars based on households' asset rank as well as data on national consumption and inequality levels. We used multivariable regression models to compare the predictive power of the created income measure with the predictive power of existing asset indicator measures...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207328/socioeconomic-determinants-of-sodium-intake-in-adult-populations-of-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Carlos de Mestral, Ana-Lucia Mayén, Dusan Petrovic, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Murielle Bochud, Silvia Stringhini
BACKGROUND: A poorer quality diet among individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) may partly explain the higher burden of noncommunicable disease among disadvantaged populations. Because there is a link between sodium intake and noncommunicable diseases, we systematically reviewed the current evidence on the social patterning of sodium intake. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the evidence on the association between SES and sodium intake in healthy adult populations of high-income countries...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207067/early-adolescent-childbearing-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-associations-with-income-inequity-human-development-and-gender-equality
#16
Michele R Decker, Amanda Kalamar, Özge Tunçalp, Michelle J Hindin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207050/review-of-quality-assessment-tools-for-family-planning-programmes-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#17
Andrea Sprockett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206682/cost-effectiveness-of-groin-hernia-repair-from-a-randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-commercial-versus-low-cost-mesh-in-a-low-income-country
#18
J Löfgren, A Matovu, A Wladis, C Ibingira, P Nordin, E Galiwango, B C Forsberg
BACKGROUND: Over 200 million people worldwide live with groin hernia and 20 million are operated on each year. In resource-scarce settings, the superior surgical technique using a synthetic mesh is not affordable. A low-cost alternative is needed. The objective of this study was to calculate and compare costs and cost-effectiveness of inguinal hernia mesh repair using a low-cost versus a commercial mesh in a rural setting in Uganda. METHODS: This is a cost-effectiveness analysis of a double-blinded RCT comparing outcomes from groin hernia mesh repair using a low-cost mesh and a commercially available mesh...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205225/global-mental-health-a-call-for-increased-awareness-and-action-for-family-therapists
#19
Jo Ellen Patterson, Todd M Edwards, Susanna Vakili
Global mental health (GMH) is an emerging field that focuses on the need for culturally sensitive mental health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While many new initiatives have been established worldwide to understand GMH needs and to provide care in LMICs, family therapists have primarily worked with families in high-income countries. The few existing family-based initiatives in GMH focus on psychoeducation and are typically not based on general systems theory. However, emerging trends in family therapy may enable family therapists to impact mental health issues in LMICs...
February 15, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204493/estimating-infertility-prevalence-in-low-to-middle-income-countries-an-application-of-a-current-duration-approach-to-demographic-and-health-survey-data
#20
Chelsea B Polis, Carie M Cox, Özge Tunçalp, Alexander C McLain, Marie E Thoma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Human Reproduction
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