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Low income countries

Diego Rios-Zertuche, Paola Zúñiga-Brenes, Erin Palmisano, Bernardo Hernández, Alexandra Schaefer, Casey K Johanns, Alvaro Gonzalez-Marmol, Ali H Mokdad, Emma Iriarte
Objective: Present methods to measure standardized, replicable and comparable metrics to measure quality of medical care in low- and middle-income countries. Design: We constructed quality indicators for maternal, neonatal and child care. To minimize reviewer judgment, we transformed criteria from check-lists into data points and decisions into conditional algorithms. Distinct criteria were established for each facility level and type of care. Indicators were linked to discharge diagnoses...
June 18, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Mary McEniry, Rafael Samper-Ternent, Carmen Elisa Flórez, Carlos Cano-Gutierrez
OBJECTIVE: We examine the importance of early life displacement and nutrition on hypertension (HTN) and diabetes in older Colombian adults (60+ years) exposed to rapid demographic, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions, and armed conflict. We compare early life nutritional status and adult health in other middle- and high-income countries. METHOD: In Colombia (Survey of Health, Wellbeing and Aging [SABE]-Bogotá), we estimate the effects of early life conditions (displacement due to armed conflict and violence, hunger, low height, and not born in the capital city) and obesity on adult health; we compare the effects of low height on adult health in Mexico, South Africa (Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health [SAGE]), the United States, and England (Health and Retirement Study [HRS], English Longitudinal Study of Ageing [ELSA])...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
Huynh Thi Loan, Lam Minh Yen, Evelyne Kestelyn, Nguyen Van Hao, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Duong Bich Thuy, Ha Thi Hai Duong, Nguyen Thi Phuong Dung, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Pham Thi Lieu, Tran Tan Thanh, Ronald Geskus, H Rogier van Doorn, Le Van Tan, Duncan Wyncoll, Nicholas P J Day, Tran Tinh Hien, Guy E Thwaites, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, C Louise Thwaites
Tetanus remains a significant burden in many low- and middle-income countries. The tetanus toxin acts within the central nervous system and intrathecal antitoxin administration may be beneficial, but there are safety concerns, especially in resource-limited settings. We performed a pilot study to assess the safety and feasibility of intrathecal human tetanus immunoglobulin in five adults with tetanus before the conduct of a large randomized controlled trial. Intrathecal injection via lumbar puncture was given to all patients within a median 140 (range 100-165) minutes of intensive care unit (ICU) admission...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Deborah B Brickley, Christina P Lindan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Andrew W Kiragu, Stephen J Dunlop, Njoki Mwarumba, Sanusi Gidado, Adesope Adesina, Michael Mwachiro, Daniel A Gbadero, Tina M Slusher
Trauma constitutes a significant cause of death and disability globally. The vast majority -about 95%, of the 5.8 million deaths each year, occur in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) 3-6. This includes almost 1 million children. The resource-adapted introduction of trauma care protocols, regionalized care and the growth specialized centers for trauma care within each LMIC are key to improved outcomes and the lowering of trauma-related morbidity and mortality globally. Resource limitations in LMICs make it necessary to develop injury prevention strategies and optimize the use of locally available resources when injury prevention measures fail...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Vivek Nagar, Devendra Gour, Dinseh Kumar Pal, Akash Ranjan Singh, Ankur Joshi, Lokendra Dave
Context: Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a worldwide global public health problem. About 95% of patients with TB live in the low and middle-income countries and more than 70% of patients with DM also live in the same countries, especially in South East Asia. Screening for diabetes in patients with TB will not only ensure early case detection but also better management of diabetes and will lead to better TB treatment outcome. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence and its associated factors of diabetes and prediabetes among diagnosed cases of TB patients registered under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in Bhopal city...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Kerlijn Van Assche, Ariadna Nebot Giralt, Jean Michel Caudron, Benedetta Schiavetti, Corinne Pouget, Achilleas Tsoumanis, Bruno Meessen, Raffaella Ravinetto
Introduction: The rapid globalisation of the pharmaceutical production and distribution has not been supported by harmonisation of regulatory systems worldwide. Thus, the supply systems in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain exposed to the risk of poor-quality medicines. To contribute to estimating this risk in the private sector in LMICs, we assessed the quality assurance system of a convenient sample of local private pharmaceutical distributors. Methods: This descriptive study uses secondary data derived from the audits conducted by the QUAMED group at 60 local private pharmaceutical distributors in 13 LMICs...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Simon Funge-Smith, Peter B McIntyre
Consumption of wild-caught freshwater fish is concentrated in low-income countries, where it makes a critical contribution to food security and livelihoods. Underestimation of inland harvests in official statistics has long been suspected due to unmonitored subsistence fisheries. To overcome the lack of data from extensive small-scale harvests, we used household consumption surveys to estimate freshwater fish catches in 42 low- and middle-income countries between 1997 and 2014. After accounting for trade and aquaculture, these countries collectively consumed 3...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kelly Kilburn, Leah Prencipe, Lisa Hjelm, Amber Peterman, Sudhanshu Handa, Tia Palermo
BACKGROUND: Youth mental health has emerged as a pressing global issue. However, to advance research gaps in low-income settings, we need valid measures of common mental health disorders. Using primary data collected in five countries (Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe), this study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the commonly used 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D 10) scale among poor, disadvantaged youth populations in sub-Saharan African (SSA)...
June 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Abdul Halim, Mamuda Aminu, Juan Emmanuel Dewez, Animesh Biswas, A K M Fazlur Rahman, Nynke van den Broek
BACKGROUND: An estimated 2.6 million stillbirths occur every year, with the majority occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding the cause of and factors associated with stillbirth is important to help inform the design and implementation of interventions aimed at reducing preventable stillbirths. METHODS: Population-based surveillance with identification of all stillbirths that occurred either at home or in a health facility was introduced in four districts in Bangladesh...
June 13, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Brandon A Kohrt, Laura Asher, Anvita Bhardwaj, Mina Fazel, Mark J D Jordans, Byamah B Mutamba, Abhijit Nadkarni, Gloria A Pedersen, Daisy R Singla, Vikram Patel
Community-based mental health services are emphasized in the World Health Organization’s Mental Health Action Plan , the World Bank’s Disease Control Priorities , and the Action Plan of the World Psychiatric Association. There is increasing evidence for effectiveness of mental health interventions delivered by non-specialists in community platforms in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, the role of community components has yet to be summarized. Our objective was to map community interventions in LMIC, identify competencies for community-based providers, and highlight research gaps...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Katia Ramos Moreira Leite, Thais Silva, Bruna Naum, Flavio Canavez, Juliana Canavez, Ruan Pimenta, Sabrina Reis, Luiz Heraldo Camara-Lopes
OBJECTIVE: To test the performance of a new fixative for pap smear collection for liquid-based cervical cytology, CellPreserv® and compare it with the commercially available, PreservCyt® used in the diagnosis and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: Seven hundred twenty five women participated in this study after signing an informed consent. The specimens were collected using a traditional device, agitated in PBS, and equally divided in both fixatives...
June 18, 2018: Acta Cytologica
Evelyne Kestelyn, Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil, Marie Michelle Umulisa, Grace Umutoni, Alice Uwingabire, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Mireille Uwineza, Stephen Agaba, Tania Crucitti, Janneke van de Wijgert, Thérèse Delvaux
BACKGROUND: Introduction of contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) could expand the contraceptive method mix reducing the unmet need for family planning in Rwanda, but data on acceptability of CVRs from low and middle-income countries are lacking. METHODS: This study explores acceptability of contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing) use in Kigali, Rwanda using a mixed methods approach. We collected quantitative and qualitative data before, during and after conducting a clinical trial, using Case Report Forms, Interviewer Administered Questionnaires, In Depth Interviews and Focus Group Discussions...
2018: PloS One
Joseph Bresee, Julia Fitzner, Harry Campbell, Cheryl Cohen, Vanessa Cozza, Jorge Jara, Anand Krishnan, Vernon Lee
Influenza has long been a global public health priority because of the threat of another global pandemic. Although data are available for the annual burden of seasonal influenza in many developed countries, fewer disease burden data are available for low-income and tropical countries. In recent years, however, the surveillance systems created as part of national pandemic preparedness efforts have produced substantial data on the epidemiology and impact of influenza in countries where data were sparse. These data are leading to greater interest in seasonal influenza, including implementation of vaccination programs...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Varangthip Khuwuthyakorn, Chuleeporn Jatuwattana, Suchaya Silvilairat, Watcharee Tantiprapha
Background In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) is treated with oral indomethacin (IDC) and ibuprofen (IB) instead of intravenous formulations. No significant differences in efficacy have been reported. However, previous studies had small numbers of VLBW infants (<1500 g). Objective To evaluate the efficacy of oral IDC and IB for closing PDA in VLBW infants with a gestational age of 24-32 weeks. Methods This randomised controlled study enrolled 32 infants with hsPDA for treatment with either three doses of oral IDC or oral IB...
June 18, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Ashley R Bjorklund, Beatrice Odongkara Mpora, Marie E Steiner, Gwenyth Fischer, Cynthia S Davey, Tina M Slusher
BACKGROUND: While bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is commonly used in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to support neonates with respiratory distress, there are limited non-invasive support options for non-neonatal children. AIM: To demonstrate safety of a new device designed to support children during respiratory distress in LMIC. METHODS: A paediatric bCPAP device was designed called SEAL-bCPAP (Simplified Ear-plug Adapted-bCPAP)...
June 18, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Mesfin Awoke Bekalu, K Viswanath
Considerable research from high-income countries has characterized the amount, nature and effects of movie smoking depiction. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where tobacco use and tobacco-related diseases are growing, little research has investigated smoking imagery in movies. This study examined the extent and nature of smoking portrayal in locally produced Ethiopian movies, and estimated the number of tobacco impressions movies delivered. Sample movies were taken from YouTube. Keyword searches were conducted using 'Ethiopian movies' and 'Ethiopian drama' on 18 September 2016...
April 17, 2018: Health Promotion International
Sara Antonio Dimaria, Hélène Schwartz, Christèle Icard-Vernière, Christian Picq, Noël Marie Zagre, Claire Mouquet-Rivier
Adequate complementary foods are needed to help reduce the high prevalence of stunting in children in many Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). We assessed the availability, affordability, and nutrient adequacy of imported and locally produced processed cereal-based blends (PCBBs), marketed as complementary food for young children in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Senegal. In total, 19 local producers and 275 points of sale in the four countries were surveyed to evaluate the quantities and accessibility of PCBBs...
June 18, 2018: Nutrients
Michael T Willoughby, Benjamin Piper, Dunston Kwayumba, Megan McCune
Interest in measuring executive function skills in young children in low- and middle-income country contexts has been stymied by the lack of assessments that are both easy to deploy and scalable. This study reports on an initial effort to develop a tablet-based battery of executive function tasks, which were designed and extensively studied in the United States, for use in Kenya. Participants were 193 children, aged 3-6 years old, who attended early childhood development and education centers. The rates of individual task completion were high (65-100%), and 85% of children completed three or more tasks...
June 17, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Lee Smith, Mats Hallgren, Joseph Firth, Matthew P Herring, Michel Probst, Ai Koyanagi
OBJECTIVE: Although physical activity (PA) is associated with a reduction of a wide range of sleep problems, it remains uncertain whether complying with the international guidelines of 150 min of moderate to vigorous PA per week can reduce sleep problems in adults. This research investigated the relationship between compliance with the PA recommendations of the World Health Organization and sleep problems in 38 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based data from the World Health Survey were analyzed...
May 24, 2018: Sleep Medicine
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