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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228385/secondhand-smoke-exposure-in-primary-school-children-a-survey-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#1
Sarwat Shah, Mona Kanaan, Rumana Huque, Aziz Sheikh, Omara Dogar, Heather Thomson, Steve Parrott, Kamran Siddiqi
Introduction: We report on second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure based on saliva cotinine levels among children in Bangladesh-a country with laws against smoking in public places. Methods: A survey of primary school children from two areas of the Dhaka district was conducted in 2015. Participants completed a questionnaire and provided saliva samples for cotinine measurement to assess SHS exposure with a cut-off range of ≥0.1ng/mL. Results: Four hundred and eighty-one children studying in year-5 were recruited from 12 primary schools...
December 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228339/thresholds-for-decision-making-informing-the-cost-effectiveness-and-affordability-of-rotavirus-vaccines-in-malaysia
#2
Tharani Loganathan, Chiu-Wan Ng, Way-Seah Lee, Raymond C W Hutubessy, Stéphane Verguet, Mark Jit
Cost-effectiveness thresholds (CETs) based on the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) are extensively used in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) lacking locally defined CETs. These thresholds were originally intended for global and regional prioritization, and do not reflect local context or affordability at the national level, so their value for informing resource allocation decisions has been questioned. Using these thresholds, rotavirus vaccines are widely regarded as cost-effective interventions in LMICs...
December 8, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227955/developing-and-validating-a-perinatal-depression-screening-tool-in-kenya-blending-western-criteria-with-local-idioms-a-mixed-methods-study
#3
Eric P Green, Hawa Tuli, Edith Kwobah, D Menya, Irene Chesire, Christina Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Routine screening for perinatal depression is not common in most primary health care settings. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force only recently updated their recommendation on depression screening to specifically recommend screening during the pre- and postpartum periods. While practitioners in high-income countries can respond to this new recommendation by implementing one of several existing depression screening tools developed in Western contexts, such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) or the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), these tools lack strong evidence of cross-cultural equivalence, validity for case finding, and precision in measuring response to treatment in developing countries...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227900/exposures-to-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-and-birthweight-in-a-rural-urban-mother-child-cohort-in-tamil-nadu-india
#4
Kalpana Balakrishnan, Santu Ghosh, Gurusamy Thangavel, Sankar Sambandam, Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Naveen Puttaswamy, Arulselvan Sadasivam, Padmavathi Ramaswamy, Priscilla Johnson, Rajarajeswari Kuppuswamy, Durairaj Natesan, Uma Maheshwari, Amudha Natarajan, Gayathri Rajendran, Rengaraj Ramasami, Sathish Madhav, Saraswathy Manivannan, Srinivasan Nargunanadan, Srinivasan Natarajan, Sudhakar Saidam, Moumita Chakraborty, Lingeswari Balakrishnan, Vijayalakshmi Thanasekaraan
BACKGROUND: Exposure to PM2.5 (fine particulate matter <less than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter) related to ambient and household air pollution has been associated with low birthweight. Few of these studies, however, have been conducted in high exposure settings that are commonly encountered in low and middle income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVES: We examined whether PM2.5 exposures during pregnancy were associated with birthweight in an integrated rural-urban, mother-child cohort in the state of Tamil Nadu, India...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227132/mental-illness-in-bwindi-uganda-understanding-stakeholder-perceptions-of-benefits-and-barriers-to-developing-a-community-based-mental-health-programme
#5
Kristen L Sessions, Lydia Wheeler, Arya Shah, Deenah Farrell, Edwin Agaba, Yusufu Kuule, Stephen P Merry
BACKGROUND: Mental illness has been increasingly recognised as a source of morbidity in low- and middle-income countries and significant treatment gaps exist worldwide. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of task sharing through community-based treatment models for addressing international mental health issues. AIM: This paper aims to evaluate the perceptions of a wide range of mental health stakeholders in a Ugandan community regarding the benefits and barriers to developing a community-based mental health programme...
November 30, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226758/evolution-of-non-communicable-disease-prevention-and-control-in-china
#6
Mengge Han, Xiao Ming Shi, Chun Cai, Yong Zhang, Wang Hong Xu
The 70-year experience of China in fighting against non-communicable diseases (NCDs) can be classified into three distinct periods: 1) the disease-oriented strategy period (from 1950 to 1994); 2) the risk factor-focused strategy period (from 1995 to 2008); and 3) the social and policy priority strategy period (since 2009). A number of projects were successful and valuable experience and lessons were accumulated during the three periods. Due to the underestimation of the 'explosive' epidemic of NCDs, however, it took China quite a long time to find the right path to curb the upward trend in these diseases...
December 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226448/better-measurement-for-performance-improvement-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-the-primary-health-care-performance-initiative-phcpi-experience-of-conceptual-framework-development-and-indicator-selection
#7
Jeremy Veillard, Krycia Cowling, Asaf Bitton, Hannah Ratcliffe, Meredith Kimball, Shannon Barkley, Laure Mercereau, Ethan Wong, Chelsea Taylor, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Hong Wang
Policy Points: Strengthening accountability through better measurement and reporting is vital to ensure progress in improving quality primary health care (PHC) systems and achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) provides national decision makers and global stakeholders with opportunities to benchmark and accelerate performance improvement through better performance measurement. Results from the initial PHC performance assessments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are helping guide PHC reforms and investments and improve the PHCPI's instruments and indicators...
December 2017: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226173/long-term-outcome-of-antiretroviral-treatment-in-patients-with-and-without-concomitant-tuberculosis-receiving-health-center-based-care-results-from-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Anton Reepalu, Taye Tolera Balcha, Erik Sturegård, Patrik Medstrand, Per Björkman
Background: In order to increase treatment coverage, antiretroviral treatment (ART) is provided through primary health care in low-income high-burden countries, where tuberculosis (TB) co-infection is common. We investigated the long-term outcome of health center-based ART, with regard to concomitant TB. Methods: ART-naïve adults were included in a prospective cohort at Ethiopian health centers and followed for up to 4 years after starting ART. All participants were investigated for active TB at inclusion...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226046/the-economic-impacts-of-chronic-illness-on-households-of-patients-in-ile-ife-south-western-nigeria
#9
Paul T Okediji, Adedolapo O Ojo, Akinwumi I Ojo, Ademola S Ojo, Opeyemi E Ojo, Emmanuel A Abioye-Kuteyi
Introduction Chronic illnesses are slowly becoming more prevalent worldwide. The implications and ramifications of these illnesses vary and affect not only the patient but the entire household in many ways. This research focuses on the economic implications of this category of illnesses on the entire household. The aim is to determine the economic implications of chronic illnesses on households of patients in selected health facilities in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and to elucidate the various coping strategies applied by households in low and middle income countries (LMICs) to keep up with these economic implications...
October 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225958/overcoming-challenges-in-implementing-the-who-surgical-safety-checklist-lessons-learnt-from-using-a-checklist-training-course-to-facilitate-rapid-scale-up-in-madagascar
#10
REVIEW
Kristin L Close, Linden S Baxter, Vaonandianina A Ravelojaona, Hasiniaina N Rakotoarison, Emily Bruno, Alison Herbert, Vanessa Andean, James Callahan, Hery H Andriamanjato, Michelle C White
The WHO Surgical Safety Checklist was launched in 2009, and appropriate use reduces mortality, surgical site infections and complications after surgery by up to 50%. Implementation across low-income and middle-income countries has been slow; published evidence is restricted to reports from a few single institutions, and significant challenges to successful implementation have been identified and presented. The Mercy Ships Medical Capacity Building team developed a multidisciplinary 3-day Surgical Safety Checklist training programme designed for rapid wide-scale implementation in all regional referral hospitals in Madagascar...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225957/limited-sterile-processing-capabilities-for-safe-surgery-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-experience-in-the-republic-of-congo-madagascar-and-benin
#11
REVIEW
Olive Fast, Christina Fast, Dan Fast, Suzanne Veltjens, Zouliha Salami, Michelle C White
It is highly difficult to perform safe surgery without sterile instruments, yet the capacity to adequately clean, disinfect and sterilise surgical instruments in low-income and middle-income countries is largely unknown. Sterile Processing Education Charitable Trust developed an assessment tool and, in partnership with Mercy Ships, evaluated the sterile processing capacity in 59 facilities in Madagascar, Benin and the Republic of Congo. This data-driven analysis paper illustrates how lack of sterile processing capacity acts as a barrier to safe surgical care...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225956/let-food-be-thy-medicine-linking-local-food-and-health-systems-to-address-the-full-spectrum-of-malnutrition-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#12
EDITORIAL
Lindsay M Jaacks, Alexandra L Bellows
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225951/is-governance-gross-domestic-product-inequality-population-size-or-country-surface-area-associated-with-coverage-and-equity-of-health-interventions-ecological-analyses-of-cross-sectional-surveys-from-80-countries
#13
Fernando C Wehrmeister, Inácio Crochemore M da Silva, Aluisio J D Barros, Cesar G Victora
Objective: To assess associations between national characteristics, including governance indicators, with a proxy for universal health coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH). Design: Ecological analysis based on data from national standardised cross-sectional surveys. Setting: Low-income and middle-income countries with a Demographic and Health Survey or a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey since 2005. Participants: 1 246 710 mothers and 2 129 212 children from 80 national surveys...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225948/collecting-data-for-global-surgical-indicators-a-collaborative-approach-in-the-pacific-region
#14
REVIEW
Glenn Douglas Guest, Elizabeth McLeod, William R G Perry, Vilami Tangi, Joao Pedro, Ponifasio Ponifasio, Johnny Hedson, Jemesa Tudravu, Douglas Pikacha, Eric Vreede, Basil Leodoro, Noah Tapaua, James Kong, Bwabwa Oten, Deacon Teapa, Stephanie Korin, Leona Wilson, Samson Mesol, Kabiri Tuneti, John G Meara, David A Watters
In 2015, the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) recommended six surgical metrics to enable countries to measure their surgical and anaesthesia care delivery. These indicators have subsequently been accepted by the World Bank for inclusion in the World Development Indicators. With support from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Pacific Islands Surgical Association, 14 South Pacific countries collaborated to collect the first four of six LCoGS indicators. Thirteen countries collected all four indicators over a 6-month period from October 2015 to April 2016...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225941/beyond-menstrual-hygiene-addressing-vaginal-bleeding-throughout-the-life-course-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#15
REVIEW
Marni Sommer, Penelope A Phillips-Howard, Therese Mahon, Sasha Zients, Meredith Jones, Bethany A Caruso
Girls and women experience numerous types of vaginal bleeding. These include healthy reproductive processes, such as menstruation and bleeding after childbirth, but also bleeding related to health conditions, such as fibroids or cancer. In most societies, the management of menstruation is handled covertly, something girls are often instructed about at menarche. The management of other vaginal bleeding is often similarly discreet, although behaviours are not well documented. In many societies, cultural taboos frequently hinder open discussion around vaginal bleeding, restricting information and early access to healthcare...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225932/potential-applications-of-telenephrology-to-enhance-global-kidney-care
#16
REVIEW
Mohamed A Osman, Julius Okel, Ikechi G Okpechi, Kailash Jindal, Aminu K Bello
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important public health issue that increasingly affects more patients globally and is associated with adverse clinical consequences with huge economic impact. Effective management of patients with CKD requires delivery of kidney care in a primary care setting where possible and at a higher level with a nephrologist when necessary to improve outcomes. In many instances and for various reasons, it is not possible to follow this pathway of care delivery. With improving telecommunication technologies worldwide, it is hoped that increasing utilisation of electronic communication devices can be used to facilitate kidney care to improve the quality of care delivered to patients, especially those who live in remote regions...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225931/community-preferences-for-a-social-health-insurance-benefit-package-an-exploratory-study-among-the-uninsured-in-vietnam
#17
Hoa Thi Nguyen, Tinh Viet Luu, Gerald Leppert, Manuela De Allegri
Understanding public preferences in terms of health benefit packages (HBPs) remains limited, yet gathering community insights is an important endeavour when developing people-centred health systems and moving towards universal health coverage. Our study aimed to address this gap in knowledge by eliciting community preferences for the social health insurance benefit package among the uninsured in Vietnam. We adopted a mixed methods approach that included a ranking exercise followed by focus group discussions...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225928/causes-of-severe-visual-impairment-and-blindness-in-students-in-schools-for-the-blind-in-northwest-ethiopia
#18
Mulusew Asferaw, Geoffrey Woodruff, Clare Gilbert
Objectives: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) among students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia and to identify preventable and treatable causes. Method: Students attending nine schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia were examined and causes assigned using the standard WHO record form for children with blindness and low vision in May and June 2015. Results: 383 students were examined, 357 (93%) of whom were severely visually impaired or blind (<6/60 in their better eye)...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225588/income-inequality-and-happiness-an-inverted-u-shaped-curve
#19
Zonghuo Yu, Fei Wang
Numerous studies agree that income inequality, rather than absolute income, is an important predictor of happiness. However, its specific role has been controversial. We argue that income inequality and happiness should exhibit an inverted U-shaped relationship due to the dynamic competing process between two effects: when income inequality is relatively low, the signal effect will be the dominating factor, in which individuals feel happy because they consider income inequality as a signal of social mobility and expect upward mobility; however, if income inequality level increases beyond a critical point, the jealousy effect will become the dominating factor, in which individuals tend to be unhappy because they are disillusioned about the prospect of upward mobility and jealous of their wealthier peers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224963/meeting-report-initial-world-health-organization-consultation-on-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-vaccine-preferred-product-characteristics-march-2017
#20
Sami L Gottlieb, Birgitte K Giersing, Julian Hickling, Rebecca Jones, Carolyn Deal, David C Kaslow
The development of vaccines against herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an important global goal for sexual and reproductive health. A key priority to advance development of HSV vaccines is the definition of preferred product characteristics (PPCs), which provide strategic guidance on World Health Organization (WHO) preferences for new vaccines, specifically from a low- and middle-income country (LMIC) perspective. To start the PPC process for HSV vaccines, the WHO convened a global stakeholder consultation in March 2017, to define the priority public health needs that should be addressed by HSV vaccines and discuss the key considerations for HSV vaccine PPCs, particularly for LMICs...
December 7, 2017: Vaccine
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