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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538853/-social-programs-and-reducing-obesity-in-peru-reflections-from-the-research
#1
Francisco Diez-Canseco, Lorena Saavedra-Garcia
In recent decades, overweight or obesity have increased dramatically in middle- and low-income countries; a situation which consolidates chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) as one of the leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide. Currently, half the people in Peru over the age of 15 years are overweight, and one fifth suffer from obesity. The situation is worsening and increasingly affects people in poverty, who frequently benefit from food supplement programs designed to combat food insecurity and malnutrition...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538844/-prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-macrosomia-in-peru-2013
#2
Antonio José Ledo Alves da Cunha, Manuel Sobrino Toro, César Gutiérrez, Jorge Alarcón-Villaverde
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of macrosomia and factors associated with it in Peru and to describe the occurrence of complications peri- and postpartum. Materials and Methods: Birth weights of children under the age of 5 years were analyzed using data from the 2013 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES) carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Children with a birth weight higher than 4000 g were considered macrosomic...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538284/the-advance-study-a-groundbreaking-trial-to-evaluate-a-candidate-universal-antiretroviral-regimen
#3
Willem D F Venter, Polly Clayden, Celicia Serenata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current WHO-recommended first-line therapy in low-income and middle-income countries has been very successful in saving millions of lives but still has toxicity concerns and a low barrier to resistance. RECENT FINDINGS: Two candidate antiretrovirals may substantially transform first-line therapy in low-income and middle-income countries, yielding a safer, more robust and cheaper regimen. Tenofovir alafenamide carries toxicity and cost benefits over tenofovir disoproxil fumarate...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538239/how-to-save-1-million-lives-in-a-year-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#4
Colm P Travers, Wally A Carlo
Despite major improvements in reducing childhood mortality worldwide, over 5 million pregnancies per year end in stillbirths or neonatal deaths. The vast majority of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Many of these deaths are preventable with readily available evidence-based care practices. This review focuses on educational programs developed to reduce preventable deaths in newborn infants in low- and middle-income countries, including Essential Newborn Care and Helping Babies Breathe, a simplified version of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535450/the-global-burden-of-fatal-self-poisoning-with-pesticides-2006-15-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Emma J Mew, Prianka Padmanathan, Flemming Konradsen, Michael Eddleston, Shu-Sen Chang, Michael R Phillips, David Gunnell
BACKGROUND: Agricultural pesticide poisoning is a major contributor to the global burden of suicide. Over the last decade there has been a marked decrease in the incidence of suicide worldwide. It is unclear whether pesticide poisoning still plays a significant role in the global incidence of suicide. METHODS: WHO method-specific suicide data were supplemented by a systematic review of the literature between 2006 and 2015, including searches of thirteen electronic databases and Google, citation searching and a review of reference lists and personal collections...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533863/management-and-outcome-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-at-muhimbili-orthopaedic-institute-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#6
Respicious Boniface, Edwin Rwebugisa Lugazia, Abel Mussa Ntungi, Othman Kiloloma
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain Injuries represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and road traffic crashes accounts for a significant proportion of these injuries. However, access to neurosurgical care is poor in low income countries like Tanzania. The aim of this study was to assess the management and outcome of Traumatic brain injury patients at a tertiary level health facility in Tanzania. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of Traumatic brain injury patients attended at Muhimbili Orthopedic Institute between January 2014 and June 2014...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532715/caretakers-barriers-to-pediatric-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-vietnam-a-qualitative-and-quantitative-study
#7
C T Tran, T H Pham, K T Tran, T K C Nguyen, M Larsson
BACKGROUND: Poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence leads to drug resistance and treatment failures. The options for second and third line ART regimens, particularly for pediatric patients, are very limited in low and middle-income countries. HIV-infected children are mostly passive drug-takers, thus caretakers play a very important role in assuring ART adherence. Pediatric ART adherence is still a challenging problem in Vietnam since non-adherence is the major risk factor for treatment failure...
June 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532556/ethical-challenges-in-the-provision-of-dialysis-in-resource-constrained-environments
#8
REVIEW
Valerie A Luyckx, Ingrid Miljeteig, Addisu M Ejigu, M Rafique Moosa
The number of patients requiring dialysis by 2030 is projected to double worldwide, with the largest increase expected in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Dialysis is seldom considered a high priority by health care funders, consequently, few LMICs develop policies regarding dialysis allocation. Dialysis facilities may exist, but access remains highly inequitable in LMICs. High out-of-pocket payments make dialysis unsustainable and plunge many families into poverty. Patients, families, and clinicians suffer significant emotional and moral distress from daily life-and-death decisions imposed by dialysis...
May 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532554/traditional-medicines-and-kidney-disease-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-opportunities-and-challenges
#9
REVIEW
John W Stanifer, Kajiru Kilonzo, Daphne Wang, Guobin Su, Wei Mao, Lei Zhang, La Zhang, Shobhana Nayak-Rao, J Jaime Miranda
Traditional medicines are a principal form of health care for many populations, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, and they have gained attention as an important means of health care coverage globally. In the context of kidney diseases, the challenges and opportunities presented by traditional medicine practices are among the most important considerations for developing effective and sustainable public health strategies. However, little is known about the practices of traditional medicines in relation to kidney diseases, especially concerning benefits and harms...
May 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532553/the-potential-impact-of-public-health-interventions-in-preventing-kidney-disease
#10
REVIEW
Rohina Joshi, Oommen John, Vivekanand Jha
The years of life lost and years lived with disability resulting from chronic kidney disease (CKD) increased globally by 90% and 49.5%, respectively, between 1990 and 2013. In addition to the traditional factors, infections, low birthweight, environmental factors, and low socioeconomic status contribute to the CKD burden in low- and middle-income countries. System-level challenges such as poor appreciation of the burden, insufficient human resources, high health care costs, poor referral pathways, unreliable health information systems, and inadequate medicine supply pose barriers to CKD control...
May 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532552/nephrology-education-and-continuing-education-in-resource-limited-settings
#11
REVIEW
Tushar J Vachharajani, Aminu K Bello, Rhys Evans, Gavin Dreyer, Quentin Eichbaum
Nephrology training programs in high-income countries have transitioned from an apprenticeship model to a well-structured, resource-driven model that supports continual professional development. In contrast, in low- and middle-income countries, medical training and in particular nephrology training has lagged behind owing to resource limitations. Some of the challenges to adequately provide training to health care professionals in low- and middle-income countries include shortage of teaching faculty, difficulty in developing curricula to meet regional needs, and a lack of resources to provide competency-based medical education...
May 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532515/what-do-we-know-about-assessing-healthcare-students-and-professionals-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-regarding-female-genital-mutilation-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Jasmine Abdulcadir, Lale Say, Christina Pallitto
INTRODUCTION: Improving healthcare providers' capacities of prevention and treatment of female genital mutilation (FGM) is important given the fact that 200 million women and girls globally are living with FGM. However, training programs are lacking and often not evaluated. Validated and standardized tools to assess providers' knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding FGM are lacking. Therefore, little evidence exists on the impact of training efforts on healthcare providers' KAP on FGM...
May 22, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532500/extending-access-to-essential-services-against-constraints-the-three-tier-health-service-delivery-system-in-rural-china-1949-1980
#13
Xing Lin Feng, Melisa Martinez-Alvarez, Jun Zhong, Jin Xu, Beibei Yuan, Qingyue Meng, Dina Balabanova
BACKGROUND: China has made remarkable progress in scaling up essential services during the last six decades, making health care increasingly available in rural areas. This was partly achieved through the building of a three-tier health system in the 1950s, established as a linked network with health service facilities at county, township and village level, to extend services to the whole population. METHODS: We developed a Theory of Change to chart the policy context, contents and mechanisms that may have facilitated the establishment of the three-tier health service delivery system in rural China...
May 23, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532426/measuring-health-workers-motivation-composition-validation-of-a-scale-based-on-self-determination-theory-in-burkina-faso
#14
Julia Lohmann, Aurélia Souares, Justin Tiendrebéogo, Nathalie Houlfort, Paul Jacob Robyn, Serge M A Somda, Manuela De Allegri
BACKGROUND: Although motivation of health workers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has become a topic of increasing interest by policy makers and researchers in recent years, many aspects are not well understood to date. This is partly due to a lack of appropriate measurement instruments. This article presents evidence on the construct validity of a psychometric scale developed to measure motivation composition, i.e., the extent to which motivation of different origin within and outside of a person contributes to their overall work motivation...
May 22, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532418/the-role-of-health-system-governance-in-strengthening-the-rural-health-insurance-system-in-china
#15
REVIEW
Beibei Yuan, Weiyan Jian, Li He, Bingyu Wang, Dina Balabanova
BACKGROUND: Systems of governance play a key role in the operation and performance of health systems. In the past six decades, China has made great advances in strengthening its health system, most notably in establishing a health insurance system that enables residents of rural areas to achieve access to essential services. Although there have been several studies of rural health insurance schemes, these have focused on coverage and service utilization, while much less attention has been given to the role of governance in designing and implementing these schemes...
May 23, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532393/maternal-care-quality-in-near-miss-and-maternal-mortality-in-an-academic-public-tertiary-hospital-in-yogyakarta-indonesia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Yuli Mawarti, Adi Utarini, Mohammad Hakimi
BACKGROUND: Reducing maternal mortality remains a major challenge for health care systems worldwide. The factors related to maternal mortality were extensively researched, and maternal death clusters around labour, delivery and the immediate postpartum period. Studies on the quality of maternal care in academic medical centre settings in low income countries are uncommon. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of maternal deaths was conducted in an academic public tertiary hospital in Yogyakarta, and maternal near misses were used as controls...
May 22, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532182/tackling-a-novel-lethal-virus-a-focus-on-h7n9-vaccine-development
#17
Irina Isakova-Sivak, Larisa Rudenko
Avian-origin H7N9 influenza viruses first detected in humans in China in 2013 continue to cause severe human infections with a mortality rate close to 40%. These viruses are acknowledged as the subtype most likely to cause the next influenza pandemic. Areas covered: Here we review published data on the development of H7N9 influenza vaccine candidates and their evaluation in preclinical and clinical trials identified on PubMed database with the term "H7N9 influenza vaccine". In addition, a search with the same term was done on ClinicalTrials...
May 22, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531848/a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression-of-the-prevalence-and-incidence-of-perinatal-depression
#18
REVIEW
C A Woody, A J Ferrari, D J Siskind, H A Whiteford, M G Harris
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of the disease burden for women of childbearing age, but the burden of MDD attributable to perinatal depression is not yet known. There has been little effort to date to systematically review available literature and produce global estimates of prevalence and incidence of perinatal depression. Enhanced understanding will help to guide resource allocation for screening and treatment. METHODS: A systematic literature review using the databases PsycINFO and PubMED returned 140 usable prevalence estimates from 96 studies...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531288/an-evaluation-of-systemic-reforms-of-public-hospitals-the-sanming-model-in-china
#19
Hongqiao Fu, Ling Li, Mingqiang Li, Chunyu Yang, William Hsiao
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been searching for effective strategies to reform their inefficient and wasteful public hospitals. Recently, China developed a model of systemic reforms called the Sanming model to address the inefficiency and waste at public hospitals. In this article, we explain and evaluate how the Sanming model reformed its 22 public hospitals in 2013 by simultaneously restructuring the hospital governance structure, altering the payment system to hospitals, and realigning physicians' incentives...
May 20, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531276/impact-of-vitamin-a-and-carotenoids-on-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-progression
#20
Omowunmi Aibana, Molly F Franke, Chuan-Chin Huang, Jerome T Galea, Roger Calderon, Zibiao Zhang, Mercedes C Becerra, Emily R Smith, Alayne G Ronnenberg, Carmen Contreras, Rosa Yataco, Leonid Lecca, Megan B Murray
Background: Low and deficient levels of vitamin A are common in low and middle income countries where tuberculosis (TB) burden is high. We assessed the impact of baseline levels of vitamins A and carotenoids on TB disease risk. Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within a longitudinal cohort of household contacts of pulmonary TB cases in Lima, Peru. We defined cases as HIV-negative household contacts with blood samples who developed TB disease at least 15 days after enrollment of index patient...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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