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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335031/ethics-of-health-policy-and-systems-research-a-scoping-review-of-the-literature
#1
Bridget Pratt, Amy Paul, Adnan A Hyder, Joseph Ali
Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is increasingly funded and undertaken as part of health system strengthening efforts worldwide. HPSR ethics is also a relatively new and emerging field, with numerous normative and descriptive questions that have largely not been considered. Normative questions include what ethical principles and values should guide HPSR. Descriptive questions include what ethical concerns arise when conducting HPSR. A small but growing body of scholarly work characterizes the various ethics issues inherent in HPSR...
March 15, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334465/nurses-contribution-to-short-term-humanitarian-care-in-low-to-middle-income-countries-an-integrative-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Sonja Dawson, Doug Elliott, Debra Jackson
AIM: To appraise the literature related to voluntary humanitarian work provided by international nurses in low to middle income countries (LMICs). BACKGROUND: Nurses and other health professionals are engaged with both governmental and non-governmental organisations to provide care within international humanitarian relief and development contexts. Current literature describes accounts of charitable health professional activity within short-term health focused humanitarian trips; however, there is minimal research describing the care that nurses provide and the professional roles and tasks they fulfil whilst participating in international volunteer health care service...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334096/measuring-maternal-mortality-a-systematic-review-of-methods-used-to-obtain-estimates-of-the-maternal-mortality-ratio-mmr-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Florence Mgawadere, Terry Kana, Nynke van den Broek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333691/asthma-prevalence-and-severity-in-low-resource-communities
#4
Álvaro A Cruz, Rafael Stelmach, Eduardo V Ponte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of asthma was thought to be low in most low-income countries, but several reports have indicated this is not always true. This is a narrative review of recent publications on the burden of asthma in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) and underprivileged communities from developed countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have reported a low prevalence of asthma is LMIC, but indicate it is increasing. In the last few years, however, many surveys demonstrated this may not always be true...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332464/distributing-development-assistance-for-health-simulating-the-implications-of-11-criteria
#5
Trygve Ottersen, Suerie Moon, John-Arne Røttingen
After years of unprecedented growth in development assistance for health (DAH), the DAH system is challenged on several fronts: by the economic downturn and stagnation of DAH, by the epidemiological transition and increase in non-communicable diseases and by the economic transition and rise of the middle-income countries. Central to any potent response is a fair and effective allocation of DAH across countries. A myriad of criteria has been proposed or is currently used, but there have been no comprehensive assessment of their distributional implications...
April 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332461/global-public-goods-for-health-weaknesses-and-opportunities-in-the-global-health-system
#6
Suerie Moon, John-Arne Røttingen, Julio Frenk
Since at least the 1990s, there has been growing recognition that societies need global public goods (GPGs) in order to protect and promote public health. While the term GPG is sometimes used loosely to denote that which is 'good' for the global public, we restrict our use of the term to its technical definition (goods that are non-excludable and non-rival in consumption) for its useful analytical clarity. Examples of important GPGs for health include standards and guidelines, research on the causes and treatment of disease, and comparative evidence and analysis...
April 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332459/fiscal-space-for-domestic-funding-of-health-and-other-social-services
#7
Filip Meheus, Di McIntyre
To progress toward universal health coverage and promote inclusive social and economic development, it will be necessary to strengthen domestic resource mobilization for health. In this paper, we examine options for increasing domestic government revenue in low- and middle-income countries. We analyze the relationship between level of economic development and levels of government revenue and expenditure, and show that a country's level of economic development does not predetermine its spending levels. Government revenue can be increased through improved tax compliance and efficiency in revenue collection, maximizing revenue from mineral and other natural resources, and increasing tax rates where appropriate...
April 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332458/raising-more-domestic-money-for-health-prospects-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#8
Riku Elovainio, David B Evans
Since the 2007/2008 financial crisis, the rhetoric in the development assistance dialogue has shifted away from raising more international funding for health, to requesting countries to move toward self-sufficiency. This paper examines the potential of 46 countries identified by an international panel in 2009 as being of high need to raise additional funding for health from domestic sources. Economic growth alone would allow 12 of them to reach a level of health spending where their populations could have access to a very basic set of health services...
April 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332456/what-level-of-domestic-government-health-expenditure-should-we-aspire-to-for-universal-health-coverage
#9
Di Mcintyre, Filip Meheus, John-Arne Røttingen
Global discussions on universal health coverage (UHC) have focussed attention on the need for increased government funding for health care in many low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to explore potential targets for government spending on health to progress towards UHC. An explicit target for government expenditure on health care relative to gross domestic product (GDP) is a potentially powerful tool for holding governments to account in progressing to UHC, particularly in the context of UHC's inclusion in the Sustainable Development Goals...
April 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332124/use-of-physical-restraints-among-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-in-ethiopian-mental-specialized-hospital-outpatient-department-cross-sectional-study
#10
Habte Belete
BACKGROUND: Even though United Nation announced that all persons with a mental illness shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human being, up to now, the use of coercion (physical restrain) is still considered as unavoidable in managing abnormal behavior of psychiatric patients. But, there is no information regarding the magnitude and contributing factors of physical restrain among bipolar patients in low-income countries like Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital from May 1 to June 1, 2015 among 400 participants who were selected by systematic random sampling technique...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331734/the-treatment-approach-and-social-support-needs-for-patients-with-breast-cancer
#11
Pınar Soylar, Metin F Genç
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women both in developed and developing countries. It has a higher mortality rate in low and middle income countries due to the late-stage diagnosis. The principal aim of this study was to investigate what patients with breast cancer did before presenting to Turgut Özal Medical Center and its relationship with late stage diagnosis. The study also aimed to identify the level of patients' perceived social support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 200 patients with breast cancer who were treated at the chemotherapy unit during 2013 and 2014...
April 2016: J Breast Health (2013)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330857/estimated-disability-adjusted-life-years-averted-by-free-of-charge-provision-of-the-levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine-system-over-a-9-year-period-in-brazil
#12
Jessica M Ferreira, Ilza Monteiro, Arlete Fernandes, Maria V Bahamondes, Ana Pitoli, Luis Bahamondes
BACKGROUND: The objective was to analyse the contribution of the provision at no cost to users of the 20 µg/day levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) towards disability-adjusted life years (DALY) averted over a 9-year period. METHODS: We analysed data from 15 030 new users of the LNG-IUS who had the device inserted at 26 Brazilian teaching hospitals between January 2007 and December 2015. The devices came from the International Contraceptive Access Foundation (ICA), a not-for-profit foundation that donates the devices to developing countries for use by low-income women who desire long-term contraception and who freely choose to use this device...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330467/mental-health-care-and-delivery-system-at-temeke-hospital-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#13
Joel Seme Ambikile, Masunga K Iseselo
BACKGROUND: Low and middle income countries face many challenges in meeting mental health needs in their regions. Treatment of patients with mental disorders is inadequate in most of these countries and majority of individuals with severe mental disorders remain untreated. The bad news is that mental health problems in these countries are on the rise due to socioeconomic challenges being faced. Regardless of guidelines and directives provided by WHO for organizing mental health services, these countries continue to face many challenges in the effort to cater for mental health needs...
March 23, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330453/a-systematic-review-of-primary-care-models-for-non-communicable-disease-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa
#14
Jennifer Kane, Megan Landes, Christopher Carroll, Amy Nolen, Sumeet Sodhi
BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases, primarily cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, diabetes and cancer, are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where communicable disease prevalence still outweighs that of non-communicable disease (NCDs), rates of NCDs are rapidly rising and evidence for primary healthcare approaches for these emerging NCDs is needed. METHODS: A systematic review and evidence synthesis of primary care approaches for chronic disease in SSA...
March 23, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330178/emergence-of-mixed-infection-of-beijing-non-beijing-strains-among-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-pakistan
#15
Samar Mustafa, Hasnain Javed, Jawairia Hashmi, Nazia Jamil, Zarfishan Tahir, Abdul Majeed Akhtar
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the deadliest diseases after HIV globally with 95 % of deaths confined to low-and-middle income countries. Pakistan is fifth among the 22 high-burden TB countries with the incidence rate of 230/100,000 persons, however, studies related to prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and their spread, drug resistance pattern and evolutionary genetics are inadequate. The present study was undertaken to highlight the circulation of M. tuberculosis strains causing drug resistant TB in our community by targeting the molecular marker IS6110 and then characterization of these strains as Beijing and Non-Beijing genotypes...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329805/cognitive-function-in-low-income-and-low-literacy-settings-validation-of-the-tablet-based-oxford-cognitive-screen-in-the-health-and-aging-in-africa-a-longitudinal-study-of-an-indepth-community-in-south-africa-haalsi
#16
Glyn W Humphreys, Mihaela D Duta, Livia Montana, Nele Demeyere, Cathal McCrory, Julia Rohr, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, Lisa Berkman
Objectives: 1. Assess validity of the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS-Plus), a domain-specific cognitive assessment designed for low-literacy settings, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC); 2. Advance theoretical contributions in cognitive neuroscience in domain-specific cognitive function and cognitive reserve, especially related to dementia. Method: In a cross-sectional study of a sample of 1,402 men and women aged 40-79 in the Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI), we administered OCS-Plus along with health and sociodemographic assessments...
October 21, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329208/differentiated-hiv-rna-viral-load-monitoring-in-resource-limited-settings-an-economic-analysis
#17
Diana M Negoescu, Zhenhuan Zhang, Heiner C Bucher, Eran Bendavid
Background: Viral load (VL) monitoring for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended worldwide. However, the costs of frequent monitoring are a barrier to implementation in resource-limited settings. The extent to which personalized monitoring frequencies may be cost-effective is unknown. Methods: We created a simulation model parameterized using person-level longitudinal data to assess the benefits of flexible monitoring frequencies. Our data-driven model tracked HIV+ individuals for 10 years following ART initiation...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328940/the-effects-of-cash-transfers-and-vouchers-on-the-use-and-quality-of-maternity-care-services-a-systematic-review
#18
Benjamin M Hunter, Sean Harrison, Anayda Portela, Debra Bick
BACKGROUND: Cash transfers and vouchers are forms of 'demand-side financing' that have been widely used to promote maternal and newborn health in low- and middle-income countries during the last 15 years. METHODS: This systematic review consolidates evidence from seven published systematic reviews on the effects of different types of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services, and updates the systematic searches to June 2015 using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for systematic reviewing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327185/economic-evaluation-of-interventions-delivered-by-primary-care-providers-to-improve-neurodevelopment-in-children-aged-under-5%C3%A2-years-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#19
Karen M Edmond, Natalie A Strobel, Kimberley McAuley, Elizabeth Geelhoed, Lisa Hurt
BACKGROUND: Frequently cited benefit-cost ratios suggest that interventions to improve neurodevelopment have high economic returns when implemented during pregnancy and early childhood. However, there are many challenges when primary care providers implement these interventions at scale, and it is unclear how many research studies or programmes have examined cost-effectiveness and which methods were used. There are no current scoping or systematic reviews which have assessed economic evaluations of interventions delivered by primary care providers to improve child neurodevelopment...
March 21, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327164/international-consultation-on-long-term-global-health-research-priorities-research-capacity-and-research-uptake-in-developing-countries
#20
David Mc Conalogue, Sue Kinn, Jo-Ann Mulligan, Malcolm McNeil
BACKGROUND: In recognition of the need for long-term planning for global health research, and to inform future global health research priorities, the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DfID) carried out a public consultation between May and June 2015. The consultation aimed to elicit views on the (1) the long-term future global health research priorities; (2) areas likely to be less important over time; (3) how to improve research uptake in low-income countries; and (4) how to build research capacity in low-income countries...
March 21, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
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