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Paula A Aduen, Michael J Kofler, Dustin E Sarver, Erica L Wells, Elia F Soto, Daniel J Cox
ADHD is associated with automobile crashes, traffic fatalities, and serious road trauma, but it is unclear whether this risk is (a) driven by ADHD symptoms specifically, and (b) unique to ADHD or transdiagnostic across psychiatric disabilities, such as depression, that also have concentration problems as core symptoms. The current study provides the first prospective, continuously-monitored evaluation of crash risk related to ADHD symptoms, including the first on-road comparison of ADHD with another high-prevalence psychiatric disability (depression)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Hannah C Levy, Amber L Billingsley, Kristen S Springer, Scott Hannan, Akanksha Das, David F Tolin
OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Questionnaire-45.2 (OQ-45) is a self-report measure of general psychological distress. Although intended to be transdiagnostic, the OQ-45 may be best conceptualized as a measure of depression; as such, its utility in assessing other symptoms such as anxiety is unclear. METHOD: We examined scores on the OQ-45 in a sample of 329 patients with anxiety and related disorders, half of whom had co-occurring depression. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent of patients scored above the OQ-45 cutoff, whereas 18% were incorrectly screened out...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Gitanjali Narayanan, Shaima Naaz
Recent research points to a shift from categorical diagnoses to a dimensional understanding of psychopathology and mental health disorders. In parallel, there has been a rise in newer psychosocial treatment modalities, which are inherently transdiagnostic. Transdiagnostic approaches are those that identify core vulnerabilities and apply universal principles to therapeutic treatment. As treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) must invariably accommodate such vulnerabilities, clinicians are finding such interventions useful...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Amy Keefer, Susan W White, Roma A Vasa, Judy Reaven
Internalizing disorders are common in individuals with ASD. Psychosocial interventions targeting these disorders in the ASD population have burgeoned in the last decade. Cognitive-behavioural therapy, modified for ASD, is the most frequently investigated model, although other interventions, including behaviour therapy, third-wave interventions, models targeting transdiagnostic constructs, and alternative interventions and treatment delivery methods are now emerging. This review provides a summary of the efficacy of these interventions in treating internalizing disorders in youth and adults with ASD...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Marit Danielsen, Sigrid Bjørnelv, Grete Helen Bratberg, Øyvind Rø
OBJECTIVE: The need to consider gender when studying exercise in eating disorder (ED) has been underscored. The study aimed to test the psychometric properties and factor structure of the exercise and eating disorder (EED) questionnaire for males with and without ED, to highlight gender differences, and to explore issues relevant for a male version of the EED questionnaire. METHOD: This cross sectional study included 258 male participants: 55 ED patients (inpatients and outpatients) and 203 student controls...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Jorge Osma, Carlos Suso-Ribera, Azucena García-Palacios, Elena Crespo-Delgado, Cristina Robert-Flor, Ana Sánchez-Guerrero, Vanesa Ferreres-Galan, Luisa Pérez-Ayerra, Amparo Malea-Fernández, Mª Ángeles Torres-Alfosea
BACKGROUND: Emotional disorders, which include both anxiety and depressive disorders, are the most prevalent psychological disorders according to recent epidemiological studies. Consequently, public costs associated with their treatment have become a matter of concern for public health systems, which face long waiting lists. Because of their high prevalence in the population, finding an effective treatment for emotional disorders has become a key goal of today's clinical psychology. The Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders might serve the aforementioned purpose, as it can be applied to a variety of disorders simultaneously and it can be easily performed in a group format...
March 12, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Maureen Zalewski, Jennifer K Lewis, Christina Gamache Martin
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an effective treatment for an increasing number of mental disorders. Its increased application to a range of disorders has been prompted by the recognition that DBT targets emotion dysregulation, which is a transdiagnostic feature underlying several forms of psychopathology. More recently, DBT has been used to target additional clinically relevant domains that are outside diagnostically bound categories, such as improving parenting quality as a means of preventing psychopathology in children of parents with psychopathology...
March 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Andrea B Goldschmidt, Ross D Crosby, Li Cao, Markus Moessner, Kelsie T Forbush, Erin C Accurso, Daniel Le Grange
Classifying eating disorders in youth is challenging in light of developmental considerations and high rates of diagnostic migration. Understanding the transactional relationships among eating disorder symptoms, both across the transdiagnostic spectrum and within specific diagnostic categories, may clarify which core eating disorder symptoms contribute to, and maintain, eating-related psychopathology in youth. We utilized network analysis to investigate interrelationships among eating disorder symptoms in 636 treatment-seeking children and adolescents (90...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Alexandra Nikodijevic, Kimberly Buck, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Tara de Paoli, Isabel Krug
This review sought to systematically review and quantify the evidence related to body checking and body avoidance in eating disorders (EDs) to gauge the size of effects, as well as examine potential differences between clinical and nonclinical populations, and between different ED subtypes. PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PsycEXTRA, Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE databases were searched for academic literature published until October 2017. A grey literature search was also conducted. Fifty-two studies were identified for the systematic review, of which 34 were eligible for meta-analysis...
March 12, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Marisa A Patti, Vanessa Troiani
Atypical sulcogyral patterns in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, as well as with quantitative traits associated with schizophrenia, such as anhedonia. Here we conduct a cross-diagnostic comparison to assess whether atypical OFC sulcogyral patterns confer risk for multiple brain disorders. We examined structural images from 4 groups of adult participants (N = 189), including those diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ; N = 49), bipolar disorder (BP; N = 46), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 41), and controls (N = 53)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Rebecca M Zuckerman, Rebecca L Silton, Frank F Tu, Joshua S Eng, Kevin M Hellman
Somatic symptoms are a robust, transdiagnostic risk factor for pain conditions. However, the extent to which somatic symptoms contribute to the manifestation of the women's pain syndromes, such as dysmenorrhea and noncyclic pelvic pain (NCPP), is unclear due to high rates of co-occurrence. Therefore, the present study investigated the primary hypothesis that somatic symptoms would be elevated in NCPP and distinctly influence the relationship between dysmenorrhea and co-occurring NCPP. A secondary analysis was performed on cross-sectional questionnaire data from 1012 nonpregnant reproductive-aged women...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Andrew C Porter, Rachel L Zelkowitz, David A Cole
This study examined the unique associations of shame-proneness and self-criticism to symptoms of disordered eating and depression among 186 undergraduate students. The study also tested the degree to which self-criticism and shame-proneness accounted for the association between disordered eating and depressive symptoms. Both shame-proneness and self-criticism were significantly related to disordered eating and depressive symptoms. Self-criticism was significantly associated with disordered eating and depressive symptoms, over-and-above shame-proneness, but the reverse was not true...
March 3, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Stephen P Becker, Erik G Willcutt
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is separable from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other psychopathologies, and growing evidence demonstrates SCT to be associated with impairment in both children and adults. However, it remains unclear how SCT should optimally be conceptualized. In this article, we argue that multiple models of psychopathology should be leveraged to make substantive advances to our understanding of SCT. Both categorical and dimensional approaches should be used, including the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) nosology, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative, and hierarchical models of psychopathology...
March 10, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Falk Leichsenring, Christiane Steinert
BACKGROUND: In psychotherapy research unified, transdiagnostic and modular treatments have emerged. This is true for both cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychodynamic therapy. Recently, two unified psychodynamic protocols were presented, one for anxiety disorders, another for depressive disorders. Integrating the treatment principles for these two highly prevalent disorder groups into one protocol for "emotional disorders" may be useful for both clinical practice and training in psychotherapy...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
A J P Bloemen, A J Oldehinkel, O M Laceulle, J Ormel, N N J Rommelse, C A Hartman
BACKGROUND: We modeled both psychopathology and executive function (EF) as bi-factor models to study if EF impairments are transdiagnostic or relate to individual syndromes, and concurrently, if such associations are with general EF or specific EF impairments. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS; N = 2230). Psychopathology was assessed with parent-report questionnaires at ages 11, 14, 16, and 19, and EF with tasks from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks program at ages 11 and 19...
March 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
T A M J van Amelsvoort, M C Klaassen, O A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing awareness that the current approach to clinical thought and work in psychiatry in relation to psychiatric diagnosis, treatment and research has its limitations. This necessitates a process to reform both the clinical practice and future scientific research. One way to reform this is the transdiagnostic approach. AIM: To clarify the psychological, biological and therapeutic aspects of a transdiagnostic approach in psychiatry. METHOD: An analysis of new approaches based on recent findings from the recent literature...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Karolina Zarychta, Carina K Y Chan, Magdalena Kruk, Aleksandra Luszczynska
PURPOSE: Theoretical models, such as the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders highlight the role of cognitive factors (e.g., the way people perceive their bodies) and their associations with maladaptive weight management behaviors resulting in underweight. This paper aims at testing the indirect association of adolescent's body satisfaction and body mass index (BMI) through restrictive dieting, healthy eating or unhealthy eating as well as moderating role of adolescent's weight status...
March 8, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Marieke G N Bos, Sofia Diamantopoulou, Lex Stockmann, Sander Begeer, Carolien Rieffe
Children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often show comorbid emotional and behavior problems. The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the relation between emotion control (i.e., negative emotionality, emotion awareness, and worry/rumination) and the development of internalizing and externalizing problems. Boys with and without ASD (N = 157; age 9-15) were followed over a period of 1.5 years (3 waves). We found that baseline levels of worry/rumination was a specific predictor of later externalizing problems for boys with ASD...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Peter M McEvoy, Matthew P Hyett, Thomas Ehring, Sheri L Johnson, Suraj Samtani, Rebecca Anderson, Michelle L Moulds
BACKGROUND: Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a cognitive process that is repetitive, passive, relatively uncontrollable, and focused on negative content, and is elevated in emotional disorders including depression and anxiety disorders. Repetitive positive thinking is associated with bipolar disorder symptoms. The unique contributions of positive versus negative repetitive thinking to emotional symptoms are unknown. The first aim of this study was to use confirmatory factor analyses to evaluate the psychometrics of two transdiagnostic measures of RNT, the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ-10) and Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ), and a measure of repetitive positive thinking, the Responses to Positive Affect (RPA) Questionnaire...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jeffrey S Bedwell, Christopher C Spencer, Chi C Chan, Pamela D Butler, Pejman Sehatpour, Joseph Schmidt
A reduced P1 visual-evoked potential amplitude has been reported across several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia-spectrum, bipolar, and depressive disorders. In addition, a difference in P1 amplitude change to a red background compared to its opponent color, green, has been found in schizophrenia-spectrum samples. The current study examined whether specific psychiatric symptoms that related to these P1 abnormalities in earlier studies would be replicated when using a broad transdiagnostic sample...
March 3, 2018: Brain Research
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