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Precision oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045518/negative-hyper-selection-of-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients-for-anti-egfr-monoclonal-antibodies-the-pressing-case-control-study
#1
C Cremolini, F Morano, R Moretto, R Berenato, E Tamborini, F Perrone, D Rossini, A Gloghini, A Busico, G Zucchelli, C Baratelli, E Tamburini, M Tampellini, E Sensi, G Fucà, C Volpi, M Milione, M Di Maio, G Fontanini, F De Braud, A Falcone, F Pietrantonio
Background: Refining the selection of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients candidates for anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies beyond RAS and BRAF testing is a challenge of precision oncology. Several uncommon genomic mechanisms of primary resistance, leading to activation of tyrosine kinase receptors other than EGFR or downstream signaling pathways, have been suggested by preclinical and retrospective studies. Patients and methods: We conducted this multicenter, prospective, case-control study to demonstrate the negative predictive impact of a panel of rare genomic alterations (PRESSING panel), including HER2/MET amplifications, ALK/ROS1/NTRK1-3/RET fusions, and HER2/PI3K/PTEN/AKT1 mutations...
September 25, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043461/effect-of-anti-angiogenesis-induced-by-chemotherapeutic-monotherapy-chemotherapeutic-bisphosphonate-combination-therapy-and-anti-vegfa-mab-therapy-on-tooth-extraction-socket-healing-in-mice
#2
Yuri Akita, Shinichiro Kuroshima, Kazunori Nakajima, Hiroki Hayano, Riho Kanai, Muneteru Sasaki, Takashi Sawase
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), which is a rare but severe adverse effect, mainly occurs in oncology patients receiving chemotherapeutic agents and bisphosphonates. However, the combined impact of chemotherapy and bisphosphonates on wound healing after tooth extraction remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the precise etiology of ONJ induced by chemotherapy and bisphosphonate combination therapy. Mice received zoledronate (ZA) monotherapy, cyclophosphamide (CY) monotherapy or CY/ZA combination therapy...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040511/development-of-the-testis-in-pre-pubertal-boys-with-cancer-after-biopsy-for-fertility-preservation
#3
M Uijldert, A Meißner, A A de Melker, A M M van Pelt, M D van de Wetering, R R van Rijn, M van Wely, F van der Veen, S Repping
STUDY QUESTION: Is testicular growth affected by a testicular biopsy intended for fertility preservation in pre-pubertal boys with cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Testicular growth of the biopsied testis is not impeded in comparison to the non-biopsied contralateral testis up until 1 year after surgery. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fertility preservation in pre-pubertal boys by means of testicular biopsy has been conducted for more than 15 years. Although immediate adverse effects of testicular biopsy are rare (1%), no data exist on the effect of biopsy on testicular growth...
October 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040258/prognostic-and-therapeutic-implications-of-dna-repair-gene-mutations-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#4
Michael T Schweizer, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
Recent work directed toward understanding the molecular features of advanced prostate cancers has revealed a relatively high incidence of both germline and somatic alterations in genes involved in DNA damage repair (DDR). Many of these alterations likely play a critical role in the pathogenesis of more aggressive prostate cancers-leading to genomic instability and an increased probability of the development of lethal disease. However, because the ability to repair DNA damage with a high degree of fidelity is critical to an individual cell's survival, tumor cells harboring alterations in DDR pathway genes are also more susceptible to drugs that induce DNA damage or impair alternative DNA repair pathways...
October 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031295/competitive-amperometric-immunosensor-for-determination-of-p53-protein-in-urine-with-carbon-nanotubes-gold-nanoparticles-screen-printed-electrodes-a-potential-rapid-and-noninvasive-screening-tool-for-early-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-carcinoma
#5
Marco Giannetto, Maria Vittoria Bianchi, Monica Mattarozzi, Maria Careri
Since p53 protein has become recognized biomarker for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in oncological diseases with particular relevance for bladder cancer, it is highly desirable to search for a novel sensing tool for detecting the patient's p53 level at the early stage. Here we report the first study on the development and validation of a novel disposable competitive amperometric immunosensor for determination of p53 protein at subnanomolar levels, based on p53 immobilization on gold nanoparticles/carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed carbon electrodes...
October 23, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030741/the-role-of-next-generation-sequencing-in-sarcomas-evolution-from-light-microscope-to-molecular-microscope
#6
REVIEW
Roman Groisberg, Jason Roszik, Anthony Conley, Shreyaskumar R Patel, Vivek Subbiah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sarcomas are rare, heterogeneous group of soft tissue and bone tumors. Precise diagnosis of specific subtypes is challenging using conventional methods. Herein, we review the role of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology that is used for rapid sequencing of DNA and RNA. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent sarcoma specific studies recommend that molecular genetic testing should be added at diagnosis for appropriate clinical management in addition to diagnosis by expert pathologists...
October 13, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028415/crispr-cas9-mediated-noncoding-rna-editing-in-human-cancers
#7
Jie Yang, Xiaodan Meng, Jinchang Pan, Nan Jiang, Chengwei Zhou, Zhenhua Wu, Zhaohui Gong
Cancer is characterized by multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations, including a higher prevalence of mutations of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressors. Mounting evidences have shown that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in the epigenetic regulation of cancer genes and their associated pathways. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, a revolutionary genome-editing technology, has shed light on ncRNA-based cancer therapy. Here, we briefly introduce the classifications and mechanisms of CRISPR/Cas9 system...
October 13, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028368/a-window-into-clinical-next-generation-sequencing-based-oncology-testing-practices
#8
Rakesh Nagarajan, Angela N Bartley, Julia A Bridge, Lawrence J Jennings, Suzanne Kamel-Reid, Annette Kim, Alexander J Lazar, Neal I Lindeman, Joel Moncur, Alex J Rai, Mark J Routbort, Patricia Vasalos, Jason D Merker
CONTEXT: - Detection of acquired variants in cancer is a paradigm of precision medicine, yet little has been reported about clinical laboratory practices across a broad range of laboratories. OBJECTIVE: - To use College of American Pathologists proficiency testing survey results to report on the results from surveys on next-generation sequencing-based oncology testing practices. DESIGN: - College of American Pathologists proficiency testing survey results from more than 250 laboratories currently performing molecular oncology testing were used to determine laboratory trends in next-generation sequencing-based oncology testing...
October 13, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027396/comparison-of-three-different-risk-stratification-models-for-predicting-lymph-node-involvement-in-endometrioid-endometrial-cancer-clinically-confined-to-the-uterus
#9
Vakkas Korkmaz, Mehmet Mutlu Meydanli, Ibrahim Yalçın, Mustafa Erkan Sarı, Hanifi Sahin, Eda Kocaman, Ali Haberal, Polat Dursun, Tayfun Güngör, Ali Ayhan
OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical validity of the Gynecologic Oncology Group-99 (GOG-99), the Mayo-modified and the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO)-modified criteria for predicting lymph node (LN) involvement in women with endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC) clinically confined to the uterus. METHODS: A total of 625 consecutive women who underwent comprehensive surgical staging for endometrioid EC clinically confined to the uterus were divided into low- and high-risk groups according to the GOG-99, the Mayo-modified, and the ESMO-modified criteria...
November 2017: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025725/ct-texture-analysis-defining-and-integrating-new-biomarkers-for-advanced-oncologic-imaging-in-precision-medicine-a-comment-on-ct-texture-analysis-potentially-predicts-local-failure-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-treated-with-chemoradiotherapy
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025326/onco-proteogenomics-multi-omics-level-data-integration-for-accurate-phenotype-prediction
#11
Lampros Dimitrakopoulos, Ioannis Prassas, Eleftherios P Diamandis, George S Charames
The overall goal of translational oncology is to identify molecular alterations indicative of cancer or of responsiveness to specific therapeutic regimens. While next-generation sequencing has played a pioneering role in this quest, the latest advances in proteomic technologies promise to provide a holistic approach to the further elucidation of tumor biology. Genetic information may be written in DNA and flow from DNA to RNA to protein, according to the central dogma of molecular biology, but the observed phenotype is dictated predominantly by the DNA protein coding region-derived proteotype...
October 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022089/quantification-of-altered-tissue-turnover-in-a-liquid-biopsy-a-proposed-precision-medicine-tool-to-assess-chronic-inflammation-and-desmoplasia-associated-with-a-pro-cancerous-niche-and-response-to-immuno-therapeutic-anti-tumor-modalities
#12
REVIEW
Nicholas Willumsen, Louise B Thomsen, Cecilie L Bager, Christina Jensen, Morten A Karsdal
Immuno-therapy has begun to revolutionize cancer treatment. However, despite the significant progress achieved in regard to the duration of clinical benefits, a substantial number of patients do not respond to these therapies. To improve the outcome of patients receiving immuno-therapy, there is a need for novel biomarkers that can predict and monitor treatment. Tumor microenvironment alterations, more specifically the state of chronic inflammation and desmoplasia (tumor fibrosis), are important factors to consider in this context...
October 11, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994465/impact-of-pet-ct-system-reconstruction-protocol-data-analysis-method-and-repositioning-on-pet-ct-precision-an-experimental-evaluation-using-an-oncology-and-brain-phantom
#13
Syahir Mansor, Elisabeth Pfaehler, Dennis Heijtel, Martin A Lodge, Ronald Boellaard, Maqsood Yaqub
PURPOSE: In longitudinal oncological and brain PET/CT studies it is important to understand the repeatability of quantitative PET metrics in order to assess change in tracer uptake. The present studies were performed in order to assess precision as function of PET/CT system, reconstruction protocol, analysis method, scan duration (or image noise) and repositioning in the field of view. METHODS: Multiple (repeated) scans have been performed using a NEMA image quality (IQ) phantom and a 3D Hoffman brain phantom filled with (18) F solutions on two systems...
October 10, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994108/value-of-a-molecular-screening-program-to-support-clinical-trial-enrollment-in-asian-cancer-patients-the-integrated-molecular-analysis-of-cancer-imac-study
#14
Valerie Heong, Nicholas L Syn, Xiao Wen Lee, Nur Sabrina Sapari, Xue Qing Koh, Zul Fazreen Adam Isa, Joey Sy Lim, Diana Lim, Brendan Pang, Yee Liang Thian, Lai Kuan Ng, Andrea L Wong, Ross Andrew Soo, Wei Peng Yong, Cheng Ean Chee, Soo-Chin Lee, Boon-Cher Goh, Richie Soong, David S P Tan
The value of precision oncology initiatives in Asian contexts remains unresolved. Here we review the institutional implementation of prospective molecular screening to facilitate accrual of patients into biomarker-driven clinical trials, and to explore the mutational landscape of advanced tumors occurring in a prospective cohort of Asian patients (n = 396) with diverse cancer types. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and routine clinicopathological assays such as immunohistochemistry, copy number analysis, and in situ hybridization tests were performed on tumor samples...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989699/the-status-of-transarterial-chemoembolization-treatment-in-the-era-of-precision-oncology
#15
REVIEW
Valerie Fako, Xin Wei Wang
Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the gold standard of therapy for patients with unresectable intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and is also commonly used as postresection adjuvant therapy in Asia. The delivery of TACE is highly variable from center to center, and clinical decision making for patients is based primarily on tumor staging guidelines, with very little focus on individualized tumor features. This review will discuss recent efforts for improving patient outcomes with TACE treatment through personalized medicine advances, including ongoing clinical trials investigating the combination of targeted therapy with TACE and the discovery of prognostic biomarkers for predicting TACE response...
April 2017: Hepatic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984644/robotic-versus-laparoscopic-minimally-invasive-surgery-for-rectal-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
Francesco Paolo Prete, Angela Pezzolla, Fernando Prete, Mario Testini, Rinaldo Marzaioli, Alberto Patriti, Rosa Maria Jimenez-Rodriguez, Angela Gurrado, Giovanni F M Strippoli
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of elective rectal resection for rectal cancer in adults by robotic surgery compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Technological advantages of robotic surgery favor precise dissection in narrow spaces. However, the evidence base driving recommendations for the use of robotic surgery in rectal cancer primarily hinges on observational data. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL for randomized controlled trials (until August 2016) comparing robotic surgery versus conventional laparoscopic surgery...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984192/a-link-prediction-approach-to-cancer-drug-sensitivity-prediction
#17
Turki Turki, Zhi Wei
BACKGROUND: Predicting the response to a drug for cancer disease patients based on genomic information is an important problem in modern clinical oncology. This problem occurs in part because many available drug sensitivity prediction algorithms do not consider better quality cancer cell lines and the adoption of new feature representations; both lead to the accurate prediction of drug responses. By predicting accurate drug responses to cancer, oncologists gain a more complete understanding of the effective treatments for each patient, which is a core goal in precision medicine...
October 3, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983483/a-comprehensive-infrastructure-for-big-data-in-cancer-research-accelerating-cancer-research-and-precision-medicine
#18
Izumi V Hinkson, Tanja M Davidsen, Juli D Klemm, Anthony R Kerlavage, Warren A Kibbe
Advancements in next-generation sequencing and other -omics technologies are accelerating the detailed molecular characterization of individual patient tumors, and driving the evolution of precision medicine. Cancer is no longer considered a single disease, but rather, a diverse array of diseases wherein each patient has a unique collection of germline variants and somatic mutations. Molecular profiling of patient-derived samples has led to a data explosion that could help us understand the contributions of environment and germline to risk, therapeutic response, and outcome...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982488/twenty-first-century-precision-medicine-in-oncology-genomic-profiling-in-patients-with-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Mitesh J Borad, Patricia M LoRusso
The advent of next-generation sequencing has accelerated the implementation of genomic profiling in the care and management of patients with cancer. Initial efforts have focused on target identification in patients with advanced cancer. Prognostication, resistance detection, disease monitoring, and early detection efforts are also underway. This review highlights some of the challenges in this evolving space. This includes choosing between gene-panel and comprehensive approaches, DNA and transcriptome data integration, reduction of false-positive variants, addressing tumor heterogeneity, establishment of workflows to address unsolicited findings, and data sharing and privacy concerns...
October 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980455/clinical-proteomics-for-precision-medicine-the-bladder-cancer-case
#20
REVIEW
Agnieszka Latosinska, Maria Frantzi, Antonia Vlahou, Axel S Merseburger, Harald Mischak
Precision medicine can improve patient management by guiding therapeutic decision based on molecular characteristics. The concept has been extensively addressed through the application of -omics based approaches. Proteomics attract high interest, as proteins reflect a "real-time" dynamic molecular phenotype. Focusing on proteomics applications for personalized medicine, a literature search was conducted to cover: a) disease prevention, b) monitoring/ prediction of treatment response, c) stratification to guide intervention and d) identification of drug targets...
October 5, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
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