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Precision oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453313/multigene-profiling-of-ctcs-in-mcrpc-identifies-a-clinically-relevant-prognostic-signature
#1
Udit Singhal, Yugang Wang, James Henderson, Yashar S Niknafs, Yuanyuan Qiao, Amy Gursky, Alexander Zaslavsky, Jae-Seung Chung, David C Smith, R Jeffrey Karnes, S Laura Chang, Felix Y Feng, Ganesh S Palapattu, Russell S Taichman, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Scott A Tomlins, Todd M Morgan
The trend towards precision-based therapeutic approaches dictated by molecular alterations offers substantial promise for men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, current approaches for molecular characterization are primarily tissue based, necessitating serial biopsies to understand changes over time and are limited by the challenges inherent to extracting genomic material from predominantly bone metastases. Therefore, a circulating tumor cell (CTC)-based assay was developed to determine gene expression across a panel of clinically relevant and potentially actionable prostate cancer related genes...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447419/fear-of-cancer-recurrence-a-practical-guide-for-clinicians
#2
Phyllis Butow MClinPsych, Louise Sharpe, Belinda Thewes, Jane Turner, Jemma Gilchrist MClinPsych, Jane Beith
With increasing cancer survival, fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is becoming a prominent clinical issue. FCR is prevalent, distressing, and long-lasting, and can negatively impact patients' quality of life, use of health services, and adherence to follow-up recommendations. Novel targeted therapies may increase risk of FCR because of longer treatment duration and follow-up, increased prognostic precision, and omission of treatment based on genomic status. Oncologists can assess and screen for FCR using validated measures; provide adequate information about prognosis, signs and symptoms of recurrence, and behavioral strategies for risk reduction and follow-up; and warn patients and families that FCR may be an issue in survivorship...
January 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444120/computer-tomography-based-body-surface-area-evaluation-for-drug-dosage-quantitative-radiology-versus-anthropomorphic-evaluation
#3
Antoine Iannessi, Hubert Beaumont, Christophe Hebert, Claire Dittlot, Marie Noëlle Falewee
OBJECTIVE: The measure of body surface area (BSA) is a standard for planning optimal dosing in oncology. This index is derived from a model having questionable performances. In this study, we proposed measurement of BSA from whole body CT images (iBSA). We tested the reliability of iBSA assessments and simulated the impact of our approach on patient chemotherapy dosage planning. METHODS: We first evaluated accuracy and precision of iBSA in measuring 14 phantom and 11 CT test-retest images...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443772/primary-leiomyosarcoma-in-the-colon-a-case-report
#4
Jing Yang
RATIONALE: Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a common type of soft tissue sarcoma. Primary colonic LMS in general is a very rare entity, accounting for 1% to 2% of gastrointestinal malignancies. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of 55-year-old female who presented with a sudden onset of sharp right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Electronic colonoscopy showed a normal lumen. However, an abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a mass of soft tissue attenuation inseparable from the ascending colon which appeared as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440675/in-vitro-patient-derived-3d-mesothelioma-tumor-organoids-facilitate-patient-centric-therapeutic-screening
#5
Andrea R Mazzocchi, Shiny A P Rajan, Konstantinos I Votanopoulos, Adam R Hall, Aleksander Skardal
Variability in patient response to anti-cancer drugs is currently addressed by relating genetic mutations to chemotherapy through precision medicine. However, practical benefits of precision medicine to therapy design are less clear. Even after identification of mutations, oncologists are often left with several drug options, and for some patients there is no definitive treatment solution. There is a need for model systems to help predict personalized responses to chemotherapeutics. We have microengineered 3D tumor organoids directly from fresh tumor biopsies to provide patient-specific models with which treatment optimization can be performed before initiation of therapy...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436393/therapeutically-targeting-tumor-microenvironment-mediated-drug-resistance-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#6
Kevin Shee, Wei Yang, John W Hinds, Riley A Hampsch, Frederick S Varn, Nicole A Traphagen, Kishan Patel, Chao Cheng, Nicole P Jenkins, Arminja N Kettenbach, Eugene Demidenko, Philip Owens, Anthony C Faber, Todd R Golub, Ravid Straussman, Todd W Miller
Drug resistance to approved systemic therapies in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer remains common. We hypothesized that factors present in the human tumor microenvironment (TME) drive drug resistance. Screening of a library of recombinant secreted microenvironmental proteins revealed fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) as a potent mediator of resistance to anti-estrogens, mTORC1 inhibition, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibition in ER+ breast cancer. Phosphoproteomic analyses identified ERK1/2 as a major output of FGF2 signaling via FGF receptors (FGFRs), with consequent up-regulation of Cyclin D1 and down-regulation of Bim as mediators of drug resistance...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435448/toward-a-tiered-model-to-share-clinical-trial-data-and-samples-in-precision-oncology
#7
Stefanie Broes, Denis Lacombe, Michiel Verlinden, Isabelle Huys
The recent revolution in science and technology applied to medical research has left in its wake a trial of biomedical data and human samples; however, its opportunities remain largely unfulfilled due to a number of legal, ethical, financial, strategic, and technical barriers. Precision oncology has been at the vanguard to leverage this potential of "Big data" and samples into meaningful solutions for patients, considering the need for new drug development approaches in this area (due to high costs, late-stage failures, and the molecular diversity of cancer)...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434679/crispr-cas9-a-promising-genetic-engineering-approach-in-cancer-research
#8
REVIEW
Zubair Ahmed Ratan, Young-Jin Son, Mohammad Faisal Haidere, Bhuiyan Mohammad Mahtab Uddin, Md Abdullah Yusuf, Sojib Bin Zaman, Jong-Hoon Kim, Laila Anjuman Banu, Jae Youl Cho
Bacteria and archaea possess adaptive immunity against foreign genetic materials through clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) systems. The discovery of this intriguing bacterial system heralded a revolutionary change in the field of medical science. The CRISPR and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) based molecular mechanism has been applied to genome editing. This CRISPR-Cas9 technique is now able to mediate precise genetic corrections or disruptions in in vitro and in vivo environments...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429648/the-usefulness-of-fibrin-glue-as-a-support-in-the-dissection-of-malignant-cystic-brain-tumors
#9
J Todeschi, Y Pin, F Lersy, F Séverac, I Ollivier, S Kremer, F Proust, H Cebula
BACKGROUND: If the complete microsurgical resection of a brain tumor is a logical oncologic goal, the surgical strategy for the cystic component remains controversial secondary to the risk of morbidity. The objective of this study was to analyze the interest of using fibrin glue in the resection of malignant cystic brain tumors (MCBT). METHODS: Seven patients (median: 60-years-old (range [52-72]/sex ratio M/F: 2.5) were analyzed prospectively in the Neurosurgery Department at Strasbourg University Hospital, from October 2014 to November 2016...
February 8, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428421/prognostic-factors-of-surgical-complications-and-overall-survival-of-patients-with-metastatic-spinal-tumor
#10
Gábor Czigléczki, Tamás Mezei, Péter Pollner, Anna Horváth, Péter Banczerowski
OBJECTIVE: Achievements of oncological treatments increase the incidence of spinal metastases. The surgical treatment of spinal metastases results in a high complication rate which must set against the expected benefits. The aim of this article is to summarize an extended database of patients with spinal metastases and to study the effect of several prognostic factors on surgical complications and survival time. METHODS: We designed a retrospective study of 337 patients with spinal metastases who were surgically treated between 2008 and 2015...
February 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426340/pd-l1-diagnostic-tests-a-systematic-literature-review-of-scoring-algorithms-and-test-validation-metrics
#11
REVIEW
Margarita Udall, Maria Rizzo, Juliet Kenny, Jim Doherty, SueAnn Dahm, Paul Robbins, Eric Faulkner
BACKGROUND: The programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) protein is a cell-surface receptor on certain lymphocytes that, with its ligand programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), helps to down-regulate immune responses. Many cancer types express PD-L1 and evade immune recognition via the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction. Precision therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway have the potential to improve response and thereby offer a novel treatment avenue to some patients with cancer. However, this new therapeutic approach requires reliable methods for identifying patients whose cancers are particularly likely to respond...
February 9, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423275/a-roadmap-towards-personalized-immunology
#12
Sylvie Delhalle, Sebastian F N Bode, Rudi Balling, Markus Ollert, Feng Q He
Big data generation and computational processing will enable medicine to evolve from a "one-size-fits-all" approach to precise patient stratification and treatment. Significant achievements using "Omics" data have been made especially in personalized oncology. However, immune cells relative to tumor cells show a much higher degree of complexity in heterogeneity, dynamics, memory-capability, plasticity and "social" interactions. There is still a long way ahead on translating our capability to identify potentially targetable personalized biomarkers into effective personalized therapy in immune-centralized diseases...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420224/precision-oncology-decision-support-current-approaches-and-strategies-for-the-future
#13
Katherine C Kurnit, Ecaterina E Ileana Dumbrava, Beate Christiane Litzenburger, Yekaterina B Khotskaya, Amber Johnson, Timothy A Yap, Jordi Rodon, Jia Zeng, Md Abu Shufean, Ann Bailey, Nora Sánchez, Vijaykumar R Holla, John Mendelsohn, Kenna R Mills Shaw, Elmer V Bernstam, Gordon B Mills, Funda Meric-Bernstam
With the increasing availability of genomics, routine analysis of advanced cancers is now feasible. Treatment selection is frequently guided by the molecular characteristics of a patient's tumor, and an increasing number of trials are genomically-selected. Furthermore, multiple studies have demonstrated the benefit of therapies that are chosen based upon the molecular profile of a tumor. However, the rapid evolution of genomic testing platforms and emergence of new technologies makes interpreting molecular testing reports more challenging...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409135/reassessing-the-value-of-high-volume-cancer-care-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#14
Alexander P Cole, Maxine Sun, Stuart R Lipsitz, Akshay Sood, Adam S Kibel, Quoc-Dien Trinh
The ethical and economic discussions regarding the extreme costs of many new cancer therapies are familiar. The authors have long held that changes in cancer care delivery also are an important strategy, yielding large benefits at potentially far lower costs. To put this into context, the authors performed an analysis to compare the overall survival of patients receiving a complex oncologic surgery, radical cystectomy, at high-volume and low-volume centers. Propensity score weighting was performed to simulate random allocation into high-volume versus low-volume centers, as would be the case in a prospective trial...
February 6, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405770/liquid-biopsy-and-its-role-in-an-advanced-clinical-trial-for-lung-cancer
#15
Donald J Johann, Mathew Steliga, Ik J Shin, Donghoon Yoon, Konstantinos Arnaoutakis, Laura Hutchins, Meeiyueh Liu, Jason Liem, Karl Walker, Andy Pereira, Mary Yang, Susanne K Jeffus, Erich Peterson, Joshua Xu
Liquid biopsy methodologies, for the purpose of plasma genotyping of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of solid tumors, are a new class of novel molecular assays. Such assays are rapidly entering the clinical sphere of research-based monitoring in translational oncology, especially for thoracic malignancies. Potential applications for these blood-based cfDNA assays include: (i) initial diagnosis, (ii) response to therapy and follow-up, (iii) tumor evolution, and (iv) minimal residual disease evaluation. Precision medicine will benefit from cutting-edge molecular diagnostics, especially regarding treatment decisions in the adjuvant setting, where avoiding over-treatment and unnecessary toxicity are paramount...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397619/-consensus-of-chinese-experts-on-the-application-of-molecular-imaging-targeting-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-in-prostate-cancer-patients
#16
(no author information available yet)
Recently, prostate cancer has become the most common male urological cancer worldwide. However, it was difficult for the currently widely available imaging modalities to precisely diagnose this disease. With the development of nuclear medical technology, molecular imaging targeting prostate specific membrane antigen has been introduced into China. To promote the standardization of this imaging modality, the experts consensus was published by Chinese Anticancer Association Genitourinary Oncology Committee and recommendations for its application in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer were attached, which would be helpful for doctors who are conducting or preparing for this examination...
February 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395443/structured-review-of-the-patient-reported-outcome-instruments-used-in-clinical-trials-in-head-and-neck-surgery
#17
REVIEW
H Boyes, J Barraclough, R Ratansi, S N Rogers, A Kanatas
The number of clinical trials that relate to patients with cancer of the head and neck is growing. Patient-reported outcomes, which are rarely the primary outcome, are now an important component, and in this structured review to identify and report the characteristics of the questionnaires that have been used in these trials, we summarise the findings reported. We searched several online databases using the key terms: head and neck oncology, head and neck surgery, reconstruction, clinical trials patient-reported outcomes, questionnaires, quality of life (QoL), validated instruments, and patients' satisfaction...
January 27, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395304/management-of-the-toxicities-of-common-targeted-therapeutics-for-gynecologic-cancers
#18
REVIEW
Camille C Gunderson, Ursula Matulonis, Kathleen N Moore
As precision medicine has become a focus in oncology in recent years, many targeted and biologic agents are being used along with or in place of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. As these drugs have been developed and some have received FDA approval, we have gained substantial data about the adverse event profiles. However, the management and approach to the toxicities incurred and subsequent complications are often not well understood, especially for physicians who have a varied clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the frequency and types of adverse events and appropriate management steps when prescribing modern targeted therapies for gynecologic cancers in the classes of anti-angiogenic agents, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, and immunotherapy drugs...
January 30, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394142/hypermetabolism-and-nutritional-support-in-sepsis
#19
John C Alverdy
BACKGROUND: Surgical metabolism has been a founding field of investigation in surgery without which the boundaries of critical care, trauma, and surgical oncology could not have advanced. Traditionally, understanding the shifts in electrolytes, carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids that could explain the rapidly evolving proteolysis after catabolic stress and tumor growth has been a major focus of research that led to our current approach to maintaining homeostasis over the course of major surgical intervention and injury...
February 2, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392535/innovative-methods-for-biomarker-discovery-in-the-evaluation-and-development-of-cancer-precision-therapies
#20
REVIEW
Ijeoma Adaku Umelo, Brunella Costanza, Vincent Castronovo
The discovery of biomarkers able to detect cancer at an early stage, to evaluate its aggressiveness, and to predict the response to therapy remains a major challenge in clinical oncology and precision medicine. In this review, we summarize recent achievements in the discovery and development of cancer biomarkers. We also highlight emerging innovative methods in biomarker discovery and provide insights into the challenges faced in their evaluation and validation.
March 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
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