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Precision oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822012/mtor-co-targeting-strategies-for-head-and-neck-cancer-therapy
#1
Zhiyong Wang, Juan Callejas Valera, Xuefeng Zhao, Qianming Chen, J Silvio Gutkind
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. There is an urgent need to develop effective therapeutic approaches to prevent and treat HNSCC. Recent deep sequencing of the HNSCC genomic landscape revealed a multiplicity and diversity of genetic alterations in this malignancy. Although a large variety of specific molecules were found altered in each individual tumor, they all participate in only a handful of driver signaling pathways. Among them, the PI3K/mTOR pathway is the most frequently activated, which plays a central role in cancer initiation and progression...
August 18, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816381/non-exposed-endoscopic-wall-inversion-surgery-for-submucosal-tumor-of-the-duodenum-a-novel-case-report
#2
Prasit Mahawongkajit, Ajjana Techagumpuch, Pakkavuth Chanswangphuvana
Laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery for duodenal tumor is the precise oncologic resection procedure and the closure of the defect (1). Non-exposed Endoscopic Wall-inversion Surgery (NEWS) is a novel minimally invasive technique for gastric submucosal mass (SMT) and early gastric cancer having advantageous precision to determine the resection line with no risk of peritoneal contamination (2-5). We describe the NEWS technique that we applied and performed for a small duodenal SMT. This article is protected by copyright...
August 17, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807365/-the-breakthrough-of-personalized-medicine-new-hopes-and-new-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Ronan Flippot, Christophe Massard, Edouard Auclin, David Azria, Héloïse Bourien, Philippe Rochigneux, Antoine Schernberg, Loïc Verlingue, Lara Zafrani, Stéphane Vignot
The development of personalized medicine in oncology is based on biomarkers that help select populations for more efficient and less toxic therapies. The onset of molecular biology led to new paradigms in drug development, with efficacy data reported in early clinical trials and accelerated approvals. Multiple clinical trials, including SHIVA, SAFIR-01 and MOSCATO-01, have been developed to evaluate the interest of treatment decision-making based on tumor molecular profiling, with the ambition to replace historical clinical and pathological classifications...
August 11, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805572/personalized-medicine-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multineurotransmitter dysfunction related disorder resulting in a range of motor and nonmotor symptoms. Phenotypic heterogeneity is pronounced in PD and nonmotor symptoms dominant subtypes have been described. These endophenotypes may be underpinned by considerable nondopaminergic dysfunction; however, conventional treatment of PD continues to be mostly reliant on dopamine replacement strategy or manipulation of brain dopaminergic pathways. Consequently, treatment of many nondopaminergic nonmotor and some motor symptoms remains a key unmet need...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803390/cancer-clonal-theory-immune-escape-and-their-evolving-roles-in-cancer-multi-agent-therapeutics
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan L Messerschmidt, Prianka Bhattacharya, Gerald L Messerschmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The knowledge base of malignant cell growth and resulting targets is rapidly increasing every day. Clonal theory is essential to understand the changes required for a cell to become malignant. These changes are then clues to therapeutic intervention strategies. Immune system optimization is a critical piece to find, recognize, and eliminate all cancer cells from the host. Only by administering (1) multiple therapies that counteract the cancer cell's mutational and externally induced survival traits and (2) by augmenting the immune system to combat immune suppression processes and by enhancing specific tumor trait recognition can cancer begin to be treated with a truly targeted focus...
August 12, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782115/optical-coherence-tomography-image-guided-smart-laser-knife-for-surgery
#6
Nitesh Katta, Austin B McElroy, Arnold D Estrada, Thomas E Milner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Surgical oncology can benefit from specialized tools that enhance imaging and enable precise cutting and removal of tissue without damage to adjacent structures. The combination of high-resolution, fast optical coherence tomography (OCT) co-aligned with a nanosecond pulsed thulium (Tm) laser offers advantages over conventional surgical laser systems. Tm lasers provide superior beam quality, high volumetric tissue removal rates with minimal residual thermal footprint in tissue, enabling a reduction in unwanted damage to delicate adjacent sub-surface structures such as nerves or micro-vessels...
August 7, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777037/applications-of-a-robotic-stereotactic-arm-for-pediatric-epilepsy-and-neurooncology-surgery
#7
Brandon A Miller, Afshin Salehi, David D Limbrick, Matthew D Smyth
OBJECTIVE The ROSA device is a robotic stereotactic arm that uses a laser system to register the patient's head or spine with MR or CT images. In this study, the authors analyze their experience with this system in pediatric neurosurgical applications and present selected cases that exemplify the usefulness of this system. METHODS The authors reviewed all cases that utilized the ROSA system at their institution. Patient demographics, pathology, complications, electrode placement, laser ablation, and biopsy accuracy were analyzed...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774835/current-and-emerging-biomarkers-in-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-possible-diagnostic-prognostic-and-therapeutic-applications
#8
REVIEW
Ishaq N Khan, Najeeb Ullah, Deema Hussein, Kulvinder S Saini
Recent investments in research associated with the discovery of specific tumor biomarkers important for efficient diagnosis and prognosis of the patients are beginning to bear fruit. Key biomarkers could potentially outweigh traditional radiological or pathological methods by enabling specificity of early detection, when coupled with tumor molecular profiling and clinical associations. Only few biomarkers are approved by regulatory authorities for Central Nervous System Tumors (CNSTs), despite the evaluation of a large number of CNST related markers during clinical trials...
July 31, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768687/hit-ndrive-patient-specific-multidriver-gene-prioritization-for-precision-oncology
#9
Raunak Shrestha, Ermin Hodzic, Thomas Sauerwald, Phuong Dao, Kendric Wang, Jake Yeung, Shawn Anderson, Fabio Vandin, Gholamreza Haffari, Colin C Collins, S Cenk Sahinalp
Prioritizing molecular alterations that act as drivers of cancer remains a crucial bottleneck in therapeutic development. Here we introduce HIT'nDRIVE, a computational method that integrates genomic and transcriptomic data to identify a set of patient-specific, sequence-altered genes, with sufficient collective influence over dysregulated transcripts. HIT'nDRIVE aims to solve the "random walk facility location" (RWFL) problem in a gene (or protein) interaction network, which differs from the standard facility location problem by its use of an alternative distance measure: "multihitting time," the expected length of the shortest random walk from any one of the set of sequence-altered genes to an expression-altered target gene...
July 18, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767404/over-forty-years-of-bladder-cancer-glycobiology-where-do-glycans-stand-facing-precision-oncology
#10
REVIEW
Rita Azevedo, Andreia Peixoto, Cristiana Gaiteiro, Elisabete Fernandes, Manuel Neves, Luís Lima, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
The high molecular heterogeneity of bladder tumours is responsible for significant variations in disease course, as well as elevated recurrence and progression rates, thereby hampering the introduction of more effective targeted therapeutics. The implementation of precision oncology settings supported by robust molecular models for individualization of patient management is warranted. This effort requires a comprehensive integration of large sets of panomics data that is yet to be fully achieved. Contributing to this goal, over 40 years of bladder cancer glycobiology have disclosed a plethora of cancer-specific glycans and glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans) accompanying disease progressions and dissemination...
July 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756622/fully-automatic-multi-organ-segmentation-in-normal-whole-body-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-using-classification-forests-cfs-convolutional-neural-networks-cnns-and-a-multi-atlas-ma-approach
#11
Ioannis Lavdas, Ben Glocker, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Daniel Rueckert, Henrietta Mair, Amandeep Sandhu, Stuart A Taylor, Eric O Aboagye, Andrea G Rockall
PURPOSE: As part of a programme to implement automatic lesion detection methods for whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in oncology, we have developed, evaluated and compared three algorithms for fully automatic, multi-organ segmentation in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The first algorithm is based on classification forests (CFs), the second is based on 3D convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and the third algorithm is based on a multi-atlas (MA) approach...
July 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753193/gender-difference-in-cancer-patients-adherence-to-analgesics-and-related-outcomes-of-pain-management
#12
Pi-Ling Chou, Su-Ying Fang, Jia-Ling Sun, Kun-Ming Rau, Bih-O Lee
BACKGROUND: Males and females have significant differences in certain medical outcomes. However, little research has explored the gender differences in cancer patient perceptions of analgesics, the relationship between gender and analgesic adherence, or the effectiveness of pain management. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to compare gender differences associated with hesitancy to use analgesics, analgesic adherence, or pain management effectiveness and to examine whether gender can precisely predict analgesic adherence...
July 27, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746860/integrating-rna-sequencing-into-neuro-oncology-practice
#13
REVIEW
David S Rogawski, Nicholas A Vitanza, Angela C Gauthier, Vijay Ramaswamy, Carl Koschmann
Malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) cause substantial morbidity and mortality, yet efforts to optimize chemo- and radiotherapy have largely failed to improve dismal prognoses. Over the past decade, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has emerged as a powerful tool to comprehensively characterize the transcriptome of CNS tumor cells in one high-throughput step, leading to improved understanding of CNS tumor biology and suggesting new routes for targeted therapies. RNA-seq has been instrumental in improving the diagnostic classification of brain tumors, characterizing oncogenic fusion genes, and shedding light on intratumor heterogeneity...
July 8, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746017/tumor-evolution-heterogeneity-and-therapy-for-our-patients-with-advanced-cancer-how-far-have-we-come
#14
Wafik S El-Deiry, Barry Taylor, Joel W Neal
The clinical and molecular heterogeneity of various cancer types is well documented. In the era of precision oncology whereby molecular profiling of tumors is incorporated into clinical care, both intra- and intertumoral molecular and genetic heterogeneity have been described. Together, they impact patient treatment and outcomes. Host genetics and the tumor microenvironment impact on tumor evolution and heterogeneity through variations in immune cell infiltration, stromal variations, and selection pressures from hypoxia or nutrient stress, among others...
2017: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743680/internet-based-assessment-of-oncology-health-care-professional-learning-style-and-optimization-of-materials-for-web-based-learning-controlled-trial-with-concealed-allocation
#15
Christine M Micheel, Ingrid A Anderson, Patricia Lee, Sheau-Chiann Chen, Katy Justiss, Nunzia B Giuse, Fei Ye, Sheila V Kusnoor, Mia A Levy
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine has resulted in increasing complexity in the treatment of cancer. Web-based educational materials can help address the needs of oncology health care professionals seeking to understand up-to-date treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess learning styles of oncology health care professionals and to determine whether learning style-tailored educational materials lead to enhanced learning. METHODS: In all, 21,465 oncology health care professionals were invited by email to participate in the fully automated, parallel group study...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737972/identifying-health-information-technology-needs-of-oncologists-to-facilitate-the-adoption-of-genomic-medicine-recommendations-from-the-2016-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-omics-and-precision-oncology-workshop
#16
Kevin S Hughes, Edward P Ambinder, Gregory P Hess, Peter Paul Yu, Elmer V Bernstam, Mark J Routbort, Jean Rene Clemenceau, John T Hamm, Phillip G Febbo, Susan M Domchek, James L Chen, Jeremy L Warner
At the ASCO Data Standards and Interoperability Summit held in May 2016, it was unanimously decided that four areas of current oncology clinical practice have serious, unmet health information technology needs. The following areas of need were identified: 1) omics and precision oncology, 2) advancing interoperability, 3) patient engagement, and 4) value-based oncology. To begin to address these issues, ASCO convened two complementary workshops: the Omics and Precision Oncology Workshop in October 2016 and the Advancing Interoperability Workshop in December 2016...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736638/cost-effectiveness-of-precision-medicine-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-and-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Simon B Zeichner, Daniel A Goldstein, Christine Kohn, Christopher R Flowers
Over the past 20 years, with the incorporation of genetic sequencing and improved understanding regarding the mechanisms of cancer growth/metastasis, novel targets and their associated treatments have emerged in oncology and are now regularly incorporated into the clinical care of patients in the US. Novel, more tumor-specific, non-chemotherapy agents, including agents that are commonly used in the treatment of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), fall under a broader treatment strategy, termed "precision medicine"...
June 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730537/lung-cancer-as-a-paradigm-for-precision-oncology-in-solid-tumours
#18
Simon Schallenberg, Sabine Merkelbach-Bruse, Reinhard Buettner
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world. However, the combination of molecular genotyping and subsequent systematic treatment of decoded target structures is a prime example of precision oncology in solid tumours. In this review, current targets of approved therapeutics and potential targets in clinical and preclinical trials are outlined. Furthermore, immune checkpoint inhibitors, as promising new therapeutic options, which have already been applied successfully in cases of lung cancer, are introduced...
July 20, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723652/a-patient-derived-orthotopic-xenograft-pdox-mouse-model-of-a-cisplatinum-resistant-osteosarcoma-lung-metastasis-that-was-sensitive-to-temozolomide-and-trabectedin-implications-for-precision-oncology
#19
Kentaro Igarashi, Takashi Murakami, Kei Kawaguchi, Tasuku Kiyuna, Kentaro Miyake, Yong Zhang, Scott D Nelson, Sarah M Dry, Yunfeng Li, Jane Yanagawa, Tara A Russell, Arun S Singh, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Irmina Elliott, Fritz C Eilber, Robert M Hoffman
In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of trabectedin (TRAB) and temozolomide (TEM) compared to cisplatinum (CDDP) on a patient-derived orthotopic xenogrraft (PDOX) of a lung-metastasis from an osteosarcoma of a patient who failed CDDP therapy. Osteosarcoma resected from the patient was implanted orthotopically in the distal femur of mice to establish PDOX models which were randomized into the following groups when tumor volume reached approximately 100 mm3: G1, control without treatment; G2, CDDP (6 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); G3, TRAB (0...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723287/advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma-role-of-the-radiologist-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Atul B Shinagare, Katherine M Krajewski, Marta Braschi-Amirfarzan, Nikhil H Ramaiya
For the past decade, advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been at the forefront of oncologic innovation. Our rapidly evolving understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of RCC has revolutionized the management of advanced RCC; 10 novel molecular targeted agents and immune checkpoint inhibitor have received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for treatment of advanced RCC in a little over a decade. Amid this progress, imaging has assumed a central role in metastatic surveillance and follow-up of advanced RCC...
August 2017: Radiology
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