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Precision oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227348/quantitative-pet-ct-in-clinical-practice-assessing-the-agreement-of-pet-tumor-indices-using-different-clinical-reading-platforms
#1
Joyce C Mhlanga, Alin Chirindel, Martin A Lodge, Richard L Wahl, Rathan M Subramaniam
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether various fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT-derived parameters used in oncology vary significantly depending on the interpretation software systems used in clinical practice for multiple human solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 120 fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT studies carried out in patients with pancreatic, lung, colorectal, and head and neck cancers were evaluated retrospectively on two different vendor software platforms including Mirada and MIMVista...
December 8, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226271/clusters-of-circulating-tumor-cells-a-biophysical-and-technological-perspective
#2
Sam H Au, Jon Edd, Daniel A Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran, Shannon L Stott, Mehmet Toner
The vast majority of cancer associated deaths result from metastasis, yet the behaviors of its most potent cellular driver, circulating tumor cell clusters, are only beginning to be revealed. This review highlights recent advances to our understanding of tumor cell clusters with emphasis on enabling technologies. The importance of intercellular adhesions among cells in clusters have begun to be unraveled with the aid of promising microfluidic strategies for isolating clusters from patient blood. Due to their metastatic potency, the utility of circulating tumor cell clusters for cancer diagnosis, drug screening, precision oncology and as targets of antimetastatic therapeutics are being explored...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225692/recent-advances-in-radiation-oncology
#3
REVIEW
Cristina Garibaldi, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Giulia Marvaso, Samantha Dicuonzo, Damaris Patricia Rojas, Federica Cattani, Anna Starzyńska, Delia Ciardo, Alessia Surgo, Maria Cristina Leonardi, Rosalinda Ricotti
Radiotherapy (RT) is very much a technology-driven treatment modality in the management of cancer. RT techniques have changed significantly over the past few decades, thanks to improvements in engineering and computing. We aim to highlight the recent developments in radiation oncology, focusing on the technological and biological advances. We will present state-of-the-art treatment techniques, employing photon beams, such as intensity-modulated RT, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, stereotactic body RT and adaptive RT, which make possible a highly tailored dose distribution with maximum normal tissue sparing...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224361/precision-medicine-strategies-in-oncology-mixed-approaches-to-matched-therapies
#4
Edith Borcoman, Christophe Le Tourneau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218269/blood-based-biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-lung-cancer-precision-radiation-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Dirk De Ruysscher, Jianyue Jin, Tim Lautenschlaeger, Jin-Xiong She, Zhongxing Liao, Feng-Ming Spring Kong
Both tumors and patients are complex and models that determine survival and toxicity of radiotherapy or any other treatment ideally must take into account this variability as well as its dynamic state. The genetic features of the tumor and the host, and increasingly also the epi-genetic and proteomic characteristics, are being unraveled. Multiple techniques, including histological examination, blood sampling, measurement of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and functional and molecular imaging, can be used for this purpose...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218267/radiomics-in-precision-medicine-for-lung-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Julie Constanzo, Lise Wei, Huan-Hsin Tseng, Issam El Naqa
With the improvement of external radiotherapy delivery accuracy, such as intensity-modulated and stereotactic body radiation therapy, radiation oncology has recently entered in the era of precision medicine. Despite these precise irradiation modalities, lung cancers remain one of the most aggressive human cancers worldwide, possibly because of diverse genotypic alterations that drive and maintain lung tumorigenesis. It has been long recognized that imaging could aid in the diagnosis, tumor delineation, and monitoring of lung cancer...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218265/the-role-of-imaging-and-radiation-oncology-core-for-precision-medicine-era-of-clinical-trial
#7
Ying Xiao, Mark Rosen
Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) services have been established for the quality assurance (QA) of imaging and radiotherapy (RT) for NCI's Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) for any trials that contain imaging or RT. The randomized clinical trial is the gold standard for evidence-based medicine. QA ensures data quality, preventing noise from inferior treatments obscuring clinical trial outcome. QA is also found to be cost-effective. IROC has made great progress in multi-institution standardization and is expected to lead QA standardization, QA science in imaging and RT and to advance quality data analysis with big data in the future...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213225/role-of-blue-dye-for-sentinel-lymph-node-detection-in-early-endometrial-cancer
#8
Stefano Restaino, Carlo Ronsini, Angelo Finelli, Emanuele Perrone, Giovanni Scambia, Francesco Fanfani
Background: Sentinel Lymphonode analysis has become a barely new and innovative way to treat early stages of endometrial cancer (Ballester et al., Lancet Oncol 469-476, 2011; Buda et al., Ann Surg Oncol 2975-81, 2016). Indocyanine green cervical injection is considered gold standard for mapping nodes' drainage. Blue dye is used as a valid alternative in many centers, due to the lower cost of execution. The objective of this video is to prove that methylene blue dye's cervical injection is a valid and "low-cost" method to obtain mapping of lymphatic drainage in patient with early endometrial cancer...
2017: Gynecological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209073/integrating-clinical-and-multiple-omics-data-for-prognostic-assessment-across-human-cancers
#9
Bin Zhu, Nan Song, Ronglai Shen, Arshi Arora, Mitchell J Machiela, Lei Song, Maria Teresa Landi, Debashis Ghosh, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Veera Baladandayuthapani, Hongyu Zhao
Multiple omic profiles have been generated for many cancer types; however, comprehensive assessment of their prognostic values across cancers is limited. We conducted a pan-cancer prognostic assessment and presented a multi-omic kernel machine learning method to systematically quantify the prognostic values of high-throughput genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic profiles individually, integratively, and in combination with clinical factors for 3,382 samples across 14 cancer types. We found that the prognostic performance varied substantially across cancer types...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208673/biomarkers-of-primary-resistance-to-trastuzumab-in-her2-positive-metastatic-gastric-cancer-patients-the-amnesia-case-control-study
#10
Filippo Pietrantonio, Giovanni Fucà, Federica Morano, Annunziata Gloghini, Simona Corso, Giuseppe Aprile, Federica Perrone, Ferdinando De Vita, Elena Tamborini, Gianluca Tomasello, Ambra V Gualeni, Elena Ongaro, Adele Busico, Elisa Giommoni, Chiara C Volpi, Maria Maddalena Laterza, Salvatore Corallo, Michele Prisciandaro, Maria Antista, Alessandro Pellegrinelli, Lorenzo Castagnoli, Serenella Maria Pupa, Giancarlo Pruneri, Filippo G De Braud, Silvia Giordano, Chiara Cremolini, Maria Di Bartolomeo
PURPOSE: Refining the selection of HER2 positive metastatic gastric cancer patients candidates for trastuzumab is a challenge of precision oncology. Preclinical studies have suggested several genomic mechanisms of primary resistance, leading to activation of tyrosine kinase receptors other than HER2 or downstream signaling pathways. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We carried out this multicenter, prospective, case-control study to demonstrate the negative predictive impact of a panel of candidate genomic alterations (AMNESIA panel), including EGFR/MET/KRAS/PI3K/PTEN mutations and EGFR/MET/KRAS amplifications...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208398/future-cancer-research-priorities-in-the-usa-a-lancet-oncology-commission
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth M Jaffee, Chi Van Dang, David B Agus, Brian M Alexander, Kenneth C Anderson, Alan Ashworth, Anna D Barker, Roshan Bastani, Sangeeta Bhatia, Jeffrey A Bluestone, Otis Brawley, Atul J Butte, Daniel G Coit, Nancy E Davidson, Mark Davis, Ronald A DePinho, Robert B Diasio, Giulio Draetta, A Lindsay Frazier, Andrew Futreal, Sam S Gambhir, Patricia A Ganz, Levi Garraway, Stanton Gerson, Sumit Gupta, James Heath, Ruth I Hoffman, Cliff Hudis, Chanita Hughes-Halbert, Ramy Ibrahim, Hossein Jadvar, Brian Kavanagh, Rick Kittles, Quynh-Thu Le, Scott M Lippman, David Mankoff, Elaine R Mardis, Deborah K Mayer, Kelly McMasters, Neal J Meropol, Beverly Mitchell, Peter Naredi, Dean Ornish, Timothy M Pawlik, Jeffrey Peppercorn, Martin G Pomper, Derek Raghavan, Christine Ritchie, Sally W Schwarz, Richard Sullivan, Richard Wahl, Jedd D Wolchok, Sandra L Wong, Alfred Yung
We are in the midst of a technological revolution that is providing new insights into human biology and cancer. In this era of big data, we are amassing large amounts of information that is transforming how we approach cancer treatment and prevention. Enactment of the Cancer Moonshot within the 21st Century Cures Act in the USA arrived at a propitious moment in the advancement of knowledge, providing nearly US$2 billion of funding for cancer research and precision medicine. In 2016, the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) set out a roadmap of recommendations designed to exploit new advances in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment...
November 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208050/robotic-assisted-total-mesorectal-excision-with-the-single-docking-technique-for-patients-with-rectal-cancer
#12
Ching-Wen Huang, Hsiang-Lin Tsai, Yung-Sung Yeh, Wei-Chih Su, Ming-Yii Huang, Chun-Ming Huang, Yu-Tang Chang, Jaw-Yuan Wang
BACKGROUND: The robotic system has advantages of high-definition three-dimensional vision and articular instruments with high dexterity, allowing more precise dissection in the deep and narrow pelvic cavity. METHODS: We enrolled 95 patients with stage I-III rectal cancer (adenocarcinoma) who underwent totally robotic-assisted total mesorectal excision (TME) with single-docking technique at a single institution between September 2013 and December 2016. RESULTS: Of the 95 patients, 48 (50...
December 5, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207682/over-forty-years-of-bladder-cancer-glycobiology-where-do-glycans-stand-facing-precision-oncology
#13
REVIEW
Rita Azevedo, Andreia Peixoto, Cristiana Gaiteiro, Elisabete Fernandes, Manuel Neves, Luís Lima, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
The high molecular heterogeneity of bladder tumours is responsible for significant variations in disease course, as well as elevated recurrence and progression rates, thereby hampering the introduction of more effective targeted therapeutics. The implementation of precision oncology settings supported by robust molecular models for individualization of patient management is warranted. This effort requires a comprehensive integration of large sets of panomics data that is yet to be fully achieved. Contributing to this goal, over 40 years of bladder cancer glycobiology have disclosed a plethora of cancer-specific glycans and glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans) accompanying disease progressions and dissemination...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203694/path-toward-precision-oncology-review-of-targeted-therapy-studies-and-tools-to-aid-in-defining-actionability-of-a-molecular-lesion-and-patient-management-support
#14
REVIEW
Young Kwang Chae, Alan P Pan, Andrew A Davis, Sandip P Patel, Benedito A Carneiro, Razelle Kurzrock, Francis J Giles
Precision medicine trials and targeted therapies have shifted to the forefront of oncology. Although targeted therapies have shown initial promise, implementation across the broad landscape of oncology has many challenges. These limitations include an incomplete understanding of the functional significance of variant alleles as well as the need for clinical research and practice models that are more patient-centered and account for the complexity of individual patient tumors. Furthermore, successful implementation of targeted therapies will also be predicated on efforts to standardize the framework for patient management support...
December 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196959/right-colic-artery-anatomy-a-systematic-review-of-cadaveric-studies
#15
REVIEW
M Haywood, C Molyneux, V Mahadevan, N Srinivasaiah
BACKGROUND: Complete mesocolic excision for right-sided colon cancer may offer an oncologically superior excision compared to traditional right hemicolectomy through high vascular tie and adherence to embryonic planes during dissection, supported by preoperative scanning to accurately define the tumour lymphovascular supply and drainage. The authors support and recommend precision oncosurgery based on these principles, with an emphasis on the importance of understanding the vascular anatomy...
December 2, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189430/precision-medicine-in-pediatric-oncology
#16
Suzanne J Forrest, Birgit Geoerger, Katherine A Janeway
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review describes recent advances and unique challenges in precision medicine for pediatric cancers and highlights clinical trials assessing the clinical impact of targeted therapy matched to molecular alterations identified by tumor profiling. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple prospective clinical sequencing studies in pediatric oncology have been reported in the last 2 years. These studies demonstrated feasibility of sequencing in the clinic and revealed a rate of actionable variants that justifies the development of precision trials for childhood cancer...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184671/urine-test-for-egfr-analysis-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Aleksandra Franovic, Victoria M Raymond, Mark G Erlander, Karen L Reckamp
Precision medicine approaches in oncology are reliant on the accurate genomic characterization of tumors. While tissue remains the mainstay specimen for molecular testing, tumor biopsies are riddled with challenges and limitations due to their invasive and site-specific nature. Tumor inaccessibility and intratumoral heterogeneity, in particular, represent significant obstacles to the identification of actionable genetic alterations and hence effective mono- and combination therapy strategies. Proof-of-concept studies indicate that circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) released from multiple tumor regions and anatomical locations is more reflective of intra- and intertumoral heterogeneity...
October 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180611/screening-drug-effects-in-patient-derived-cancer-cells-links-organoid-responses-to-genome-alterations
#18
Julia Jabs, Franziska M Zickgraf, Jeongbin Park, Steve Wagner, Xiaoqi Jiang, Katharina Jechow, Kortine Kleinheinz, Umut H Toprak, Marc A Schneider, Michael Meister, Saskia Spaich, Marc Sütterlin, Matthias Schlesner, Andreas Trumpp, Martin Sprick, Roland Eils, Christian Conrad
Cancer drug screening in patient-derived cells holds great promise for personalized oncology and drug discovery but lacks standardization. Whether cells are cultured as conventional monolayer or advanced, matrix-dependent organoid cultures influences drug effects and thereby drug selection and clinical success. To precisely compare drug profiles in differently cultured primary cells, we developed DeathPro, an automated microscopy-based assay to resolve drug-induced cell death and proliferation inhibition. Using DeathPro, we screened cells from ovarian cancer patients in monolayer or organoid culture with clinically relevant drugs...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180174/formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-sample-conditions-for-deep-next-generation-sequencing
#19
Masayuki Nagahashi, Yoshifumi Shimada, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Satoru Nakagawa, Nobuaki Sato, Koji Kaneko, Keiichi Homma, Takashi Kawasaki, Keisuke Kodama, Stephen Lyle, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai
INTRODUCTION: Precision medicine is only possible in oncology practice if targetable genes in fragmented DNA, such as DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, can be sequenced using next generation sequencing (NGS). The aim of this study was to examine the quality and quantity of DNA from FFPE cancerous tissue samples from surgically resected and biopsy specimens. METHODS: DNA was extracted from unstained FFPE tissue sections prepared from surgically resected specimens of breast, colorectal and gastric cancer, and biopsy specimens of breast cancer...
December 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179583/oncolytic-viruses-for-tumor-precision-imaging-and-radiotherapy
#20
Zi Jun Wu, Feng R Tang, Zhao-Wu Ma, Xiao-Chun Peng, Ying Xiang, Yanling Zhang, Jingbo Kang, Jiafu Ji, Xiao Q Liu, Xian-Wang Wang, Hong-Wu Xin, Bo X Ren
Dr. Peng et al invented the recombinant adenovirus expressing p53 (rAd-p53, Gendicine) for clinical tumor virotherapy in China in 2003, which is the first clinically approved gene therapy and tumor virotherapy drug in the world. An oncolytic herpes simplex virus expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Talimogene laherparepvec, T-VEC) was approved for melanoma treatment in the United States in 2015. Since then, oncolytic viruses have been attracting more and more attention in the field of oncology, and may become novel significant modalities of tumor precision imaging and radiotherapy after further improvement...
November 27, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
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