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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339470/meiotic-recombination-modulates-the-structure-and-dynamics-of-the-synaptonemal-complex-during-c-elegans-meiosis
#1
Divya Pattabiraman, Baptiste Roelens, Alexander Woglar, Anne M Villeneuve
During meiotic prophase, a structure called the synaptonemal complex (SC) assembles at the interface between aligned pairs of homologous chromosomes, and crossover recombination events occur between their DNA molecules. Here we investigate the inter-relationships between these two hallmark features of the meiotic program in the nematode C. elegans, revealing dynamic properties of the SC that are modulated by recombination. We demonstrate that the SC incorporates new subunits and switches from a more highly dynamic/labile state to a more stable state as germ cells progress through the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase...
March 24, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334865/structure-of-human-pofut1-its-requirement-in-ligand-independent-oncogenic-notch-signaling-and-functional-effects-of-dowling-degos-mutations
#2
Brian J McMillan, Brandon Zimmerman, Emily D Egan, Michael Lofgren, Xiang Xu, Anthony Hesser, Stephen C Blacklow
Protein O-fucosyltransferase-1 (POFUT1), which transfers fucose residues to acceptor sites on serine and threonine residues of epidermal growth factor-like repeats of recipient proteins, is essential for Notch signal transduction in mammals. Here, we examine the consequences of POFUT1 loss on the oncogenic signaling associated with certain leukemia-associated mutations of human Notch1, report the structures of human POFUT1 in free and GDP-fucose bound states, and assess the effects of Dowling-Degos mutations on human POFUT1 function...
March 17, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334209/comparative-study-of-chemosensory-organs-of-shrimp-from-hydrothermal-vent-and-coastal-environments
#3
Magali Zbinden, Camille Berthod, Nicolas Montagné, Julia Machon, Nelly Léger, Thomas Chertemps, Nicolas Rabet, Bruce Shillito, Juliette Ravaux
The detection of chemical signals is involved in a variety of crustacean behaviors, such as social interactions, search and evaluation of food and navigation in the environment. At hydrothermal vents, endemic shrimp may use the chemical signature of vent fluids to locate active edifices, however little is known on their sensory perception in these remote deep-sea habitats. Here, we present the first comparative description of the sensilla on the antennules and antennae of 4 hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata, Mirocaris fortunata, Chorocaris chacei, and Alvinocaris markensis) and of a closely related coastal shrimp (Palaemon elegans)...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333980/evaluating-alignment-and-variant-calling-software-for-mutation-identification-in-c-elegans-by-whole-genome-sequencing
#4
Harold E Smith, Sijung Yun
Whole-genome sequencing is a powerful tool for analyzing genetic variation on a global scale. One particularly useful application is the identification of mutations obtained by classical phenotypic screens in model species. Sequence data from the mutant strain is aligned to the reference genome, and then variants are called to generate a list of candidate alleles. A number of software pipelines for mutation identification have been targeted to C. elegans, with particular emphasis on ease of use, incorporation of mapping strain data, subtraction of background variants, and similar criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333578/hormetic-heat-shock-and-hsf-1-overexpression-improve-c-elegans-survival-by-inducing-autophagy
#5
Caroline Kumsta, Malene Hansen
The cellular recycling process of macroautophagy/autophagy is an essential homeostatic system induced by various stresses, but it remains unclear how autophagy contributes to organismal stress resistance. In a recent study, we report that a mild and physiologically beneficial ("hormetic") heat shock as well as overexpression of the heat-shock responsive transcription factor HSF-1 systemically increases autophagy in C. elegans. Accordingly, we found HSF-1- and heat stress-inducible autophagy to be required for C...
March 23, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333090/biscembranoids-and-cembranoids-from-the-soft-coral-sarcophyton-elegans
#6
Wei Li, Yi-Hong Zou, Man-Xi Ge, Lan-Lan Lou, Yun-Shao Xu, Abrar Ahmed, Yun-Yun Chen, Jun-Sheng Zhang, Gui-Hua Tang, Sheng Yin
Two novel biscembranoids, sarelengans A and B (1 and 2), five new cembranoids, sarelengans C-G (3-7), along with two known cembranoids (8 and 9) were isolated from the South China Sea soft coral Sarcophyton elegans. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods, and those of 1, 4, 5, and 6 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 represent the first example of biscembranoids featuring a trans-fused A/B-ring conjunction between the two cembranoid units. Their unique structures may shed light on an unusual biosynthetic pathway involving a cembranoid-∆⁸ rather than the normal cembranoid-∆¹ unit in the endo-Diels-Alder cycloaddition...
March 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332918/artificial-and-natural-rna-interactions-between-bacteria-and-c-elegans
#7
Fabian Braukmann, David Jordan, Eric Miska
19 years after Lisa Timmons and Andy Fire first described RNA transfer from bacteria to C. elegans in an experimental setting [Timmons and Fire, 1998 ] the biological role of this trans-kingdom RNA-based communication remains unknown. Here we summarize our current understanding on the mechanism and potential role of such social RNA.
March 23, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331075/myosin-activity-drives-actomyosin-bundle-formation-and-organization-in-contractile-cells-of-the-c-elegans-spermatheca
#8
Alison C E Wirshing, Erin J Cram
Stress fibers, contractile actomyosin bundles, are important for cellular force production and adaptation to physical stress and have been well-studied within the context of cell migration. However, less is known about actomyosin bundle formation and organization in vivo and in specialized contractile cells, such as smooth muscle and myoepithelial cells. The Caenorhabditis elegans spermatheca is a bag-like organ of 24 myoepithelial cells that houses the sperm and is the site of fertilization. During ovulation, spermathecal cells are stretched by oocyte entry and then coordinately contract to expel the fertilized embryo into the uterus...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331070/cytoplasmic-flows-as-signatures-for-the-mechanics-of-mitotic-positioning
#9
Ehssan Nazockdast, Abtin Rahimian, Daniel Needleman, Michael Shelley
The proper positioning of mitotic spindle in the single-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is achieved initially by the migration and rotation of the pronuclear complex (PNC) and its two associated astral microtubules (MTs). Pronuclear migration produces global cytoplasmic flows that couple the mechanics of all microtubules, the PNC, and the cell periphery with each other through their hydrodynamic interactions (HIs). We present the first computational study that explicitly accounts for detailed HIs between the cytoskeletal components and demonstrate the key consequences of HIs on the mechanics of pronuclear migration...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329701/interleukin-17-why-the-worms-squirm
#10
Noah J Silverstein, Jun R Huh
IL-17 is a cytokine known primarily for its role in inflammation. In a recent issue of Nature, Chen et al. (2017) demonstrate that IL-17 plays a neuromodulatory role in Caenorhabditis elegans by acting directly on neurons to amplify neuronal responses to stimuli and produce changes in animal behavior.
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329688/early-developmental-exposure-to-dsrna-is-critical-for-initiating-efficient-nuclear-rnai-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#11
Philip K Shiu, Craig P Hunter
RNAi has enabled researchers to study the function of many genes. However, it is not understood why some RNAi experiments succeed while others do not. Here, we show in C. elegans that pharyngeal muscle is resistant to RNAi when initially exposed to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by feeding but sensitive to RNAi in the next generation. Investigating this observation, we find that pharyngeal muscle cells as well as vulval muscle cells require nuclear rather than cytoplasmic RNAi. Further, we find in these cell types that nuclear RNAi silencing is most efficiently triggered during early development, defining a critical period for initiating nuclear RNAi...
March 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329170/life-span-extension-by-axenic-dietary-restriction-is-independent-of-the-mitochondrial-unfolded-protein-response-and-mitohormesis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Huaihan Cai, Madina Rasulova, Lieselot Vandemeulebroucke, Lea Meagher, Caroline Vlaeminck, Ineke Dhondt, Bart P Braeckman
In Caenorhabditis elegans, a broad range of dietary restriction regimens extend life span to different degrees by separate or partially overlapping molecular pathways. One of these regimens, axenic dietary restriction, doubles the worm's life span but currently, almost nothing is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. Previous studies suggest that mitochondrial stress responses such as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) or mitohormesis may play a vital role in axenic dietary restriction-induced longevity...
March 17, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326696/history-of-research-on-c-elegans-and-other-free-living-nematodes-as-model-organisms
#13
Victor Marc Nigon, Marie-Anne Félix
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is now a major model organism in biology. The choice of Sydney Brenner to adopt this species in the mid-1960s and the success of his team in raising it to a model organism status have been told (http://www.wormbook.org/toc_wormhistory.html; Brenner, 2001; Ankeny, 2001). Here we review the pre-Brenner history of the use of free-living nematodes as models for general questions in biology. We focus on the period that started in 1899 with the first publication of Emile Maupas mentioning Rhabditis elegans and ended in 1974 with the first publications by Brenner...
March 21, 2017: WormBook: the Online Review of C. Elegans Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326124/adverse-effects-of-hydroalcoholic-extracts-and-the-major-components-in-the-stems-of-impatiens-balsamina-l-on-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Hong-Fang Jiang, Zi-Heng Zhuang, Bei-Wei Hou, Bao-Jun Shi, Cheng-Jie Shu, Lei Chen, Guo-Xin Shi, Wei-Ming Zhang
Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae), an annual herb found throughout China, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, our knowledge regarding the adverse effects of I. balsamina in vivo is very limited. In this present study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model was employed to fully assess the adverse effects of hydroalcoholic (EtOH 55%) extracts of I. balsamina stems (HAEIBS) in vivo. After exposure to 10 mg/mL HAEIBS, the major organism-level endpoints of C. elegans of percent survival, frequency of head thrash and body bends, and reproduction had decreased by 24%, 30%, and 25%, respectively...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325874/ion-and-inhibitor-binding-of-the-double-ring-ion-selectivity-filter-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter
#15
Chan Cao, Shuqing Wang, Tanxing Cui, Xun-Cheng Su, James J Chou
The calcium (Ca(2+)) uniporter of mitochondria is a holocomplex consisting of the Ca(2+)-conducting channel, known as mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), and several accessory and regulatory components. A previous electrophysiology study found that the uniporter has high Ca(2+) selectivity and conductance and this depends critically on the conserved amino acid sequence motif, DXXE (Asp-X-X-Glu) of MCU. A recent NMR structure of the MCU channel from Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that the DXXE forms two parallel carboxylate rings at the channel entrance that seem to serve as the ion selectivity filter, although direct ion interaction of this structural motif has not been addressed...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325813/aging-effects-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-ryanodine-receptor-variants-corresponding-to-human-myopathic-mutations
#16
Katie Nicoll Baines, Célia Ferreira, Philip M Hopkins, Marie-Anne Shaw, Ian A Hope
Delaying the decline in skeletal muscle function will be critical to better maintenance of an active life-style in old age. The skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor, the major intracellular membrane channel through which calcium ions pass to elicit muscle contraction, is central to calcium ion balance, and is hypothesized to be a significant factor for age-related decline in muscle function. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a key model system for the study of human aging and strains with modified C. elegans ryanodine receptors corresponding to human myopathic variants linked with malignant hyperthermia and related conditions were generated...
March 21, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325808/membrane-remodeling-during-embryonic-abscission-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Julia König, E B Frankel, Anjon Audhya, Thomas Müller-Reichert
Abscission is the final step of cytokinesis and results in the physical separation of two daughter cells. In this study, we conducted a time-resolved series of electron tomographic reconstructions to define the steps required for the first embryonic abscission in Caenorhabditis elegans Our findings indicate that membrane scission occurs on both sides of the midbody ring with random order and that completion of the scission process requires actomyosin-driven membrane remodeling, but not microtubules. Moreover, continuous membrane removal predominates during the late stages of cytokinesis, mediated by both dynamin and the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325765/caenorhabditis-elegans-rig-i-homolog-mediates-antiviral-rna-interference-downstream-of-dicer-dependent-biogenesis-of-viral-small-interfering-rnas
#18
Stephanie R Coffman, Jinfeng Lu, Xunyang Guo, Jing Zhong, Hongshan Jiang, Gina Broitman-Maduro, Wan-Xiang Li, Rui Lu, Morris Maduro, Shou-Wei Ding
Dicer enzymes process virus-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to initiate specific antiviral defense by related RNA interference (RNAi) pathways in plants, insects, nematodes, and mammals. Antiviral RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans requires Dicer-related helicase 1 (DRH-1), not found in plants and insects but highly homologous to mammalian retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), intracellular viral RNA sensors that trigger innate immunity against RNA virus infection...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325749/the-nca-1-and-nca-2-ion-channels-function-downstream-of-gq-and-rho-to-regulate-locomotion-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Irini Topalidou, Pin-An Chen, Kirsten Cooper, Shigeki Watanabe, Erik M Jorgensen, Michael Ailion
The heterotrimeric G protein Gq positively regulates neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. Previously, the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio was identified as a direct effector of Gq that acts in parallel to the canonical Gq effector phospholipase C. Here we examine how Trio and Rho act to stimulate neuronal activity downstream of Gq in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Through two forward genetic screens, we identify the cation channels NCA-1 and NCA-2, orthologs of mammalian NALCN, as downstream targets of the Gq/Rho pathway...
March 21, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324491/monitoring-mitophagy-during-aging-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Nikolaos Charmpilas, Konstantinos Kounakis, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Mitochondria constitute the main energy-producing centers of eukaryotic cells. In addition, they are involved in several crucial cellular processes, such as lipid metabolism, calcium buffering, and apoptosis. As such, their malfunction can be detrimental for proper cellular physiology and homeostasis. Mitophagy is a mechanism that protects and maintains cellular function by sequestering harmful or dysfunctional mitochondria to lysosomes for degradation. In this report, we present experimental procedures for quantitative, in vivo monitoring of mitophagy events in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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