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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691312/effect-of-interactions-among-individuals-on-the-chemotaxis-behaviours-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
Toshiki Yoshimizu, Hisashi Shidara, Keita Ashida, Kohji Hotta, Kotaro Oka
In many species, individual social animals interact with others in their group and change their collective behaviours. Meanwhile, for the solitary nematode Caenorhabditis elegans strain, N2, previous research suggests that individuals can change the behaviour of other worms via pheromones and mechanosensory interactions. Pheromones, especially, affect foraging behaviour, so that the chemotactic behaviours of individuals in a group (population) can be modulated by interactions with other individuals in the population...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691291/rapid-integration-of-multi-copy-transgenes-using-optogenetic-mutagenesis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Kentaro Noma, Yishi Jin
Stably transmitted transgenes are indispensable for labeling cellular components and manipulating cellular functions. In Caenorhabditis elegans , transgenes are generally generated as inheritable multi-copy extrachromosomal arrays, which can be stabilized in the genome through a mutagenesis-mediated integration process. Standard methods to integrate extrachromosomal arrays primarily use protocols involving ultraviolet light plus trimethylpsoralen or gamma- or X-ray irradiation, which are laborious and time-consuming...
April 24, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690487/miscellanea-herpetologica-sanctithomae-with-a-provisional-checklist-of-the-terrestrial-herpetofauna-of-s%C3%A3-o-tom%C3%A3-pr%C3%A3-ncipe-and-annobon-islands
#3
Luis M P CerÍaco, Mariana P Marques, Aaron M Bauer
Five problematic cases regarding the presence of reptile taxa on the island of São Tomé (Gulf of Guinea) are reviewed. These cases deal with 1) the past presence of crocodilians in the island, 2) the putative type locality of Dipsas pulverulenta Fischer, 1856, 3) the dubious presence of a mamba (genus Dendroaspis) on the island, 4) an erroneous reference to the presence of Gastropyxis smaragdina, and 5) two specimens (Psammophis lineatus and Psammophis elegans) from Carl Weiss collection, currently deposited in the Zoological Museum of Hamburg and wrongly labelled as being from São Tomé island...
February 26, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690137/new-species-of-dispio-hartman-1951-and-streblospio-webster-1879-polychaeta-spionidae-from-the-coast-of-the-iberian-peninsula
#4
VÍctor Hugo Delgado-Blas, Óscar DÍaz-dÍaz, JosÉ M ViÉitez
Re-assessment of spionid specimens from Iberian Peninsula initially assigned to Dispio uncinata Hartman, 1951 and Streblospio benedicti Webster, 1879 led to the recognition of two new species from the spionid genera Dispio and Streblospio from coasts around the Iberian Peninsula. Dispio elegans sp. nov. is characterised by having an oblanceolate-shaped prostomium. In addition, the first two notopodial postchaetal lamellae are serrated with digitiform papillae, the anterior neuropodial lamellae are smooth; all branchiae are almost completely fused to the notopodial lamellae, but with the tips free; the notochaetae on chaetiger 1 are smooth, alimbate capillaries; the ventral chaetae located in the position of the sabre chaetae on chaetigers 1-2 are smooth, alimbate capillaries, but becoming granulated on chaetiger 3; and the middle and posterior chaetigers are granulated and reticulated...
April 18, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689883/redescription-of-brachyolus-punctatus-white-1846-coleoptera-curculionidae-entiminae-with-synonyms-and-lectotype-designations
#5
Samuel D J Brown
The New Zealand entimine weevil species Brachyolus punctatus White, 1846 is redescribed, with the following new synonyms proposed: Brachyolus albescens Broun, 1903, Inophloeus breviusculus Broun, 1880, Brachyolus elegans Broun, 1893 and Brachyolus viridescens Broun, 1893.
January 5, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689735/erratum-to-modeling-parkinson-s-disease-in-c-elegans
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689190/how-to-make-a-billion-parasites
#7
Eric S Haag, Te-Wen Lo
Transmission of the human parasite Brugia malayi relies on the sustained production of larvae in blood. In this issue of Developmental Cell,Foray et al. (2018) use methods developed in the model nematode C. elegans to reveal how a symbiotic bacterium supports the female germ cell development underlying this massive fecundity.
April 23, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688794/spindle-assembly-checkpoint-strength-is-linked-to-cell-fate-in-the-c-elegans-embryo
#8
Abigail R Gerhold, Vincent Poupart, Jean-Claude Labbé, Paul S Maddox
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a conserved mitotic regulator that preserves genome stability by monitoring kinetochore-microtubule attachments and blocking anaphase onset until chromosome bi-orientation is achieved. Despite its central role in maintaining mitotic fidelity, the ability of the SAC to delay mitotic exit in the presence of kinetochore-microtubule attachment defects (SAC "strength") appears to vary widely. How different cellular aspects drive this variation remains largely unknown...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686301/endocannabinoids-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-are-essential-for-the-mobilization-of-cholesterol-from-internal-reserves
#9
Celina Galles, Gastón M Prez, Sider Penkov, Sebastian Boland, Exequiel O J Porta, Silvia G Altabe, Guillermo R Labadie, Ulrike Schmidt, Hans-Joachim Knölker, Teymuras V Kurzchalia, Diego de Mendoza
Proper cholesterol transport is crucial for the functionality of cells. In C. elegans, certain cholesterol derivatives called dafachronic acids (DAs) govern the entry into diapause. In their absence, worms form a developmentally arrested dauer larva. Thus, cholesterol transport to appropriate places for DA biosynthesis warrants the reproductive growth. Recently, we discovered a novel class of glycosphingolipids, PEGCs, required for cholesterol mobilization/transport from internal storage pools. Here, we identify other components involved in this process...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686107/descending-pathway-facilitates-undulatory-wave-propagation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-through-gap-junctions
#10
Tianqi Xu, Jing Huo, Shuai Shao, Michelle Po, Taizo Kawano, Yangning Lu, Min Wu, Mei Zhen, Quan Wen
Descending signals from the brain play critical roles in controlling and modulating locomotion kinematics. In the Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system, descending AVB premotor interneurons exclusively form gap junctions with the B-type motor neurons that execute forward locomotion. We combined genetic analysis, optogenetic manipulation, calcium imaging, and computational modeling to elucidate the function of AVB-B gap junctions during forward locomotion. First, we found that some B-type motor neurons generate rhythmic activity, constituting distributed oscillators...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686104/interdependent-and-separable-functions-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-mrn-c-complex-members-couple-formation-and-repair-of-meiotic-dsbs
#11
Chloe Girard, Baptiste Roelens, Karl A Zawadzki, Anne M Villeneuve
Faithful inheritance of genetic information through sexual reproduction relies on the formation of crossovers between homologous chromosomes during meiosis, which, in turn, relies on the formation and repair of numerous double-strand breaks (DSBs). As DSBs pose a potential threat to the genome, mechanisms that ensure timely and error-free DSB repair are crucial for successful meiosis. Here, we identify NBS-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the NBS1 (mutated in Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome) subunit of the conserved MRE11-RAD50-NBS1/Xrs2 (MRN) complex, as a key mediator of DSB repair via homologous recombination (HR) during meiosis...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681853/caffeine-promotes-conversion-of-palmitic-acid-to-palmitoleic-acid-by-inducing-expression-of-fat-5-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-scd1-in-mice
#12
Xiaocui Du, Qin Huang, Yun Guan, Ming Lv, Xiaofang He, Chongye Fang, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
The synthesis and metabolism of fatty acids in an organism is related to many biological processes and is involved in several diseases. The effects of caffeine on fatty acid synthesis and fat storage in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice were studied. After 6 h of food deprivation, adult C. elegans were treated with 0.1 mg/mL caffeine for 24 h. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that, among all the genes involved in fat accumulation, the mRNA expression of fat-5 in caffeine-treated C...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681740/new-nematicidal-and-antimicrobial-secondary-metabolites-from-a-new-species-in-the-new-genus-pseudobambusicola-thailandica
#13
Zeljka Rupcic, Clara Chepkirui, Margarita Hernández-Restrepo, Pedro W Crous, Janet Jennifer Luangsa-Ard, Marc Stadler
During the course of a study on the functional biodiversity of the mycobiota inhabiting rainforests in Thailand, a fungal strain was isolated from a plant sample and shown to represent an undescribed species, as inferred from a combination of morphological and molecular phylogenetic methods. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on four DNA loci, revealed a phylogenetic tree with the newly generated sequences clustering in a separate branch, together with members of the Sulcatisporaceae (Pleosporales, Ascomycota)...
2018: MycoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680931/cinnamic-acid-attenuates-quorum-sensing-associated-virulence-factors-and-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#14
Jobina Rajkumari, Subhomoi Borkotoky, Ayaluru Murali, Kitlangki Suchiang, Saswat Kumar Mohanty, Siddhardha Busi
OBJECTIVE: Anti-quorum sensing and anti-biofilm efficacy of Cinnamic acid against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was comparatively assessed with respect to potent quorum sensing inhibitor, Baicalein. RESULTS: At sub-lethal concentration, Cinnamic acid effectively inhibited both the production of the QS-dependent virulence factors and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa without affecting the viability of the bacterium. The phytocompound interfered with the initial attachment of planktonic cells to the substratum thereby causing reduction in biofilm development...
April 21, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678816/four-specific-ig-domains-in-unc-52-perlecan-function-with-nid-1-nidogen-during-dendrite-morphogenesis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Kevin Celestrin, Carlos Díaz-Balzac, Leo T H Tang, Brian D Ackley, Hannes E Bülow
The extracellular matrix is essential for various aspects of nervous system patterning. For example, sensory dendrites in flies, worms and fish have been shown to rely on coordinated interactions of tissues with extracellular matrix proteins. Here we show that the conserved basement membrane protein UNC-52/Perlecan is required for establishing the correct number of the highly ordered dendritic trees in the somatosensory neuron PVD in Caenorhabditis elegans. This function of UNC-52/Perlecan is dependent on four conserved immunoglobulin domains, but independent of the known functions of UNC-52/Perlecan in mediating muscle-skin attachment...
April 20, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678692/nucpospred-predicting-species-specific-genomic-nucleosome-positionin-g-via-four-different-modes-of-general-pseknc
#16
Cangzhi Jia, Qing Yang, Quan Zou
The nucleosome is the basic structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells, with essential roles in the regulation of many biological processes, such as DNA transcription, replication and repair, and RNA splicing. Because of the importance of nucleosomes, the factors that determine their positioning within genomes should be investigated. High-resolution nucleosome-positioning maps are now available for organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, enabling the identification of nucleosome positioning by application of computational tools...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677132/cd81-receptor-regions-outside-the-large-extracellular-loop-determine-hepatitis-c-virus-entry-into-hepatoma-cells
#17
Pia Banse, Rebecca Moeller, Janina Bruening, Lisa Lasswitz, Sina Kahl, Abdul G Khan, Joseph Marcotrigiano, Thomas Pietschmann, Gisa Gerold
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters human hepatocytes using four essential entry factors, one of which is human CD81 (hCD81). The tetraspanin hCD81 contains a large extracellular loop (LEL), which interacts with the E2 glycoprotein of HCV. The role of the non-LEL regions of hCD81 (intracellular tails, four transmembrane domains, small extracellular loop and intracellular loop) is poorly understood. Here, we studied the contribution of these domains to HCV susceptibility of hepatoma cells by generating chimeras of related tetraspanins with the hCD81 LEL...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674686/evolutionary-plasticity-of-the-nhl-domain-underlies-distinct-solutions-to-rna-recognition
#18
Pooja Kumari, Florian Aeschimann, Dimos Gaidatzis, Jeremy J Keusch, Pritha Ghosh, Anca Neagu, Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek, Janusz M Bujnicki, Heinz Gut, Helge Großhans, Rafal Ciosk
RNA-binding proteins regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism. Their association with RNA is mediated by RNA-binding domains, of which many remain uncharacterized. A recently reported example is the NHL domain, found in prominent regulators of cellular plasticity like the C. elegans LIN-41. Here we employ an integrative approach to dissect the RNA specificity of LIN-41. Using computational analysis, structural biology, and in vivo studies in worms and human cells, we find that a positively charged pocket, specific to the NHL domain of LIN-41 and its homologs (collectively LIN41), recognizes a stem-loop RNA element, whose shape determines the binding specificity...
April 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673961/metabolic-effects-of-manganese-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-through-daergic-pathway-and-transcription-factors-activation
#19
Priscila Gubert, Bruna Puntel, Tassia Lehmen, Joshua P Fessel, Pan Cheng, Julia Bornhorst, Lucas Siqueira Trindade, Daiana S Avila, Michael Aschner, Felix A A Soares
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element for physiological functions since it acts as an enzymatic co-factor. Nevertheless, overexposure to Mn has been associated with a pathologic condition called manganism. Furthermore, Mn has been reported to affect lipid metabolism by mechanisms which have yet to be established. Herein, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to examine Mn's effects on the dopaminergic (DAergic) system and determine which transcription factors that regulate with lipid metabolism are affected by it...
April 16, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673481/cell-autonomous-regulation-of-dendrite-self-avoidance-by-the-wnt-secretory-factor-mig-14-wntless
#20
Chien-Po Liao, Hsun Li, Hsiu-Hsiang Lee, Cheng-Ting Chien, Chun-Liang Pan
Self-avoidance allows sister dendrites from the same neuron to form non-redundant coverage of the sensory territory and is important for neural circuitry functions. Here, we report an unexpected, cell-autonomous role of the Wnt-secretory factor MIG-14/Wntless in mediating dendrite self-avoidance in the C. elegans multidendritic PVD neurons. Similar findings in Drosophila suggest that this novel function of Wntless is conserved. The mig-14 mutant shows defects in dendrite self-avoidance, and ectopic MIG-14 expression triggers dendrite repulsion...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
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