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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228038/temporal-dynamics-of-gene-expression-in-heat-stressed-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
Katharina Jovic, Mark G Sterken, Jacopo Grilli, Roel P J Bevers, Miriam Rodriguez, Joost A G Riksen, Stefano Allesina, Jan E Kammenga, L Basten Snoek
There is considerable insight into pathways and genes associated with heat-stress conditions. Most genes involved in stress response have been identified using mutant screens or gene knockdowns. Yet, there is limited understanding of the temporal dynamics of global gene expression in stressful environments. Here, we studied global gene expression profiles during 12 hours of heat stress in the nematode C. elegans. Using a high-resolution time series of increasing stress exposures, we found a distinct shift in gene expression patterns between 3-4 hours into the stress response, separating an initially highly dynamic phase from a later relatively stagnant phase...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228003/a-mig-15-jnk-1-map-kinase-cascade-opposes-rpm-1-signaling-in-synapse-formation-and-learning
#2
Oliver Crawley, Andrew C Giles, Muriel Desbois, Sudhanva Kashyap, Rayna Birnbaum, Brock Grill
The Pam/Highwire/RPM-1 (PHR) proteins are conserved intracellular signaling hubs that regulate synapse formation and axon termination. The C. elegans PHR protein, called RPM-1, acts as a ubiquitin ligase to inhibit the DLK-1 and MLK-1 MAP kinase pathways. We have identified several kinases that are likely to form a new MAP kinase pathway that suppresses synapse formation defects, but not axon termination defects, in the mechanosensory neurons of rpm-1 mutants. This pathway includes: MIG-15 (MAP4K), NSY-1 (MAP3K), JKK-1 (MAP2K) and JNK-1 (MAPK)...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225236/microfluidic-platform-for-analyzing-the-thermotaxis-of-c-elegans-in-a-linear-temperature-gradient
#3
Sunhee Yoon, Hailing Piao, Tae-Joon Jeon, Sun Min Kim
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), which shares a considerable amount of characteristics with human genes is one of the important model organisms for the study of behavioral responses. Thermotaxis is a representative behavior response of C. elegans; C. elegans stores the cultivation temperature in thermosensory neurons and moves to the cultivation temperature region in a temperature variation. In this study, we developed a microfluidic system for effective thermotaxis analysis of C. elegans. The microfluidic channel was fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by soft lithography process...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224722/nrap-1-is-a-presynaptically-released-nmda-receptor-auxiliary-protein-that-modifies-synaptic-strength
#4
Ning Lei, Jerry E Mellem, Penelope J Brockie, David M Madsen, Andres V Maricq
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are a subtype of postsynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors that function as molecular coincidence detectors, have critical roles in models of learning, and are associated with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. To date, no auxiliary proteins that modify NMDARs have been identified. Here, we report the identification of NRAP-1, an auxiliary protein in C. elegans that modulates NMDAR function. NMDAR-mediated currents were eliminated in nrap-1 mutants, as was NMDA-dependent behavior...
December 1, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223977/growth-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-in-defined-media-is-dependent-on-presence-of-particulate-matter
#5
Matthew R Flavel, Adam Mechler, Mahdi Shahmiri, Elizabeth R Mathews, Ashley E Franks, Weisan Chen, Damien Zanker, Bo Xian, Shan Gao, Jing Luo, Surafel Tegegne, Christian Doneski, Markandeya Jois
Caenorhabditis elegans are typically cultured in a monoxenic medium consisting of live bacteria. However, this introduces a secondary organism to experiments and restricts the manipulation of the nutritional environment. Due to the intricate link between genes and environment, greater control and understanding of nutritional factors are required to push the C. elegans field into new areas. For decades, attempts to develop a chemically defined, axenic medium as an alternative for culturing C. elegans have been made...
December 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223862/wave-regulates-cadherin-junction-assembly-and-turnover-during-epithelial-polarization
#6
Shashikala Sasidharan, Sofya Borinskaya, Falshruti Patel, Yelena Bernadskaya, Sailaja Mandalapu, Maria Agapito, Martha Soto
Actin is an integral component of epithelial apical junctions, yet the interactions of branched actin regulators with apical junction components are still not clear. Biochemical data have shown that α-catenin inhibits Arp2/3-dependent branched actin. These results suggested that branched actin is only needed at earliest stages of apical junction development. We use live imaging in developing C. elegans embryos to test models for how WAVE-induced branched actin collaborates with other apical junction proteins during the essential process of junction formation and maturation...
December 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223747/an-automated-high-throughput-system-for-phenotypic-screening-of-chemical-libraries-on-c-elegans-and-parasitic-nematodes
#7
Frederick A Partridge, Anwen E Brown, Steven D Buckingham, Nicky J Willis, Graham M Wynne, Ruth Forman, Kathryn J Else, Alison A Morrison, Jacqueline B Matthews, Angela J Russell, David A Lomas, David B Sattelle
Parasitic nematodes infect hundreds of millions of people and farmed livestock. Further, plant parasitic nematodes result in major crop damage. The pipeline of therapeutic compounds is limited and parasite resistance to the existing anthelmintic compounds is a global threat. We have developed an INVertebrate Automated Phenotyping Platform (INVAPP) for high-throughput, plate-based chemical screening, and an algorithm (Paragon) which allows screening for compounds that have an effect on motility and development of parasitic worms...
December 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222621/lifespan-extension-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-butyricicoccus-pullicaecorum-and-megasphaera-elsdenii-with-probiotic-potential
#8
Gayeung Kwon, Jiyun Lee, Jong-Ho Koh, Young-Hee Lim
Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum and Megasphaera elsdenii inhabit the human intestine and have probiotic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of B. pullicaecorum and M. elsdenii on the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. They significantly (P < 0.05) extended the lifespan of C. elegans compared with Escherichia coli OP50, a standard food for the worm. Analysis of age-related biomarkers such as lipofuscin, body size, and locomotory activity showed that they retarded aging. They all failed to extend the lifespan of daf-12 or dbl-1 loss-of-function C...
December 8, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222342/regulation-of-crossover-frequency-and-distribution-during-meiotic-recombination
#9
Takamune T Saito, Monica P Colaiácovo
Crossover recombination is essential for generating genetic diversity and promoting accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis. The process of crossover recombination is tightly regulated and is initiated by the formation of programmed meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The number of DSBs is around 10-fold higher than the number of crossovers in most species, because only a limited number of DSBs are repaired as crossovers during meiosis. Moreover, crossovers are not randomly distributed. Most crossovers are located on chromosomal arm regions and both centromeres and telomeres are usually devoid of crossovers...
December 8, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222184/phosphorylation-of-the-synaptonemal-complex-protein-syp-1-promotes-meiotic-chromosome-segregation
#10
Aya Sato-Carlton, Chihiro Nakamura-Tabuchi, Stephane Kazuki Chartrand, Tomoki Uchino, Peter Mark Carlton
Chromosomes that have undergone crossing over in meiotic prophase must maintain sister chromatid cohesion somewhere along their length between the first and second meiotic divisions. Although many eukaryotes use the centromere as a site to maintain cohesion, the holocentric organism Caenorhabditis elegans instead creates two chromosome domains of unequal length termed the short arm and long arm, which become the first and second site of cohesion loss at meiosis I and II. The mechanisms that confer distinct functions to the short and long arm domains remain poorly understood...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222174/phosphatase-pp2a-and-microtubule-mediated-pulling-forces-disassemble-centrosomes-during-mitotic-exit
#11
Stephen J Enos, Martin Dressler, Beatriz Ferreira Gomes, Anthony A Hyman, Jeffrey B Woodruff
Centrosomes are microtubule-nucleating organelles that facilitate chromosome segregation and cell division in metazoans. Centrosomes comprise centrioles that organize a micron-scale mass of protein called pericentriolar material (PCM) from which microtubules nucleate. During each cell cycle, PCM accumulates around centrioles through phosphorylation-mediated assembly of PCM scaffold proteins. During mitotic exit, PCM swiftly disassembles by an unknown mechanism. Here, we used Caenorhabditis elegans embryos to determine the mechanism and importance of PCM disassembly in dividing cells...
December 8, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218454/the-extraordinary-afd-thermosensor-of-c-elegans
#12
REVIEW
Miriam B Goodman, Piali Sengupta
The nematode C. elegans exhibits complex thermal experience-dependent navigation behaviors in response to environmental temperature changes of as little as 0.01°C over a > 10°C temperature range. The remarkable thermosensory abilities of this animal are mediated primarily via the single pair of AFD sensory neurons in its head. In this review, we describe the contributions of AFD to thermosensory behaviors and temperature-dependent regulation of organismal physiology. We also discuss the mechanisms that enable this neuron type to adapt to recent temperature experience and to exhibit extraordinary thermosensitivity over a wide dynamic range...
December 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218439/characterization-and-expression-of-lin-28a-involved-in-lin28-let-7signal-pathway-during-early-development-of-p-olivaceus
#13
Yuanshuai Fu, Lina Gao, Zhiyi Shi, Feng You, Junling Zhang, Wenjuan Li
Heterochronic lin-28 is a conserved RNA-binding protein that plays a key role in the timing of developmental events in organisms. As a crucial heterochronic gene, the protein controls developmental events of the second of four larval stages in Caenorhabditi elegans. Heterochronic let-7 miRNAs are often present in various species and highly conserved in sequence and biological function and are required for various biological processes. Previous studies showed that ten let-7 miRNAs were identified in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and that they were primarily expressed during metamorphosis...
December 7, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218323/sap97-binding-partner-cript-promotes-dendrite-growth-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Lei Zhang, Angela Marie Jablonski, Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Hua Ding, Steven Seeholzer, Ian Paterson Newton, Inke Nathke, Rachael Neve, JinBin Zhai, Yuan Shang, Mingjie Zhang, Robert Gordon Kalb
The dendritic tree is a key determinant of neuronal information processing. In the motor system, the dendritic tree of spinal cord neurons undergoes dramatic remodeling in an activity-dependent manner during early postnatal life. This leads to the proper segmental spinal cord connectivity that subserves normal locomotor behavior. One molecular system driving the establishment of dendrite architecture of mammalian motor neurons relies on AMPA receptors (AMPA-Rs) assembled with the GluA1 subunit, and this occurs in an NMDA receptor (NMDA-R)-independent manner...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217678/hrpu-2-a-homologue-of-mammalian-hnrnp-u-regulates-synaptic-transmission-by-controlling-the-expression-of-slo-2-potassium-channel-in-c-elegans
#15
Ping Liu, Sijie Jason Wang, Zhao-Wen Wang, Bojun Chen
Slo2 channels are large-conductance potassium channels abundantly expressed in the nervous system. However, it is unclear how their expression level in neurons is regulated. Here we report that HRPU-2, an RNA-binding protein homologous to mammalian hnRNP U, plays an important role in regulating the expression of SLO-2 (a homologue of mammalian Slo2) in C. elegans Loss-of-function (lf) mutants of hrpu-2 were isolated in a genetic screen for suppressors of a sluggish phenotype caused by a hyperactive SLO-2. In hrpu-2(lf) mutants, SLO-2-mediated delayed outward currents in neurons are greatly decreased, and neuromuscular synaptic transmission is enhanced...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217120/hydric-environmental-effects-on-turtle-development-and-sex-ratio
#16
Itzel Sifuentes-Romero, Boris M Tezak, Sarah L Milton, Jeanette Wyneken
Experimental and field studies of different turtle species suggest that moisture influences embryonic development and sex ratios, wetter substrates tend to produce more males, and drier substrates produce more females. In this study, we used Trachemys scripta elegans to test the effect of moisture on embryonic development and sex ratios. T. s. elegans eggs were incubated under different temperature and moisture regimes. We monitored embryonic development until stage 22 (after sex determination) and, for the first time, we estimated sex ratios using a male-specific transcriptional molecular marker, Sox9...
November 28, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216338/transcriptome-states-reflect-imaging-of-aging-states
#17
D Mark Eckley, Christopher E Coletta, Nikita V Orlov, Mark A Wilson, Wendy Iser, Paul Bastian, Elin Lehrmann, Yonqing Zhang, Kevin G Becker, Ilya G Goldberg
In this study, we describe a morphological biomarker that detects multiple discrete sub-populations (or "age states") at several chronological ages in a population of nematodes (C. elegans). We determined the frequencies of three healthy adult states and the timing of the transitions between them across the lifespan. We used short-lived and long-lived strains to confirm the general applicability of the state classifier and to monitor state progression. This exploration revealed healthy and unhealthy states, the former being favored in long-lived strains and the latter showing delayed onset...
December 5, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214707/movement-decline-across-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-mutants-in-the-insulin-insulin-like-signaling-pathway
#18
Breanne L Newell Stamper, James R Cypser, Katerina Kechris, David Alan Kitzenberg, Patricia M Tedesco, Thomas E Johnson
Research in aging biology has identified several pathways that are molecularly conserved across species that extend lifespan when mutated. The insulin/insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway is one of the most widely studied of these. It has been assumed that extending lifespan also extends healthspan (the period of life with minimal functional loss). However, data supporting this assumption conflict and recent evidence suggest that life extension may, in and of itself, extend the frail period. In this study, we use Caenorhabditis elegans to further probe the link between lifespan and healthspan...
December 7, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212816/complete-suppression-of-htt-fibrilization-and-disaggregation-of-htt-fibrils-by-a-trimeric-chaperone-complex
#19
Annika Scior, Alexander Buntru, Kristin Arnsburg, Anne Ast, Manuel Iburg, Katrin Juenemann, Maria Lucia Pigazzini, Barbara Mlody, Dmytro Puchkov, Josef Priller, Erich E Wanker, Alessandro Prigione, Janine Kirstein
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene (HTT). Molecular chaperones have been implicated in suppressing or delaying the aggregation of mutant Htt. Using in vitro and in vivo assays, we have identified a trimeric chaperone complex (Hsc70, Hsp110, and J-protein) that completely suppresses fibrilization of HttExon1Q48 The composition of this chaperone complex is variable as recruitment of different chaperone family members forms distinct functional complexes...
December 6, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211978/revamping-mitochondrial-shape-to-live-longer
#20
Lena Pernas, Luca Scorrano
Whether and how mitochondria connect reduced energy intake to healthy aging are unclear. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Weir et al. (2017) find that constitutive AMPK activation and dietary restriction promote longevity in C. elegans via remodeling of the mitochondrial network and fatty acid oxidation in peripheral tissues.
December 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
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