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Rui Zhang, Guoying Zhang, Binggang Xiang, Xiaofeng Chen, Lijang Tang, Shaojun Shi, Yani Liu, Xun Ai, Ping Xie, Zhenyu Li
CD40 ligand (CD40L), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, binds to CD40, leading to many effects depending on target cell type. Platelets express CD40L and are a major source of soluble CD40L. CD40L has been shown to potentiate platelet activation and thrombus formation, involving both CD40-dependent and -independent mechanisms. A family of proteins called TNF receptor associated factors (TRAFs) plays key roles in mediating CD40L-CD40 signaling. Platelets express several TRAFs. It has been shown that TRAF2 plays a role in CD40L-mediated platelet activation...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Isuru Induruwa, Masaaki Moroi, Arkadiusz Bonna, Jean-Daniel Malcor, Joanna-Marie Howes, Elizabeth A Warburton, Richard W Farndale, Stephanie M Jung
BACKGROUND: Platelet collagen receptor GPVI binds collagen, initiating thrombogenesis and stabilizes thrombi by binding fibrin. OBJECTIVES: To determine if GPVI-dimer, monomer, or both bind to fibrinogen substrates, and which region common to these substrates contains the interaction site METHODS: Recombinant GPVI monomeric extracellular domain (GPVIex ) or dimeric Fc-fusion protein (GPVI-Fc2 ) binding to immobilized fibrinogen derivatives was measured by ELISA, including competition assays involving collagenous substrates and fibrinogen derivatives...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
O Elaskalani, I Khan, M Morici, C Matthysen, M Sabale, R N Martins, G Verdile, P Metharom
The effects of the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides on platelet aggregation have been previously assessed, but most of these studies focused on Aβ40 species. It also remains to be determined which distinct forms of Aβ peptides exert differential effects on platelets. In AD, oligomeric Aβ42 species is widely thought to be a major contributor to the disease pathogenesis. We, therefore, examine the ability of oligomeric and fibrillary Aβ42 to affect platelet aggregation. We show that both forms of Aβ42 induced significant platelet aggregation and that it is a novel ligand for the platelet receptor GPVI...
December 5, 2017: Platelets
Nesreen Z Alsmadi, Sarah J Shapiro, Christopher S Lewis, Vinit M Sheth, Trevor A Snyder, David W Schmidtke
Due to the critical roles that platelets play in thrombosis during many biological and pathological events, altered platelet function may be a key contributor to altered hemostasis, leading to both thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. Platelet adhesion at arterial shear rates occurs through binding to von Willebrand Factor via the glycoprotein (GP) GPIb receptor. GPIb binding can induce platelet activation distinguishable by P-selectin (CD62P) surface expression and αIIbβ3 activation, resulting in platelet aggregation and formation of the primary hemostatic plug to stop bleeding...
November 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Theodora A M Claushuis, Alex F de Vos, Bernhard Nieswandt, Louis Boon, Joris J T H Roelofs, Onno J de Boer, Cornelis J van 't Veer, Tom van der Poll
Platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein(GP)VI and podoplanin receptor C-type lectin-like receptor (CLEC-)2 are receptors implicated in platelet activation that both signal via an immunoreceptor-tyrosine-based activation motif. Platelets are necessary for host defense and prevention of hemorrhage during sepsis, but the role of platelet GPVI and CLEC2 herein is unknown. To investigate this we infected mice depleted of platelet GPVI or CLEC2 by antibody treatment or GPVI-/- mice with the common human sepsis pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae via the airways to induce pneumonia derived sepsis...
November 29, 2017: Blood
Zengsheng Chen, Nandan K Mondal, Shirong Zheng, Steven C Koenig, Mark S Slaughter, Bartley P Griffith, Zhongjun J Wu
Thrombosis and bleeding are devastating adverse events in patients supported with blood-contacting medical devices (BCMDs). In this study, we delineated that high non-physiological shear stress (NPSS) caused platelet dysfunction that may contribute to both thrombosis and bleeding. Human blood was subjected to NPSS with short exposure time. Levels of platelet surface GPIbα and GPVI receptors as well as activation level of GPIIb/IIIa in NPSS-sheared blood were examined with flow cytometry. Adhesion of sheared platelets on fibrinogen, von Willibrand factor (VWF), and collagen was quantified with fluorescent microscopy...
November 28, 2017: Platelets
Danyan Chen, Xiaolong Huang, Hua Gan, Xiaogang Du, Song Lu, Rongxi Huang, Ke Liu, Binghan Zhang
In the present study, we evaluated the curative effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor alogliptin combined with motor imagery under hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic nephropathy (DN) with silent cerebral infarction (SCI). Two-hundred newly diagnosed DN patients with and without SCI were included. The SCI patients were divided into two treatment groups: Alogliptin (A group, n=50) and alogliptin combined with motor imagery under hyperbaric oxygen (B group, n=50). The degrees of neurocognitive dysfunction were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of treatment...
November 2017: Biomedical Reports
Sanjeev K Gotru, Wenchun Chen, Peter Kraft, Isabelle C Becker, Karen Wolf, Simon Stritt, Susanna Zierler, Heike M Hermanns, Deviyani Rao, Anne-Laure Perraud, Carsten Schmitz, René P Zahedi, Peter J Noy, Michael G Tomlinson, Thomas Dandekar, Masayuki Matsushita, Vladimir Chubanov, Thomas Gudermann, Guido Stoll, Bernhard Nieswandt, Attila Braun
OBJECTIVE: TRPM7 (transient receptor potential melastatin-like 7 channel) is a ubiquitously expressed bifunctional protein comprising a transient receptor potential channel segment linked to a cytosolic α-type serine/threonine protein kinase domain. TRPM7 forms a constitutively active Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) permeable channel, which regulates diverse cellular processes in both healthy and diseased conditions, but the physiological role of TRPM7 kinase remains largely unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Here we show that point mutation in TRPM7 kinase domain deleting the kinase activity in mice (Trpm7(R/R) ) causes a marked signaling defect in platelets...
November 16, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
John R Stack, Anne Madigan, Laura Helbert, Eimear Dunne, Elizabeth E Gardiner, Robert K Andrews, Roisin Finan, Elizabeth Smyth, Dermot Kenny, Geraldine M McCarthy
OBJECTIVES: Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) have been shown to cause platelet activation in vitro, through the low-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) receptor (FcγRIIa) on platelets. Platelet activation via engagement of FcγRIIa results in proteolytic cleavage and shedding of platelet specific glycoprotein VI (GPVI) which can be detected in the plasma as soluble GPVI (sGPVI). We hypothesized that plasma levels of sGPVI would be increased among patients with seropositive RA as a consequence of antibody-induced platelet activation and GPVI shedding...
2017: PloS One
Maria E Lopes Pires, Simon R Clarke, Sisi Marcondes, Jonathan M Gibbins
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is a principal cause of the symptoms of sepsis. LPS has been reported to modulate the function of platelets although the underlying mechanisms of LPS action in these cells remain unclear. Platelets express the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) which serves as a receptor for LPS, although the potential role of TLR4 and associated cell signalling in controlling platelet responses to LPS has not been extensively explored. In this study, we therefore investigated the actions of LPS prepared from different strains of Escherichia coli on platelet function, the underlying signalling mechanisms, and the potential role of TLR4 in orchestrating these...
2017: PloS One
S S Bhunia, A K Saxena
The GPVI receptor on the platelets plays a major role in inhibiting arterial thrombosis with limited risk of bleeding and is considered a potential anti-thrombotic target for arterial thrombosis. In the reported anti-thrombotics, tetrahydropyridoindoles, the title compound was the best inhibitor of the collagen mediated platelet aggregation by antagonizing the platelet receptor GPVI. Interestingly, the racemic title compound showed better antagonism (IC50 racemate = 6.7 μM) than either of its enantiomers (IC50 S enantiomer = 25...
November 14, 2017: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
Zengsheng Chen, Steven C Koenig, Mark S Slaughter, Bartley P Griffith, Zhongjun J Wu
The structural integrity of platelet receptors is essential for platelets to play the normal hemostatic function. The high non-physiologic shear stress (NPSS) commonly exists in blood-contacting medical devices and has been shown to cause platelet receptor shedding. The loss of platelet receptors may impair the normal hemostatic function of platelets. The aim of this study was to quantify NPSS-induced shedding of three key receptors on the platelet surface. Human blood was subjected to the matrix of well-defined shear stresses and exposure times, generated by using a custom-designed blood-shearing device...
November 7, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Sabine Sewing, Adrian B Roth, Michael Winter, Andreas Dieckmann, Cristina Bertinetti-Lapatki, Yann Tessier, Claudia McGinnis, Sylwia Huber, Erich Koller, Corinne Ploix, John C Reed, Thomas Singer, Andreas Rothfuss
Single-stranded oligonucleotides (ON) comprise a promising therapeutic platform that enables selective modulation of currently undruggable targets. The development of novel ON drug candidates has demonstrated excellent efficacy, but in certain cases also some safety liabilities were reported. Among them are events of thrombocytopenia, which have recently been evident in late stage trials with ON drugs. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and the risk for ON candidates causing such events cannot be sufficiently assessed pre-clinically...
2017: PloS One
Richard Conway, Claire-Louise Murphy, Anne Madigan, Patricia Kavanagh, Liz Geraghty, Niamh Redmond, Laura Helbert, John J Carey, Eimear Dunne, Dermot Kenny, Geraldine M McCarthy
Patients with gout have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The glycoprotein VI (GPVI) receptor is found exclusively on platelets and megakaryocytes, is proteolytically cleaved upon platelet activation, and detectable in plasma as soluble GPVI (sGPVI). Therefore, elevated sGPVI is a marker of platelet activation and a risk marker for cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to assess platelet activation, as measured by plasma sGPVI level in gout. Blood samples were taken from patients with gout or osteoarthritis, and from healthy volunteers...
November 1, 2017: Platelets
Chang Min Kim, Young-Jin Son, Sunghwan Kim, Seo Yun Kim, Hyun Ho Park
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor associated factor 4 (TRAF4), an adaptor protein with E3-ligase activity, is involved in embryogenesis, cancer initiation and progression, and platelet receptor (GPIb-IX-V complex and GPVI)-mediated signaling for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that initiates thrombosis at arterial shears. Disruption of platelet receptors and the TRAF4 interaction is a potential target for therapeutic intervention by antithrombotic drugs. Here, we report a crystal structure of TRAF4 (amino acid residues 290∼470) in complex with a peptide from the GPIbβ receptor (amino acid residues 177∼181)...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Magdalena Sionova, Peter Blasko, Stepan Jirous, David Vindis, Richard Rokyta, Zuzana Motovska
INTRODUCTION: Periprocedural bleeding related to coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with worse prognosis. Determining genetic variations associated with increased bleeding risk may help to identify high-risk patients. AIM: To analyse the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of crucial haemostatic platelet receptors (GPIa, GPVI, P2Y12) and the risk of periprocedural bleeding complications related to CAG/PCI...
2017: Postępy W Kardiologii Interwencyjnej, Advances in Interventional Cardiology
C Delierneux, N Donis, L Servais, O Wéra, P Lancellotti, C Oury
In a recent issue of the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, we published a study demonstrating that phosphorothioate (PS)-modified CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (PS-CpG ODN) types A, B, and C activate platelets via CLEC-2 [1]. This study followed an initial article by Flierl et al. showing that PS-CpG ODN type C exerts platelet activating effect through GPVI [2]. In a Letter to the Editor, Flierl et al. now present new computational modeling data confirming that PS-CpG ODN type C can bind to CLEC-2 monomers or homodimers, or even to two homodimers, and would therefore be able to cause receptor clustering on platelet surface...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
U Flierl, T L Nero, B Lim, R K Andrews, M W Parker, E E Gardiner, K Peter
We read with great interest the article by Delierneux et al. [1] in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. The authors elegantly describe a mechanism of platelet activation by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) through CLEC-2 mediated binding and uptake. This is the second platelet activation mechanism to be attributed to CpG ODNs, the first being the one described by our group involving platelet-specific collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) [2]. CpG ODNs are short single-stranded DNA molecules resembling bacterial DNA and they were developed as potential drug candidates, largely due to their immunostimulatory properties via activation of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) [3]...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
M Y Lee, C C Verni, B A Herbig, S L Diamond
Essentials Collagen and thrombin when used simultaneously generate highly activated platelets. The effect of thrombin stimulation on subsequent glycoprotein VI (GPVI) function was observed. Soluble fibrin, but not protease activated receptor (PAR) activation, prevented GPVI activation. Circulating soluble fibrin in coagulopathic blood may cause an acquired GPVI signaling defect. SUMMARY: Background In coagulopathic blood, circulating thrombin may drive platelet dysfunction. Methods/Results Using calcium dye-loaded platelets, the effect of thrombin exposure and soluble fibrin generation on subsequent platelet GPVI function was investigated...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Floor E Aleva, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Yang Li, Rahajeng N Tunjungputri, Sami Simons, Philip G De Groot, Mihai M Netea, Yvonne F Heijdra, Quirijn de Mast, André J A M van der Ven
Involvement of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in inflammation is well known. Recently, a role for STAT3 in platelet activation and platelet production has been suggested. Platelets exhibit important immune functions and engagement of STAT3 in platelet physiology may link inflammation and hemostasis. This study investigated the effects of STAT3 loss-of-function mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in STAT3 on glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-mediated platelet activation and platelet numbers in humans...
September 29, 2017: Platelets
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