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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646497/geometrical-principles-of-homomeric-%C3%AE-barrels-and-%C3%AE-helices-application-to-modelling-amyloid-protofilaments
#1
Steven Hayward, E James Milner-White
Examples of homomeric β-helices and β-barrels have recently emerged. Here we generalise the theory for the shear number in β-barrels to encompass β-helices and homomeric structures. We introduce the concept of the "β-strip", the set of parallel or antiparallel neighbouring strands, from which the whole helix can be generated giving it n-fold rotational symmetry. In this context the shear number is interpreted as the sum around the helix of the fixed register shift between neighbouring identical β-strips...
June 24, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645938/practice-patterns-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-workup-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#2
Matthew C Loftspring, Brett M Kissela, Matthew L Flaherty, Jane C Khoury, Kathleen Alwell, Charles J Moomaw, Dawn O Kleindorfer, Daniel Woo, Opeolu Adeoye, Simona Ferioli, Joseph P Broderick, Pooja Khatri
BACKGROUND: We examined practice patterns of inpatient testing to identify stroke etiologies and treatable risk factors for acute ischemic stroke recurrence. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified stroke cases and related diagnostic testing from four 1-year study periods (July 1993 to June 1994, 1999, 2005, and 2010) of the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study. Patients aged ≥18 years were included. We focused on evaluation of extracranial arteries for carotid stenosis and assessment of atrial fibrillation because randomized controlled trials supported treatment of these conditions for stroke prevention across all 4 study periods...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645935/liver-cirrhosis-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-would-oral-anticoagulation-have-a-net-clinical-benefit-for-stroke-prevention
#3
Ling Kuo, Tze-Fan Chao, Chia-Jen Liu, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Shih-Lin Chang, Li-Wei Lo, Yu-Feng Hu, Ta-Chuan Tuan, Jo-Nan Liao, Fa-Po Chung, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Gregory Y H Lip, Shih-Ann Chen
BACKGROUND: Patients with liver cirrhosis have been excluded from randomized clinical trials of oral anticoagulation therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that patients with liver cirrhosis would have a positive net clinical benefit for oral anticoagulation when used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study used the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Among 289 559 atrial fibrillation patients aged ≥20 years, there were 10 336 with liver cirrhosis, and 9056 of them having a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2 were divided into 3 groups, that is, no treatment, antiplatelet therapy, and warfarin...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645934/repeated-measurements-of-cardiac-biomarkers-in-atrial-fibrillation-and-validation-of-the-abc-stroke-score-over-time
#4
Ziad Hijazi, Bertil Lindahl, Jonas Oldgren, Ulrika Andersson, Johan Lindbäck, Christopher B Granger, John H Alexander, Bernard J Gersh, Michael Hanna, Veli-Pekka Harjola, Elaine M Hylek, Renato D Lopes, Agneta Siegbahn, Lars Wallentin
BACKGROUND: Cardiac biomarkers are independent risk markers in atrial fibrillation, and the novel biomarker-based ABC stroke score (age, biomarkers, and clinical history of prior stroke) was recently shown to improve the prediction of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. Our aim was to investigate the short-term variability of the cardiac biomarkers and evaluate whether the ABC stroke risk score provides a stable short-term risk estimate. METHODS AND RESULTS: According to the study protocol, samples were obtained at entry and also at 2 months in 4796 patients with atrial fibrillation followed for a median of 1...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645806/brugada-syndrome-a-general-cardiologist-s-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Marija M Polovina, Milica Vukicevic, Bojan Banko, Gregory Y H Lip, Tatjana S Potpara
Brugada syndrome (BrS) is one of the commonest inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes typically presenting with arrhythmic syncope or sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation precipitated by vagotonia or fever in apparently healthy adults, less frequently in children. The prevalence of the syndrome (0.01%-0.3%) varies among regions and ethnicities, being the highest in Southeast Asia. BrS is diagnosed by the "coved type" ST-segment elevation≥2mm followed by a negative T-wave in ≥1 of the right precordial leads V1-V2...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645805/pre-admission-cha2ds2-vasc-score-and-outcome-of-patients-with-acute-cerebrovascular-events
#6
Guy Topaz, David Pereg, Mony Shuvy, Stefan Mausbach, Itzhak Kimiagar, Gregory Telman, Yona Kitay-Cohen, Dina Vorobeichik, Nir Shlomo, David Tanne
BACKGROUND: The CHA2DS2-VASc score has been recommended for the assessment of thromboembolic risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. Data regarding the association between the pre-admission CHA2DS2-VASc score and the outcome of patients with stroke and TIA are scarce. We aimed to assess the predictive value of pre-admission CHA2DS2-VASc score for early risk stratification of patients with acute cerebrovascular event. METHODS: The study group consisted of 8309 patients (53% males, mean age of 70±13...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645776/selective-inhibition-of-flt3-by-gilteritinib-in-relapsed-or-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-a-multicentre-first-in-human-open-label-phase-1-2-study
#7
Alexander E Perl, Jessica K Altman, Jorge Cortes, Catherine Smith, Mark Litzow, Maria R Baer, David Claxton, Harry P Erba, Stan Gill, Stuart Goldberg, Joseph G Jurcic, Richard A Larson, Chaofeng Liu, Ellen Ritchie, Gary Schiller, Alexander I Spira, Stephen A Strickland, Raoul Tibes, Celalettin Ustun, Eunice S Wang, Robert Stuart, Christoph Röllig, Andreas Neubauer, Giovanni Martinelli, Erkut Bahceci, Mark Levis
BACKGROUND: Internal tandem duplication mutations in FLT3 are common in acute myeloid leukaemia and are associated with rapid relapse and short overall survival. The clinical benefit of FLT3 inhibitors in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia has been limited by rapid generation of resistance mutations, particularly in codon Asp835 (D835). We aimed to assess the highly selective oral FLT3 inhibitor gilteritinib in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia. METHODS: In this phase 1-2 trial, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with acute myeloid leukaemia who either were refractory to induction therapy or had relapsed after achieving remission with previous treatment...
June 20, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645681/thermal-thresholds-of-cardiovascular-hl-1-cell-destruction-by-cryothermal-exposure
#8
Jeunghwan Choi, John Bischof
The use of thermal based therapies for treatment of atrial fibrillation is increasing [2,9]. While numerous reports are available in the literature regarding the efficacy of cryotherapy on pulmonary vein survival, there are no reports specifically at the cellular level that establish thermal thresholds and mechanisms of cellular destruction. The current article reports on the response of HL-1 cardiomyocytes to cooling rates and end temperatures during cryothermal exposure. The focus is on establishment of in vitro thresholds while also establishing mechanisms of action due to biophysical events (i...
June 20, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645513/atrial-fibrillation-current-therapies
#9
REVIEW
Romain Pariaut
A rate control or a rhythm control strategy can be applied to the management of atrial fibrillation. Rate control of atrial fibrillation consists of decreasing the ventricular response rate by limiting the number of supraventricular impulses that can travel through the atrioventricular node. The goal of decreasing heart rate in dogs with atrial fibrillation is usually achieved with a combination of the calcium channel blocker diltiazem and digoxin. Rhythm control of atrial fibrillation encompasses pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods to terminate the arrhythmia and restore sinus rhythm...
June 20, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645473/efficacy-and-safety-of-rivaroxaban-versus-warfarin-in-patients-taking-nondihydropyridine-calcium-channel-blockers-for-atrial-fibrillation-from-the-rocket-af-trial
#10
Jeffrey B Washam, Anne S Hellkamp, Yuliya Lokhnygina, Jonathan P Piccini, Scott D Berkowitz, Christopher C Nessel, Richard C Becker, Günter Breithardt, Keith A A Fox, Jonathan L Halperin, Graeme J Hankey, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Daniel E Singer, Manesh R Patel
Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (non-DHP CCBs) possess combined P-glycoprotein and moderate CYP3A4 inhibition, which may lead to increased exposure of medications that are substrates for these metabolic pathways, such as rivaroxaban. We evaluated the use and outcomes of non-DHP CCBs in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF)...
May 29, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645470/significance-of-atrial-fibrillation-complicating-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#11
Tomasz Podolecki, Radoslaw Lenarczyk, Jacek Kowalczyk, Ewa Jedrzejczyk-Patej, Andrzej Swiatkowski, Piotr Chodor, Agnieszka Sedkowska, Witold Streb, Katarzyna Mitrega, Zbigniew Kalarus
The aim of the present study is to assess the clinical impact of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by new-onset AF depending on STEMI location and timing of arrhythmia. We analyzed 4,363 consecutive STEMI patients treated invasively. Finally, 4,099 subjects were included into further analysis, as 264 patients were excluded because of previous AF history. In total, 1,800 (43.9%) subjects with anterior infarction were included into Group 1, whereas Group 2 encompassed 2,299 (56...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645443/once-or-twice-daily-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-in-asian-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-a%C3%A2-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
Kang-Ling Wang, Chun-Chih Chiu, Doreen Su-Yin Tan, Chun-Yi Lin, En-Yu Lai, Shinya Goto, Robert P Giugliano, Chern-En Chiang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have a half-life of around 12 h. We aimed to clarify if there was any effect modification by dosing (once- or twice-daily) regimens in Asian patients. METHODS: Phase III randomized controlled trials of NOACs compared with warfarin in Asian patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) were identified and extracted from PubMed, CENTRAL, and CINAHL databases through November 2016. Outcomes were pooled by dosing regimens with the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects model...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645181/the-clinical-benefits-of-perioperative-antioxidant-vitamin-therapy-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#13
Jun Geng, Ju Qian, Weijun Si, Hao Cheng, Fuhai Ji, Zhenya Shen
The clinical benefits of perioperative antioxidant vitamin therapy in cardiac patients remain controversial. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine the strength of the evidence supporting the perioperative use of antioxidant vitamins in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We searched 4 databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index and Cochrane Library) for randomized controlled trials that reported the effects of antioxidant vitamin therapy on patients undergoing cardiac surgery until 6 June 2016...
June 22, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644585/a-cost-minimisation-analysis-of-noacs-compared-to-warfarin-to-attain-therapeutic-anticoagulation-amongst-af-patients-pre-and-post-cardioversion
#14
M O'Shea, A Murphy, A Kirby, G Allen, S O'Shea, R Curtin
Atrial fibrillation can be managed with anticoagulation and restoration of normal sinus rhythm using direct current cardioversion (DCCV). To reduce the risk of thromboembolism, anticoagulation pre-and-post DCCV is recommended. This study investigates the cost effectiveness of using NOACs compared to warfarin to attain therapeutic anticoagulation amongst AF patients pre-and-post DCCV. Propensity score matching revealed no statistically significant difference in outcomes from using NOACs and Warfarin. A cost minimisation study was performed; demonstrating a cost differential of €209 between those administered NOACs and warfarin pre- and post-DCCV...
December 12, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644501/stabilizing-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-by-the-n-terminus-capture-is-capable-of-preventing-and-eliminating-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers
#15
Gesi Wen, Daoyuan Chen, Wenjing Qin, Binhua Zhou, Youqiao Wang, Ziyi Liu, Jun Du, Qiang Zhou, Junmin Quan, Xianzhang Bu
Elimination of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers remains challenging. We describe here a novel strategy to prevent and eliminate the Aβ oligomers from either the early aggregation or the fibril dissolution pathway by targeting the flexible N-terminus, but not the widely investigated hydrophobic segment, with a rationally designed cyclopeptide.
June 23, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644435/p53-amyloid-formation-leading-to-its-loss-of-function-implications-in-cancer-pathogenesis
#16
Saikat Ghosh, Shimul Salot, Shinjinee Sengupta, Ambuja Navalkar, Dhiman Ghosh, Reeba Jacob, Subhadeep Das, Rakesh Kumar, Narendra Nath Jha, Shruti Sahay, Surabhi Mehra, Ganesh M Mohite, Santanu K Ghosh, Mamata Kombrabail, Guruswamy Krishnamoorthy, Pradip Chaudhari, Samir K Maji
The transcriptional regulator p53 has an essential role in tumor suppression. Almost 50% of human cancers are associated with the loss of p53 functions, where p53 often accumulates in the nucleus as well as in cytoplasm. Although it has been previously suggested that amyloid formation could be a cause of p53 loss-of-function in subset of tumors, the characterization of these amyloids and its structure-function relationship is not yet established. In the current study, we provide several evidences for the presence of p53 amyloid formation (in human and animal cancer tissues); along with its isolation from human cancer tissues and the biophysical characterization of these tissue-derived fibrils...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644175/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-after-elective-spinal-surgery
#17
Eric Yensen Chen, Corinne Stratton, Brian Mercer, Anna Hohler, Tony Y Tannoury, Chadi Tannoury
Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare autoimmune condition characterized by ascending motor weakness of the extremities that can ascend to the diaphragm, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. This case report describes a 57-year-old man who exhibited characteristics of Guillain-Barré syndrome 9 days after undergoing lumbar fusion at L3-S1. The diagnosis was based on the patient's ascending motor weakness and areflexia and was confirmed with electromyography. The patient progressed to respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644156/clinical-case-of-the-month-a-57-year-old-man-with-an-axillary-mass
#18
Palak Desai, Andrew Myers, Brian Boulmay, Fred A Lopez
A 57-year-old man presented to the surgical oncology clinic with a mildly tender mass under his right arm. Four years prior, the patient had a melanoma removed from his right shoulder along with an ipsilateral right axillary sentinel lymph sampling. Computed tomography (CT) scan was negative for metastatic disease at that time. The patient did not undergo completion axillary node dissection and was lost to follow-up. The patient was originally from Australia, did not tan but reported multiple sunburns before age 18...
May 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644155/transvenous-before-surgical-hybrid-procedure
#19
Joseph J Tiano, Robert Drennan, John Novella, Rafael Squiteri, Malcolm Robinson, Albert DiMeo, Lindsey Scierka, Paul LeLorier
BACKGROUND: Historically, persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF) and long standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LSPeAF) have demonstrated limited clinical success despite hybrid approaches. OBJECTIVE: We describe our experience with the endocardial-before-epicardial approach defined by a comprehensive endovascular approach preceding and guiding the epicardial approach which includes an extensive posterior wall ablation. METHODS: 40 patients were followed over a 12 month period...
May 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644048/risk-of-major-bleeding-in-patients-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-treated-with-oral-anticoagulants-a-systematic-review-of-real-world-observational-studies
#20
S Deitelzweig, C Farmer, X Luo, L Vo, X Li, M Hamilton, R Horblyuk, A Ashaye
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of real-world (RWD) studies comparing the risk of major bleeding (MB) among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) or warfarin Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, NHS-EED, and EconLit were searched for RWD studies published between January 2003 and November 2016 comparing MB risk among DOACs and warfarin. Proceedings of clinical conferences from 2012-2016 were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 4,218 citations were identified, 26 of which met eligibility criteria...
June 23, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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