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Lei Zhang, Nadiia Pasthukova, Yifan Yao, Xiaolan Zhong, Egon Pavlica, Gvido Bratina, Emanuele Orgiu, Paolo Samorì
Self-standing nanostructures are of fundamental interest in materials science and nanoscience and are widely used in (opto-)electronic and photonic devices as well as in micro-electromechanical systems. To date, large-area and self-standing nanoelectrode arrays assembled on flexible substrates have not been reported. Here the fabrication of a hollow nanomesh scaffold on glass and plastic substrates with a large surface area over 1 mm2 and ultralow leakage current density (≈1-10 pA mm-2 @ 2 V) across the empty scaffold is demonstrated...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
Federico Montanarella, Jaco J Geuchies, Tonnishtha Dasgupta, P Tim Prins, Carlo van Overbeek, Rajeev Dattani, Patrick Baesjou, Marjolein Dijkstra, Andrei V Petukhov, Alfons van Blaaderen, Daniël Vanmaekelbergh
We studied the formation of supraparticles from nanocrystals confined in slowly evaporating oil droplets in an oil-in-water emulsion. The nanocrystals consist of an FeO core, a CoFe2 O4 shell, and oleate capping, with an overall diameter of 12.5 nm. We performed in-situ Small- and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering experiments during the entire period of solvent evaporation and colloidal crystallization. We observed a slow increase in the volume fraction of nanocrystals inside the oil droplets up to 20%, at which a sudden crystallization occurs...
May 21, 2018: Nano Letters
Jordi Serra, Pau Font, E Daiann Sosa Carrizo, Sonia Mallet-Ladeira, Stéphane Massou, Teodor Parella, Karinne Miqueu, Abderrahmane Amgoune, Xavi Ribas, Didier Bourissou
Gold(iii) complexes are garnering increasing interest for opto-electronic, therapeutic and catalytic applications. But so far, very little is known about the factors controlling their reactivity and the very influence of the ancillary ligand. This article reports the first comprehensive study on this topic. The reactivity of a cationic (N,C) gold(iii) complex, namely 1A , towards ethylene has been thoroughly studied and compared with that of the related (P,C) complex 1C . A cationic gold(iii) complex 5A resulting from double insertion of ethylene was selectively obtained...
April 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Demelza Lyons, Reece Crocker, Thanh Vinh Nguyen
Tropylium ions possess an interesting combination of structural stability and chemical reactivity due to its Hückel-aromaticity and its positively charged polyene nature, respectively. Herein we exploit the chemical versatility and unique structural properties of the tropylium ion to derive a family of novel 'push-and-pull' organic dyes with strong absorption in the visible range via simple and practical synthetic protocols. These stable organic dyes are highly stimuli-responsive, as demonstrated by their sensitivity towards solvent, pH change, redox reaction, Lewis base and counterion, which marks them as potentially useful compounds for opto-electronic applications...
May 18, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Mohammad Aref Khalily, Hakan Usta, Mehmet Ozdemir, Gokhan Bakan, F Begum Dikecoglu, Charlotte Edwards-Gayle, Jessica A Hutchinson, Ian W Hamley, Aykutlu Dana, Mustafa O Guler
π-Conjugated small molecules based on a [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) unit are of great research interest in the development of solution-processable semiconducting materials owing to their excellent charge-transport characteristics. However, the BTBT π-core has yet to be demonstrated in the form of electro-active one-dimensional (1D) nanowires that are self-assembled in aqueous media for potential use in bioelectronics and tissue engineering. Here we report the design, synthesis, and self-assembly of benzothienobenzothiophene (BTBT)-peptide conjugates, the BTBT-peptide (BTBT-C3-COHN-Ahx-VVAGKK-Am) and the C8-BTBT-peptide (C8-BTBT-C3-COHN-Ahx-VVAGKK-Am), as β-sheet forming amphiphilic molecules, which self-assemble into highly uniform nanofibers in water with diameters of 11-13(±1) nm and micron-size lengths...
May 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Linqiu Li, Run Long, Oleg V Prezhdo
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have drawn strong attention due to their unique properties and diverse applications. However, TMD performance depends strongly on material quality and defect morphology. Experiments show that samples grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) outperform those obtained by physical vapor deposition (PVD). Experiments also show that CVD samples exhibit vacancy defects, while antisite defects are frequently observed in PVD samples. Our time-domain ab initio study demonstrates that both antisites and vacancies accelerate trapping and nonradiative recombination of charge carriers, but antisites are much more detrimental than vacancies...
May 18, 2018: Nano Letters
Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Chiara Giuffrè, Alessandro Rabiolo, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Francesco Bandello
A 58-year-old man with bilateral pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (PPRCA) associated with macular coloboma in the right eye underwent color fundus photography and fundus autofluorescence with the California ultra-widefield retinal imaging system (Optos, Dunfermline, UK), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Heidelberg Spectralis HRA + OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and en face OCT angiography (OCTA) (AngioPlex, Cirrus HD-OCT 5000; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA)...
May 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
L A M H Kirkels, W Zhang, M N Havenith, P Tiesinga, J Glennon, R J A van Wezel, J Duijnhouwer
We designed a method to quantify mice visual function by measuring reflexive opto-locomotor responses. Mice were placed on a Styrofoam ball at the center of a large dome on the inside of which we projected moving random dot patterns. Because we fixed the heads of the mice in space and the ball was floating on pressurized air, locomotion of the mice was translated to rotation of the ball, which we registered. Sudden onsets of rightward or leftward moving patterns caused the mice to reflexively change their running direction...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Antonella LoMauro, Paolo Fraschini, Simona Pochintesta, Marianna Romei, Maria G D'Angelo, Andrea Aliverti
AIM: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disease characterized by bones fragility and progressive deformity. Life expectancy is reduced in the non-lethal most severe type III form before the age of 10 years. The main cause of death in OI is respiratory insufficiency resulting from impaired thoracic function worsened by ribcage deformity and scoliosis. METHODS: We used opto-electronic plethysmography to study chest geometry, the ventilatory, and the thoraco-abdominal pattern at rest in supine position in children younger than 10 years...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Fatemeh Ostadhossein, Lily Benig, Indu Tripathi, Santosh K Misra, Dipanjan Pan
Phosphonated compounds, in particular, bis-analogs are widely applied in clinical settings for the treatment of severe bone turnovers and recently as imaging probes when conjugated with organic fluorophores. Herein, we introduce a bone seeking luminescent probe that shows high binding affinity towards bone minerals based on monophosphonated carbon dots (CDs). The spheroidal CDs tethered with PEG monophosphates are synthesized in a one pot hydrothermal method and are physico-chemically characterized where the retention of phosphonates is confirmed by 13P NMR and XPS...
May 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yifan Yao, Lei Zhang, Tim Leydecker, Paolo Samorì
Organic crystals are generated via the bottom-up self-assembly of molecular building blocks which are held together through weak non-covalent interactions. Although they revealed extraordinary charge transport characteristics, their labile nature represents a major drawback towards their integration in opto-electronic devices when the use sophisticated patterning techniques is required. Here we have devised a radically new method to enable the use of photolithography directly on molecular crystals, with a spatial resolution below 300 nm, thereby allowing the precise wiring-up of multiple crystals on demand...
May 10, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shinji Matsuba, Hitoshi Tabuchi, Hideharu Ohsugi, Hiroki Enno, Naofumi Ishitobi, Hiroki Masumoto, Yoshiaki Kiuchi
PURPOSE: To predict exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we combined a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN), a machine-learning algorithm, with Optos, an ultra-wide-field fundus imaging system. METHODS: First, to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of DCNN, 364 photographic images (AMD: 137) were amplified and the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity were examined. Furthermore, in order to compare the diagnostic abilities between DCNN and six ophthalmologists, we prepared yield 84 sheets comprising 50% of normal and wet-AMD data each, and calculated the correct answer rate, specificity, sensitivity, and response times...
May 9, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Y X Wang, Xiaoke Lu, Tianyuan Xin, Qiang Zhang, Qiu Xu, Tianhao Wei
Recently, a series of graphene-like binary monolayers (g-SiCx), where Si partly substitutes the C positions in graphene, have been obtained by tailoring the bandgaps of graphene and silicene that has made them a promising material for application in opto-electronic devices. Subsequently, evaluating the mechanical properties of g-SiCx has assumed great importance for engineering applications. In this study, we quantified the in-plane mechanical properties of g-SiCx (x = 7, 5, 3, 2 and 1) monolayers (also including graphene and silicone) based on density function theory (DFT)...
May 9, 2018: Nanotechnology
Jesse J Lutz, Xiaofeng F Duan, Duminda S Ranasinghe, Yifan Jin, Johannes T Margraf, Ajith Perera, Larry W Burggraf, Rodney J Bartlett
Accurate optical characterization of the closo-Si12 C12 molecule is important to guide experimental efforts toward the synthesis of nano-wires, cyclic nano-arrays, and related array structures, which are anticipated to be robust and efficient exciton materials for opto-electronic devices. Working toward calibrated methods for the description of closo-Si12 C12 oligomers, various electronic structure approaches are evaluated for their ability to reproduce measured optical transitions of the SiC2 , Si2 Cn (n = 1-3), and Si3 Cn (n = 1, 2) clusters reported earlier by Steglich and Maier [Astrophys...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jun Hong, Dongchu Chen, Zhiqiang Peng, Zulin Li, Haibo Liu, Jian Guo
A new method for measuring the alternating current (AC) half-wave voltage of a Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and verified by experiment in this paper. Based on the opto-electronic self-oscillation technology, the physical relationship between the saturation output power of the oscillating signal and the AC half-wave voltage is revealed, and the value of the AC half-wave voltage is solved by measuring the saturation output power of the oscillating signal. The experimental results show that the measured data of this new method involved are in agreement with a traditional method, and not only an external microwave signal source but also the calibration for different frequency measurements is not needed in our new method...
May 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Andreas Rennhack, Christian Schiffer, Christoph Brenker, Dmitry Fridman, Elis T Nitao, Yi-Min Cheng, Lara Tamburrino, Melanie Balbach, Gabriel Stölting, Thomas K Berger, Michelina Kierzek, Luis Alvarez, Dagmar Wachten, Xu-Hui Zeng, Elisabetta Baldi, Stephen Publicover, U Benjamin Kaupp, Timo Strünker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sperm from many species share the sperm-specific Ca2+ channel CatSper (cation channel of sperm) that controls the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and, thereby, the swimming behaviour. A growing body of evidence suggests that the mechanisms controlling CatSper activity and the role of the channel during fertilization differ among species. However, a lack of suitable pharmacological tools has hampered the elucidation of the function of CatSper. Known CatSper inhibitors exhibit considerable side effects and inhibit also Slo3, the K+ channel in mammalian sperm...
May 3, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Wei Wang, Dian Lei, Yi-Chiau Huang, Kwang Hong Lee, Wan-Khai Loke, Yuan Dong, Shengqiang Xu, Chuan Seng Tan, Hong Wang, Soon-Fatt Yoon, Xiao Gong, Yee-Chia Yeo
We report the first demonstration of high-performance GeSn metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector and GeSn p-type fin field-effect transistor (pFinFET) on an advanced GeSn-on-insulator (GeSnOI) platform by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes. The detection range of GeSn photodetector is extended beyond 2 µm, with responsivities of 0.39 and 0.10 A/W at 1550 nm and 2003 nm, respectively. Through the insertion of an ultrathin Al2 O3 Schottky-barrier-enhancement layer, the dark current IDark of the GeSn photodetector is suppressed by more than 2 orders of magnitude...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Jing Zhang, Bahawal Haq, James O'Callaghan, Angieska Gocalinska, Emanuele Pelucchi, António José Trindade, Brian Corbett, Geert Morthier, Gunther Roelkens
An electrically pumped DFB laser integrated on and coupled to a silicon waveguide circuit is demonstrated by transfer printing a 40 × 970 μm2 III-V coupon, defined on a III-V epitaxial wafer. A second-order grating defined in the silicon device layer with a period of 477 nm and a duty cycle of 75% was used for realizing single mode emission, while an adiabatic taper structure is used for coupling to the silicon waveguide layer. 18 mA threshold current and a maximum single-sided waveguide-coupled output power above 2 mW is obtained at 20°C...
April 2, 2018: Optics Express
Osamu Sawada, Yusuke Ichiyama, Syunpei Obata, Yuka Ito, Masashi Kakinoki, Tomoko Sawada, Yoshitsugu Saishin, Masahito Ohji
PURPOSE: To compare the ability of wide-angle optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) with that of ultra-wide field fluorescein angiography (UWFFA) to detect non-perfusion areas (NPAs) or retinal neovascularization (NV) in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: Patients with DR underwent UWFFA using the Optos® panoramic 200Tx imaging system and wide-angle OCTA with 12 × 12 mm fields of five visual fixations using the PLEX Elite 9000®. We compared the abilities of UWFFA and OCTA to detect NPAs and NV...
April 30, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Wei Gao, Yongtao Li, Jianhua Guo, Muxun Ni, Ming Liao, Haojie Mo, Jingbo Li
Here we report ultrathin SnS1-xSex alloyed nanosheets synthesized via a narrow-gap physical vapour deposition approach. The SnS1-xSex alloy presents a uniform quadrangle shape with a lateral size of 5-80 μm and a thickness of several nanometers. Clear orthorhombic symmetries and unique in-plane anisotropic properties of the 2D alloyed nanosheets were found with the help of X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and polarized Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, 2D alloyed field-effect transistors were fabricated, exhibiting a unipolar p-type semiconductor behavior...
May 1, 2018: Nanoscale
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