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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534411/intracellular-and-extracellular-recording-of-spontaneous-action-potentials-in-mammalian-neurons-and-cardiac-cells-with-3d-plasmonic-nano-electrodes
#1
Michele Dipalo, Hayder Amin, Laura Lovato, Fabio Moia, Valeria Caprettini, Gabriele C Messina, Francesco Tantussi, Luca Berdondini, Francesco De Angelis
Three-dimensional vertical micro and nanostructures can enhance the signal quality of multielectrode arrays and promise to become the prime methodology for the investigation of large networks of electrogenic cells. So far, the access to the intracellular environment was obtained by spontaneous poration, electroporation or by surface functionalization of the micro/nanostructures; however these methods still suffer some limitations due to their intrinsic characteristics that limit their widespread use. Here, we demonstrate the ability of continuously recording at each electrode site both extracellular and intracellular-like action potentials of spontaneously active mammalian neurons and HL-1 cardiac-derived cells...
May 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534400/opto-valleytronic-spin-injection-in-monolayer-mos2-few-layer-graphene-hybrid-spin-valves
#2
Yunqiu Kelly Luo, Jinsong Xu, Tiancong Zhu, Guanzhong Wu, Elizabeth Joan McCormick, Wenbo Zhan, Mahesh R Neupane, Roland K Kawakami
Two dimensional (2D) materials provide a unique platform for spintronics and valleytronics due to the ability to combine vastly different functionalities into one vertically-stacked heterostructure, where the strengths of each of the constituent materials can compensate for the weaknesses of the others. Graphene has been demonstrated to be an exceptional material for spin transport at room temperature, however it lacks a coupling of the spin and optical degrees of freedom. In contrast, spin/valley polarization can be efficiently generated in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) such as MoS2 via absorption of circularly-polarized photons, but lateral spin or valley transport has not been realized at room temperature...
May 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531090/fast-multicolor-photodetection-with-graphene-contacted-p-gase-n-inse-van-der-waals-heterostructures
#3
Faguang Yan, Lixia Zhao, Amalia Patane, Ping'an Hu, Xia Wei, Wengang Luo, Dong Zhang, Quanshan Lv, Qi Feng, Chao Shen, Kai Chang, Laurence Eaves, Kaiyou Wang
The integration of different two-dimensional materials within a multilayer van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure offers a promising technology for high performance opto-electronic devices such as photodetectors and light sources. Here we report on the fabrication and electronic properties of vdW heterojunction diodes composed of the direct band gap layered semiconductors InSe and GaSe and transparent monolayer graphene electrodes. We show that the type II band alignment between the two layered materials and their distinctive spectral response, combined with the short channel length and low electrical resistance of graphene electrodes, enable efficient generation and extraction of photoexcited carriers from the heterostructure even when no external voltage is applied...
May 22, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528375/hypothalamic-signaling-in-body-fluid-homeostasis-and-hypertension
#4
REVIEW
Brian J Kinsman, Haley N Nation, Sean D Stocker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The central nervous system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and consequently arterial blood pressure. Key hypothalamic regions sense and integrate neurohumoral signals to subsequently alter intake (thirst and salt appetite) and output (renal excretion via neuroendocrine and autonomic function). Here, we review recent findings that provide new insight into such mechanisms that may represent new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Implementation of cutting edge neuroscience approaches such as opto- and chemogenetics highlight pivotal roles of circumventricular organs to impact body fluid homeostasis...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527025/pose-aware-c-arm-for-automatic-re-initialization-of-interventional-2d-3d-image-registration
#5
Javad Fotouhi, Bernhard Fuerst, Alex Johnson, Sing Chun Lee, Russell Taylor, Greg Osgood, Nassir Navab, Mehran Armand
PURPOSE: In minimally invasive interventions assisted by C-arm imaging, there is a demand to fuse the intra-interventional 2D C-arm image with pre-interventional 3D patient data to enable surgical guidance. The commonly used intensity-based 2D/3D registration has a limited capture range and is sensitive to initialization. We propose to utilize an opto/X-ray C-arm system which allows to maintain the registration during intervention by automating the re-initialization for the 2D/3D image registration...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520391/reaction-layer-imaging-using-fluorescence-electrochemical-microscopy
#6
Minjun Yang, Christopher Batchelor-McAuley, Enno Kätelhön, Richard G Compton
The chemical confinement of a pH sensitive fluorophore to a thin-reaction layer adjacent to an electrode surface is explored as innovative route to improving the spatial resolution of fluorescence electrochemical microscopy. A thin layer opto-electrochemical cell is designed, facilitating the visualisation of a carbon fibre (diameter 7.0 um) electrochemical interface. Proton consumption is driven at the interface by the reduction of benzoquinone to hydroquinone and the resulting interfacial pH change is revealed using the fluorophore 8-hydoxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid...
May 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507508/improving-focal-photostimulation-of-cortical-neurons-with-pre-derived-wavefront-correction
#7
Julian M C Choy, Sharmila S Sané, Woei M Lee, Christian Stricker, Hans A Bachor, Vincent R Daria
Recent progress in neuroscience to image and investigate brain function has been made possible by impressive developments in optogenetic and opto-molecular tools. Such research requires advances in optical techniques for the delivery of light through brain tissue with high spatial resolution. The tissue causes distortions to the wavefront of the incoming light which broadens the focus and consequently reduces the intensity and degrades the resolution. Such effects are detrimental in techniques requiring focal stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504759/reconfigurable-opto-thermal-graded-index-waveguiding-in-bulk-chalcogenide-glasses
#8
Soroush Shabahang, Nicholas S Nye, Christos Markos, Demetrios N Christodoulides, Ayman F Abouraddy
In the absence of suitable deposition processes, the fabrication of graded-index chalcogenide waveguides or fibers remains an outstanding challenge. Here, by exploiting the strong thermo-optic effect present in chalcogenide glasses, we experimentally demonstrate non-permanent optically-induced waveguides in bulk As<sub>2</sub>Se<sub>3</sub> rods using a 1.55 μm wavelength laser. This single-step process can be used not only to self-trap the writing beam, but also to guide another optical beam at a different wavelength in the opto-thermally inscribed waveguide channel...
May 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500306/plasmonic-purcell-effect-reveals-obliquely-ordered-phosphorescent-emitters-in-organic-leds
#9
R Mac Ciarnain, D Michaelis, T Wehlus, A F Rausch, S Wehrmeister, T D Schmidt, W Brütting, N Danz, A Bräuer, A Tünnermann
The non-isotropic alignment of molecules can increase the interaction efficiency with propagating light fields. This applies to both emissive and absorptive systems and can be exploited for achieving unprecedented efficiencies of organic opto-electronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes. Optical analysis has revealed certain phosphorescent emitters to align spontaneously in an advantageous orientation. Unfortunately, established approaches only determine an average orientation because emission patterns solely depend on the second moments of the transition dipole vector distribution...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498502/real-time-three-dimensional-jaw-tracking-in-temporomandibular-disorders
#10
Danilo Vieira da Cunha, Viviane Veroni Degan, Mário Vedovello Filho, Douglas Peres Bellomo, Marlete Ribeiro Silva, Daniel Antônio Furtado, Adriano Oliveira Andrade, Selma Terezinha Milagre, Adriano Alves Pereira
When a dysfunction occurs in any component of the stomatognathic system, temporomandibular disorders (TMD) may originates. The aim of this study was to compare the deviations, displacement, and the execution speed of mandibular movements among asymptomatic participants and those with TMD. Convenience sampling was used; forty participants diagnosed by clinical evaluation following the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were divided into three groups: Arthropathy (GART, 10 participants, 40% men), Myopathy (GMYO, 10 participants, 30% men), and the Control Group (CG, 20 asymptomatic-participants, 25% men)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495356/scleral-topography-analysed-by-optical-coherence-tomography
#11
Stefan Bandlitz, Joachim Bäumer, Uwe Conrad, James Wolffsohn
PURPOSE: A detailed evaluation of the corneo-scleral-profile (CSP) is of particular relevance in soft and scleral lenses fitting. The aim of this study was to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to analyse the profile of the limbal sclera and to evaluate the relationship between central corneal radii, corneal eccentricity and scleral radii. METHODS: Using OCT (Optos OCT/SLO; Dunfermline, Scotland, UK) the limbal scleral radii (SR) of 30 subjects (11M, 19F; mean age 23...
May 8, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486402/compensating-unknown-time-varying-delay-in-opto-electronic-platform-tracking-servo-system
#12
Ruihong Xie, Tao Zhang, Jiaquan Li, Ming Dai
This paper investigates the problem of compensating miss-distance delay in opto-electronic platform tracking servo system. According to the characteristic of LOS (light-of-sight) motion, we setup the Markovian process model and compensate this unknown time-varying delay by feed-forward forecasting controller based on robust H∞ control. Finally, simulation based on double closed-loop PI (Proportion Integration) control system indicates that the proposed method is effective for compensating unknown time-varying delay...
May 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485958/photoresponse-of-natural-van-der-waals-heterostructures
#13
Kyle Ray, Alexander E Yore, Tong Mou, Sauraj Jha, Kirby K H Smithe, Bin Wang, Eric Pop, A K M Newaz
Van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures consisting of two dimensional materials offer a platform to obtain material by design and are very attractive owing to unique electronic states. Research on 2D van der Waals heterostructures (vdWH) has so far been focused on fabricating individually stacked atomically thin unary or binary crystals. Such systems include graphene (Gr), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and member of the transition metal dichalcogenides family. Here we present our experimental study of the opto-electronic properties of a naturally occurring vdWH, known as Franckeite, which is a complex layered crystal composed of lead, tin, antimony, iron and sulfur...
May 9, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481109/reduction-of-charge-carrier-recombination-at-zno-polymer-blend-interfaces-in-ptb7-based-bulk-heterojunction-solar-cells-using-regular-device-structure-impact-of-zno-nanoparticle-size-and-surfactant
#14
Sadok Ben Dkhil, Meriem Gaceur, Abdou Karim Diallo, Yahia Didane, Xianjie Liu, Mats Fahlman, Olivier Margeat, Jörg Ackermann, Christine Videlot-Ackermann
Cathode interfacial layers, also called electron extraction layers (EELs), based on zinc oxide (ZnO) have been studied in polymer-blend solar cells toward optimization of the opto-electric properties. Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) were realized in regular structure with all-solution-processed interlayers...
May 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474721/the-dimer-approach-to-characterize-opto-electronic-properties-of-and-exciton-trapping-and-diffusion-in-organic-semiconductor-aggregates-and-crystals
#15
Bernd Engels, Volker Engel
A fundamental understanding of photo-induced processes in opto-electronic thin film devices is a prerequisite for the rational design of improved organic semiconductor materials. Absorption and emission spectra provide important insights into the complicated electronic structure of and relaxation processes in organic semiconductor aggregates and crystals. They are of interest because they often limit the efficiencies of the devices. For an assignment of the spectra a close interplay between experiment and theory is essential because simulations are often necessary to entangle the various effects which determine the features of the spectra...
May 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474040/low-thermal-conductivity-of-monolayer-zno-and-its-anomalous-temperature-dependence
#16
Huimin Wang, Guangzhao Qin, Guojian Li, Qiang Wang, Ming Hu
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous interest due to their fascinating physical and chemical properties and promising applications in nano-electronics, where thermal transport plays a vital role in determining the performance of devices. In this paper, we present a first-principles study of the thermal transport properties of monolayer zinc oxide (ZnO), which has potential applications in nano-electronics and thermoelectrics. The thermal conductivity of monolayer ZnO is found to be as low as 4...
May 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468391/nano-opto-electro-mechanical-switch-based-on-a-four-waveguide-directional-coupler
#17
Tianran Liu, Francesco Pagliano, Andrea Fiore
Optical switches connect optical circuits, and route optical signals in networks. Nano-electromechanical systems can in principle enable compact and power-effective switches that can be integrated in photonic circuits. We proposed an optical switch based on four coupled waveguides arranged in three-dimensional configuration. The switching operation is controlled by a cantilever displacement of only 55 nm. Simulations show that our proposed device requires a low switching voltage down to 3V and can operate at frequencies in the MHz range...
May 1, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464557/non-invasive-diagnostic-system-and-its-opto-mechanical-probe-for-combining-confocal-raman-spectroscopy-and-optical-coherence-tomography
#18
Jan Klemes, Adela Kotzianova, Marek Pokorny, Peter Mojzes, Jindrich Novak, Lada Sukova, Jaroslav Demuth, Jaroslav Vesely, Ladislav Sasek, Vladimir Velebny
Non-invasive optical diagnostic methods allow important information about studied systems to be obtained in a non-destructive way. Complete diagnosis requires information about the chemical composition as well as the morphological structure of a sample. We report on the development of an opto-mechanical probe that combines Raman spectroscopy (RS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), two methods that provide all the crucial information needed for a non-invasive diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to introduce the technical design, construction and optimization of a dual opto-mechanical probe combining two in-house developed devices for confocal RS and OCT...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456278/metal-enhanced-luminescence-current-trend-and-future-perspectives-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Rajeev Ranjan, Elena N Esimbekova, Maria A Kirillova, Valentina A Kratasyuk
Optically enhanced biosensing strategies are prerequisites for developing miniature and highly sensitive multiplexed analytical platforms. Such smart biosensing systems are highly promising for use in the fields of biomedicine and environmental monitoring. Optical signal enhancement during bioassays is attributed to the complex opto-electronic interactions of incoming photonic signals at the nanomaterial interface. Research on the use of metals other than gold and silver for such purposes tends to extend the spectral window to observe luminescence enhancement effects...
June 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456257/synchronizing-single-shot-high-energy-iodine-photodissociation-laser-pals-and-high-repetition-rate-femtosecond-ti-sapphire-laser-system
#20
J Dostal, R Dudzak, T Pisarczyk, M Pfeifer, J Huynh, T Chodukowski, Z Kalinowska, E Krousky, J Skala, J Hrebicek, T Medrik, J Golasowski, L Juha, J Ullschmied
A system of precise pulse synchronization between a single-shot large-scale laser exploiting an acousto-optical modulator and a femtosecond high repetition rate laser is reported in this article. This opto-electronical system has been developed for synchronization of the sub-nanosecond kJ-class iodine photodissociation laser system (Prague Asterix Laser System-PALS) with the femtosecond 25-TW Ti:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser operating at a repetition rate 1 kHz or 10 Hz depending on the required energy level of output pulses...
April 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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