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Muscle growth protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545777/inhibitory-effects-of-doxycycline-on-the-onset-and-progression-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-and-its-related-mechanisms
#1
Maomao Yu, Cong Chen, Yini Cao, Rong Qi
The objective of this study was to investigate whether doxycycline (DOX) given at different doses and via different administration routes had protective or therapeutic effects on abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) induced by elastase in mice. Moreover, the anti-AAA mechanism of DOX was studied in TNF-α-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) in vitro. For in vivo study, either daily administration of 30mg/kg of DOX by gavage or intraperitoneal injection of 15mg/kg DOX every other day for 14 days significantly prevented the development of AAA at its early stage...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545768/elastin-microfibril-interface-located-protein-1-transforming-growth-factor-beta-and-implications-on-cardiovascular-complications
#2
REVIEW
Amy Randell, Noriko Daneshtalab
Elastin microfibril interface-located protein 1 (EMILIN1), a glycoprotein, is associated with elastin in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of arteries, lymph vasculature, and other tissues. EMILIN1 particularly has a niche role in elastin fiber biogenesis (elastogenesis) by aiding with the fusion of elastin fibers, rendering them more ordered. In addition to elastogenesis, EMILIN1 has been shown to have roles in maintenance of vascular cell morphology, smooth muscle cell adhesion to elastic fibers, and transforming growth factor (TGFβ) regulation, by inhibiting TGFβ activation via blocking the proteolytic production of the latency-associated peptide/active TGFβ complex...
May 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544348/galectin-1-promotes-an-m2-macrophage-response-to-polydioxanone-scaffolds
#3
Daniel Abebayehu, Andrew Spence, Barbara D Boyan, Zvi Schwartz, John J Ryan, Michael J McClure
Regulating soft tissue repair to prevent fibrosis and promote regeneration is central to creating a microenvironment conducive to soft tissue development. Macrophages play an important role in this process. Their response can be modulated using biomaterials, altering cytokine and growth factor secretion to promote regeneration. Electrospun polydioxanone (PDO) fiber scaffolds promoted an M2 phenotype when macrophages were cultured on large diameter, highly porous scaffolds, but an M1 phenotype on smaller diameter fibers...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536466/fipronil-induced-enantioselective-developmental-toxicity-to-zebrafish-embryo-larvae-involves-changes-in-dna-methylation
#4
Yi Qian, Cui Wang, Jinghua Wang, Xiaofeng Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Meirong Zhao, Chensheng Lu
Enantioselectivity in the aquatic toxicity of chiral pesticides has been widely investigated, while the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Thus far, few studies has focused on genomic expression related to selective toxicity in chiral pesticide, nor on epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation. Here, we used fipronil, a broad-spectrum insecticide, as a model chemical to probe its enantioselective toxicity in embryo development. Our results showed that S-(+)-fipronil caused severer developmental toxicity in embryos...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534971/mir-483-5p-plays-a-protective-role-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Zhenyu Shen, Wenxiang Tang, Jiang Guo, Shenghua Sun
Altered microRNA (miRNA or miR) expression has been reported in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study aimed to identify the involvement of miRNAs in the pathophysiology of COPD and to explore the effects of various miRNAs with significant alteration on COPD in vitro. We conducted high‑throughput analysis of miRNAs (miRNA microarray) in lung samples from 10 COPD patients and 10 healthy persons with a validation experiment using quantitative (real‑time) polymerase chain reaction (real‑time PCR) panels...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534495/exercise-induces-cerebral-vegf-and-angiogenesis-via-the-lactate-receptor-hcar1
#6
Cecilie Morland, Krister A Andersson, Øyvind P Haugen, Alena Hadzic, Liv Kleppa, Andreas Gille, Johanne E Rinholm, Vuk Palibrk, Elisabeth H Diget, Lauritz H Kennedy, Tomas Stølen, Eivind Hennestad, Olve Moldestad, Yiqing Cai, Maja Puchades, Stefan Offermanns, Koen Vervaeke, Magnar Bjørås, Ulrik Wisløff, Jon Storm-Mathisen, Linda H Bergersen
Physical exercise can improve brain function and delay neurodegeneration; however, the initial signal from muscle to brain is unknown. Here we show that the lactate receptor (HCAR1) is highly enriched in pial fibroblast-like cells that line the vessels supplying blood to the brain, and in pericyte-like cells along intracerebral microvessels. Activation of HCAR1 enhances cerebral vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and cerebral angiogenesis. High-intensity interval exercise (5 days weekly for 7 weeks), as well as L-lactate subcutaneous injection that leads to an increase in blood lactate levels similar to exercise, increases brain VEGFA protein and capillary density in wild-type mice, but not in knockout mice lacking HCAR1...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533755/proteomic-analysis-of-chicken-skeletal-muscle-during-embryonic-development
#7
Hongjia Ouyang, Zhijun Wang, Xiaolan Chen, Jiao Yu, Zhenhui Li, Qinghua Nie
Embryonic growth and development of skeletal muscle is a major determinant of muscle mass, and has a significant effect on meat production in chicken. To assess the protein expression profiles during embryonic skeletal muscle development, we performed a proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) in leg muscle tissues of female Xinghua chicken at embryonic age (E) 11, E16, and 1-day post hatch (D1). We identified 3,240 proteins in chicken embryonic muscle and 491 of them were differentially expressed (fold change ≥ 1...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533420/igf1-stimulates-greater-muscle-hypertrophy-in-the-absence-of-myostatin-in-male-mice
#8
Alexander Hennebry, Jenny M Oldham, Tea Shavlakadze, Miranda Grounds, Philip Sheard, Marta Fiorotto, Shelley J Falconer, Heather K Smith, Carole Berry, Ferenc Jeanplong, Jeremy Bracegirdle, Kenneth G Matthews, Gina Nicholas, Monica Senna-Salerno, Trevor Watson, Christopher D McMahon
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myostatin have opposing roles in regulating the growth and size of skeletal muscle, with IGF1 stimulating, and myostatin inhibiting, growth. However, it remains unclear whether these proteins have mutually dependent, or independent, roles. To clarify this issue, we crossed myostatin null (Mstn-/-) mice with mice over-expressing Igf1 in skeletal muscle (Igf1+) to generate six genotypes of male mice; wild-type (Mstn+/+), Mstn+/-, Mstn-/-, Mstn+/+:Igf1+, Mstn+/-:Igf1+ and Mstn-/-:Igf1+...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533206/myostatin-like-proteins-regulate-synaptic-function-and-neuronal-morphology
#9
Hrvoje Augustin, Kieran McGourty, Joern R Steinert, Helena M Cochemé, Jennifer Adcott, Melissa Cabecinha, Alec Vincent, Els F Halff, Josef T Kittler, Emmanuel Boucrot, Linda Partridge
Growth factors of the TGF-β superfamily play key roles in regulating neuronal and muscle function. Myostatin (or GDF8) and GDF11 are potent negative regulators of skeletal muscle mass. However, expression of both Myostatin and its cognate receptors in other tissues, including brain and peripheral nerves, suggests a potential wider biological role. Here, we show that Myoglianin (MYO), the Drosophila homolog of Myostatin and GDF11, regulates not only body weight and muscle size, but also inhibits neuromuscular synapse strength and composition in a Smad2-dependent manner...
May 22, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531207/benzo-a-pyrene-activates-interleukin-6-induction-and-suppresses-nitric-oxide-induced-apoptosis-in-rat-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#10
Huei-Ping Tzeng, Kuo-Cheng Lan, Ting-Hua Yang, Min-Ni Chung, Shing Hwa Liu
Benzo[a]pyrene, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has been suggested to be capable of initiating and/or accelerating atherosclerosis. Accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vessel intima is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. Nitric oxide (NO) can suppress VSMCs proliferation and induce VSMCs apoptosis. NO plays a compensatory role in the vascular lesions to reduce proliferation and/or accelerate apoptosis of VSMCs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether benzo[a]pyrene can affect VSMCs growth and apoptosis induced by NO...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531107/analysis-of-gene-expression-signatures-in-cancer-associated-stroma-from-canine-mammary-tumours-reveals-molecular-homology-to-human-breast-carcinomas
#11
Julia Ettlin, Elena Clementi, Parisa Amini, Alexandra Malbon, Enni Markkanen
Cancer-associated stroma (CAS) plays a key role in cancer initiation and progression. Spontaneously occurring canine mammary carcinomas are viewed as excellent models of human breast carcinomas. Considering the importance of CAS for human cancer, it likely plays a central role in canine tumours as well. So far, however, canine CAS lacks characterisation, and it remains unclear whether the biology between CAS from canine and human tumours is comparable. In this proof-of-principle study, using laser-capture microdissection, we isolated CAS and normal stroma from 13 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded canine simple mammary carcinomas and analysed the expression of seven known human CAS markers by RT-qPCR (Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR) and validated some targets by immunohistochemistry...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530121/glucocorticoids-retain-bi-potent-fibroblast-progenitors-during-alveolar-septation-in-mice
#12
Stephen E McGowan, Diann M McCoy
Glucocorticoids have been widely used and exert pleiotropic effects on alveolar structure and function, but do not improve the long-term clinical outcomes for patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, emphysema, or interstitial lung diseases. Treatments which foster alveolar regeneration could substantially improve the long-term outcomes for such patients. One approach to alveolar regeneration is to stimulate and guide intrinsic alveolar progenitors along developmental pathways used during secondary septation...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529619/effects-of-prolonged-exposure-to-low-dose-metformin-in-thyroid-cancer-cell-lines
#13
Safar Kheder, Karen Sisley, Sirwan Hadad, Sabapathy P Balasubramanian
Background: Thyroid cancer is generally associated with an excellent prognosis, but there is significant long-term morbidity with standard treatment. Some sub-types however have a poor prognosis. Metformin, an oral anti-diabetic drug is shown to have anti-cancer effects in several types of cancer (breast, lung and ovarian cancer). The proposed mechanisms include activation of the Adenosine Mono-phosphate-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) pathway and inhibition of the mTOR pathway (which promotes growth and proliferation)...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527302/aortic-adventitial-fibroblast-sensitivity-to-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-inhibitors-depends-on-substrate-stiffness
#14
Rebecca A Scott, Prathamesh M Kharkar, Kristi L Kiick, Robert E Akins
Adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) are key determinants of arterial function and critical mediators of arterial disease progression. The effects of altered stiffness, particularly those observed across individuals during normal vascular function, and the mechanisms by which AFs respond to altered stiffness, are not well understood. To study the effects of matrix stiffness on AF phenotype, cytokine production, and the regulatory pathways utilized to interpret basic cell-matrix interactions, human aortic AFs were grown in 5%, 7...
May 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526559/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-of-cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor-1b-p27-kip1-associated-with-human-vein-graft-failure-affects-growth-of-human-venous-adventitial-cells-but-not-smooth-muscle-cells
#15
Richard D Kenagy, Shinsuke Kikuchi, Lihua Chen, Errol S Wijelath, Andrew B Stergachis, John Stamatoyannopoulos, Gale L Tang, Alexander W Clowes, Michael Sobel
BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27(Kip1)) is a cell-cycle inhibitor whose -838C>A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs36228499; hereafter called p27 SNP) has been associated with the clinical failure of peripheral vein grafts, but the functional effects of this SNP have not been demonstrated. METHODS: Human saphenous vein adventitial cells and intimal/medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were derived from explants obtained at the time of lower extremity bypass operations...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522824/obestatin-controls-skeletal-muscle-fiber-type-determination
#16
Icía Santos-Zas, Tania Cid-Díaz, Jessica González-Sánchez, Uxía Gurriarán-Rodriguez, Carlos Seoane-Mosteiro, Begoña Porteiro, Rubén Nogueiras, Xesús Casabiell, José Luis Relova, Rosalía Gallego, Vincent Mouly, Yolanda Pazos, Jesus P Camiña
Obestatin/GPR39 signaling stimulates skeletal muscle growth and repair by inducing both G-protein-dependent and -independent mechanisms linking the activated GPR39 receptor with distinct sets of accessory and effector proteins. In this work, we describe a new level of activity where obestatin signaling plays a role in the formation, contractile properties and metabolic profile of skeletal muscle through determination of oxidative fiber type. Our data indicate that obestatin regulates Mef2 activity and PGC-1α expression...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522797/protective-effects-of-hydrogen-rich-saline-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-alveolar-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-pulmonary-fibrosis
#17
Wen-Wen Dong, Yun-Qian Zhang, Xiao-Yan Zhu, Yan-Fei Mao, Xue-Jun Sun, Yu-Jian Liu, Lai Jiang
BACKGROUND Fibrotic change is one of the important reasons for the poor prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The present study investigated the effects of hydrogen-rich saline, a selective hydroxyl radical scavenger, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male ICR mice were divided randomly into 5 groups: Control, LPS-treated plus vehicle treatment, and LPS-treated plus hydrogen-rich saline (2.5, 5, or 10 ml/kg) treatment. Twenty-eight days later, fibrosis was assessed by determination of collagen deposition, hydroxyproline, and type I collagen levels...
May 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522766/ontogeny-of-myosin-isoform-expression-and-prehensile-function-in-the-tail-of-the-gray-short-tailed-opossum-monodelphis-domestica
#18
Dylan R Thomas, Brad A Chadwell, Gary R Walker, Julio E Budde, John L VandeBerg, Michael T Butcher
Terrestrial opossums use their semi-prehensile tail for grasping nesting materials as opposed to arboreal maneuvering. We relate the development of this adaptive behavior with ontogenetic changes in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression from 21 days to adulthood. Monodelphis domestica is expected to demonstrate a progressive ability to flex the distal tail up to age 7 months, when it should exhibit routine nest construction. We hypothesize that juvenile stages (3-7 months) will be characterized by retention of the neonatal isoform (MHC-Neo), along with predominant expression of fast MHC-2X and 2B, which will transition into greater MHC-1β and 2A isoform content as development progresses...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522569/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-airway-fibrosis-in-asthma
#19
Michelle R Freeman, Venkatachalem Sathish, Logan J Manlove, Shengyu Wang, Rodney D Britt, Michael A Thompson, Christina M Pabelick, Y S Prakash
Airway remodeling in asthma driven by inflammation involves proliferation of epithelial cells and airway smooth muscle (ASM), as well as enhanced extracellular matrix (ECM) generation and deposition, i.e. fibrosis. Accordingly, understanding pro-fibrotic mechanisms is important for developing novel therapeutic strategies in asthma. Recent studies, including our own, have suggested a role for locally-produced growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mediating and modulating inflammation effects...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522568/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-enhances-human-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cell-apoptosis-through-microrna-21-and-programmed-cell-death-4
#20
David Emerson Green, Tamara C Murphy, Bum-Yong Kang, Brahmchetna Bedi, Zhihong Yuan, Ruxana T Sadikot, C Michael Hart
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disorder whose cellular pathogenesis involves enhanced smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and resistance to apoptosis signals. Existing evidence demonstrates that the tumor suppressor, programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) affects patterns of cell growth and repair responses in the systemic vasculature following experimental injury. In the current study, the regulation PDCD4 and its functional effects on growth and apoptosis susceptibility in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells was explored...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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