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Muscle growth protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679925/tocotrienol-rich-fraction-supplementation-reduces-hyperglycemia-induced-skeletal-muscle-damage-through-regulation-of-insulin-signaling-and-oxidative-stress-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#1
Heaji Lee, Yunsook Lim
Chronic hyperglycemia induces impairment of muscle growth and development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Since skeletal muscle is the major site for disposal of ingested glucose, impaired glucose metabolism causes imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation which adversely affects physical mobility. In this study, we investigated the effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation on skeletal muscle damage in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet with streptozotocin (STZ) injection (100 mg/kg) in male C57BL/6J mice...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678882/mesenchyme-homeobox-1-mediates-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-smooth-muscle-cell-differentiation-from-mouse-mesenchymal-progenitors
#2
Kun Dong, Xia Guo, Weiping Chen, Amanda C Hsu, Qiang Shao, Jian-Fu Chen, Shi-You Chen
Differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is critical for proper vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling SMC differentiation are not completely understood. During embryogenesis, the transcription factor mesenchyme homeobox 1 (Meox1) is expressed in the early developing somite, which is one of the origins of SMCs. In the present study, we identified Meox1 as a positive regulator of SMC differentiation. We found that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces Meox1 expression in the initial phase of SMC differentiation of pluripotent murine C3H10T1/2 cells...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677587/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-cadmium-and-temperature-alone-or-combined-on-the-threespine-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus-interest-of-digestive-enzymes-as-biomarkers
#3
Younes Mohamed Ismail Hani, Cyril Turies, Olivier Palluel, Laurence Delahaut, Véronique Gaillet, Anne Bado-Nilles, Jean-Marc Porcher, Alain Geffard, Odile Dedourge-Geffard
The development of predictive, sensitive and reliable biomarkers is of crucial importance for aquatic biomonitoring to assess the effects of chemical substances on aquatic organisms, especially when it comes to combined effects with other stressors (e.g. temperature). The first purpose of the present study was to evaluate the single and combined effects of 90 days of exposure to an environmental cadmium concentration (0.5 μg L-1 ) and two water temperatures (16 and 21 °C) on different parameters. These parameters are involved in (i) the antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase activity -SOD- and total glutathione levels -GSH-), (ii) the energy metabolism, i...
April 12, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677358/lysophosphatidic-acid-induces-ecm-production-via-activation-of-the-mechanosensitive-yap-taz-transcriptional-pathway-in-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#4
Leona T Y Ho, Nikolai Skiba, Christoph Ullmer, Ponugoti Vasantha Rao
Purpose: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lipid, has been shown to increase resistance to aqueous humor outflow (AH) through the trabecular meshwork (TM). The molecular basis for this response of the TM to LPA, however, is not completely understood. In this study, we explored the possible involvement of mechanosensitive Yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog, transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding domain (TAZ), transcriptional activation in extracellular matrix (ECM) production by LPA-induced contractile activity in human TM cells (HTM)...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676073/overexpression-of-mir-155-5p-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-il-13-induced-human-bronchial-smooth-muscle-cells-by-suppressing-tgf-%C3%AE-activated-kinase-1-map3k7-binding-protein-2
#5
Yujia Shi, Xingli Fu, Qi Cao, Zhengdao Mao, Yi Chen, Yun Sun, Zhiguang Liu, Qian Zhang
PURPOSE: Molecular mechanisms leading to asthma is still ill-defined. Though the function of microRNAs (miRNAs) in asthma was previously reported, the involvement of miR-155 in important features of this disease remains unknown. The present study was designed to uncover the probable involvement of miR-155-5p in the proliferation and migration of IL-13-induced human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) and the intrinsic regulatory mechanism. METHODS: The effects of different concentrations of IL-13 on the proliferation and migration of BSMCs as well as the expression of miR-155-5p and its predicted target transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-activated kinase 1/MAP3K7-binding protein 2 (TAB2) were investigated...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671769/cgmp-signaling-and-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-plasticity
#6
REVIEW
Moritz Lehners, Hyazinth Dobrowinski, Susanne Feil, Robert Feil
Cyclic GMP regulates multiple cell types and functions of the cardiovascular system. This review summarizes the effects of cGMP on the growth and survival of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which display remarkable phenotypic plasticity during the development of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that VSMCs contribute to the development of atherosclerotic plaques by clonal expansion and transdifferentiation to macrophage-like cells. VSMCs express a variety of cGMP generators and effectors, including NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI), respectively...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671767/effects-of-whey-protein-hydrolysate-ingestion-on-postprandial-aminoacidemia-compared-with-a-free-amino-acid-mixture-in-young-men
#7
Kyosuke Nakayama, Chiaki Sanbongi, Shuji Ikegami
To stimulate muscle protein synthesis, it is important to increase the plasma levels of essential amino acids (EAA), especially leucine, by ingesting proteins. Protein hydrolysate ingestion can induce postprandial hyperaminoacidemia; however, it is unclear whether protein hydrolysate is associated with higher levels of aminoacidemia compared with a free amino acid mixture when both are ingested orally. We assessed the effects of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) ingestion on postprandial aminoacidemia, especially plasma leucine levels, compared to ingestion of a free amino acid mixture...
April 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669788/h19-induces-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-development-and-progression
#8
Daniel Y Li, Albert Busch, Hong Jin, Ekaterina Chernogubova, Jaroslav Pelisek, Joakim Karlsson, Bengt Sennblad, Shengliang Liu, Shen Lao, Patrick Hofmann, Alexandra Bäcklund, Suzanne M Eken, Joy Roy, Per Eriksson, Brian Dacken, Deepak Ramanujam, Anne Dueck, Stefan Engelhardt, Reinier A Boon, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Joshua M Spin, Philip S Tsao, Lars Maegdefessel
Background -Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical molecular regulators in various biological processes and diseases. Here we sought to identify and functionally characterize lncRNAs as potential mediators in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. Methods -We profiled RNA transcript expression in two murine AAA models, Angiotensin II (ANGII) infusion in ApoE-/- mice ( n =8) and porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) instillation in C57BL/6 wildtype mice ( n =12). The lncRNA H19 was identified as one of the most highly up-regulated transcripts in both mouse aneurysm models compared to sham-operated controls...
April 18, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669331/previous-exercise-effects-in-cisplatin-induced-renal-lesions-in-rats
#9
Heloísa D C Francescato, Lucas F Almeida, Natany G Reis, Camila M Faleiros, Marcelo Papoti, Roberto S Costa, Terezila M Coimbra
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Physical training has beneficial effects on endothelial function and can influence the regeneration of the endothelial cell. We investigated the effect of physical training on cisplatin (CP)-induced acute kidney injury and assessed the impact of training on endothelial structure and function, and on the inflammatory processes in rats. METHODS: We injected male Wistar rats subjected to previous physical training in treadmill running (trained, TR) or not (sedentary, SED) with CP (5 mg/kg) (TR+CP and SED+CP groups, respectively)...
April 13, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666896/calpain-inhibition-attenuates-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-switching-the-development-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#10
Yuan Liu, Bing Liu, Gu-Qin Zhang, Jing-Feng Zou, Meng-Lin Zou, Zhen-Shun Cheng
Calpains are intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, which cleave several substrates proteins, have been proven to play important roles in lung fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calpain on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A lung fibrosis mice model was established successfully by intraperitoneal injection of bleomycin. Calpeptin, a highly selective inhibitor of calpain activation, was administered three times weekly after bleomycin injection. Histological examination was used to assess the fibrosis...
April 18, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666144/sporadic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-sals-skeletal-muscle-response-to-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-sals-patients-in-a-rat-model
#11
Shruthi Shanmukha, Gayathri Narayanappa, Atchayaram Nalini, Phalguni Anand Alladi, Trichur R Raju
Skeletal muscle atrophy is the most prominent feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons. However, the contribution of skeletal muscle to disease progression remains elusive. Our previous studies have shown that intrathecal injection of cerebrospinal fluid from sporadic ALS patients (ALS-CSF) induces several degenerative changes in motor neurons and glia of neonatal rats. Here, we describe various pathologic events in the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle following intrathecal injection of ALS-CSF...
April 16, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663541/eccentric-exercise-increases-circulating-fibroblast-activation-protein-but-not-bioactive-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-healthy-humans
#12
Biraj Parmar, Jo E Lewis, Ricardo J Samms, Francis J P Ebling, Christine C Cheng, Andrew C Adams, Joanne Mallinson, Scott Cooper, Tariq Taylor, Reza Ghasemi, Francis B Stephens, Kostas Tsintzas
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The role of FGF21 as an exercise-induced myokine remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether eccentric exercise would augment the release of FGF21 and/or its regulatory enzyme Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) from skeletal muscle tissue into the systemic circulation of healthy human volunteers. What is the main finding and its importance? Eccentric exercise does not release total or bioactive FGF21 from human skeletal muscle...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662889/effect-of-mir-29b-on-the-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-by-targeting-mcl-1-and-ccnd2
#13
Juan Chen, Yanping Li, Yun Li, Lijian Xie, Jianyi Wang, Yongwei Zhang, Tingting Xiao
The proliferation and apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) are considered to be key steps in the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). MicroRNAs (e.g., miR-29b) have been identified in various diseases to be critical modulators of cell growth and apoptosis by targeting Mcl-1 and CCND2. However, the role of miR-29b in PAH remains unknown. So we try to investigate the effect of miR-29b on Mcl-1 and CCND2 protein in PASMCs, analyze the effect of miR-29b on the proliferation of PASMCs, and explore the significance of miR-29b in the proliferation, apoptosis, and gene therapy of PAH...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662761/inflammation-and-age-associated-skeletal-muscle-deterioration-sarcopaenia
#14
REVIEW
Jinyu Wang, Kwok-Sui Leung, Simon Kwoon-Ho Chow, Wing-Hoi Cheung
Ageing is accompanied by chronic inflammatory responses due to elevated circulatory inflammatory cytokine production. Several inflammatory cytokines have been shown to be responsible for a decrease in muscle mass. However, little is known about the possible relationship between inflammation and sarcopaenia. This review aims to summarise the existing evidence about inflammation and sarcopaenia. Sarcopaenia is defined as an age-related decrease of muscle mass and/or muscle strength; it is caused by multiple factors, such as skeletal muscle atrophy, neuromuscular junction degeneration, hormone imbalance, cytokine imbalance, protein synthesis and proteolysis...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659130/microrna-21-drives-the-switch-to-a-synthetic-phenotype-in-human-saphenous-vein-smooth-muscle-cells
#15
Aliah R Alshanwani, Kirsten Riches-Suman, David J O'Regan, Ian C Wood, Neil A Turner, Karen E Porter
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) comprising the vascular wall can switch phenotypes from contractile to synthetic, which can promote the development of aberrant remodelling and intimal hyperplasia (IH). MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a short, non-coding RNA that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases including proliferative vascular disease and ischaemic heart disease. However, its involvement in the complex development of atherosclerosis has yet to be ascertained...
April 16, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652692/potential-roles-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-during-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#16
Kimberly A Huey
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) deletion in adult mouse muscle fibers contributes to impaired contractile and muscular adaptations to a hypertrophic stimulus suggesting a critical role in adult muscle growth. This review will explore the hypothesis that VEGF is essential for adult muscle growth by impacting inflammatory processes, satellite-endothelial cell interactions, and contractile protein accumulation by functioning within known hypertrophic signaling pathways including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1-Akt) and Wnt-ß-catenin...
April 12, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651290/anti-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-igg-elicits-a-dual-effect-on-calcium-oxalate-crystallization-and-progressive-nephrocalcinosis-related-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Stefanie Steiger, Julia Felicitas Grill, Qiuyue Ma, Tobias Bäuerle, Jutta Jordan, Michaela Smolle, Claudia Böhland, Maciej Lech, Hans-Joachim Anders
Crystallopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by intrinsic or environmental microparticles or crystals, promoting tissue inflammation and scarring. Certain proteins interfere with crystal formation and growth, e.g., with intrarenal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal formation, a common cause of kidney stone disease or nephrocalcinosis-related chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that immunoglobulins can modulate CaOx microcrystal formation and crystal growth and that therefore, biological IgG-based drugs designed to specifically target disease modifying proteins would elicit a dual effect on the outcome of CaOx-related crystallopathies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649842/anabolic-activity-of-a-soy-extract-and-three-major-isoflavones-in-c2c12-myotubes
#18
Wenya Zheng, Marie L Hemker, Mingyong Xie, Sebastian T Soukup, Patrick Diel
Isoflavones have been reported to stimulate muscle growth. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine anabolic activity and associated molecular mechanisms of a soy extract (SoyEx), isoflavone aglycones, and a mixture simulating the composition of SoyEx in C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 cells were differentiated into myotubes. The effects of SoyEx, genistein, daidzein, glycitein, and the mixture of genistein-daidzein-glycitein (Mix) on myotube diameter and number were determined. In addition, the expression of genes and proteins associated with anabolic activity was analyzed...
April 12, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649584/molecular-cloning-expression-and-biochemical-characterization-of-hemoglobin-gene-from-ark-shell-scapharca-broughtonii
#19
Qing Zhao, Biao Wu, Zhihong Liu, Xiujun Sun, Liqing Zhou, Aiguo Yang, Gaowei Zhang
Hemoglobin, the main component of haemolymph, is widely distributed in animals. Although its important oxygen transport functions has been extensively reported, studies on the immune function of hemoglobin in mollusc are few. Research on immune of hemoglobin of ark shell Scapharca broughtonii attracted more and more attention due to its ownership of erythrocyte comparing with many other shellfish. In this study, the hemoglobin cDNA of S. broughtonii was cloned by EST and RACE methods (named as SbHb). Sequence analysis revealed that the cDNA was 946 bp in length, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 459 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 152 amino acid residues, and a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 313 bp, a 3'-UTR of 174 bp...
April 9, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643181/smooth-muscle-cells-differentiated-from-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-regulated-by-microrna-mir-503-and-mir-222-5p-are-suitable-for-vascular-tissue-engineering
#20
Wenduo Gu, Xuechong Hong, Alexandra Le Bras, Witold N Nowak, Shirin Issa Bhaloo, Jiacheng Deng, Yao Xie, Yanhua Hu, Xiong Z Ruan, Qingbo Xu
Tissue-engineered vascular grafts with long-term patency are greatly needed in the clinical settings, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are a critical graft component. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used for generating SMCs and understanding the underlying regulatory mechanisms of the MSC-to-SMC differentiation process could improve SMC generation in the clinic. Here, we found that in response to stimulation of transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGFβ1), human umbilical cord-derived MSCs abundantly express the SMC markers α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), smooth muscle protein 22 (SM22), calponin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) at both gene and protein levels...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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