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Muscle growth protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214702/triploid-atlantic-salmon-shows-similar-performance-fatty-acid-composition-and-proteome-response-to-diploids-during-early-freshwater-rearing
#1
Waldo G Nuez-Ortín, Chris G Carter, Richard Wilson, Ira R Cooke, Gianluca Amoroso, Jennifer M Cobcroft, Peter D Nichols
There is currently renewed interest in farming triploid Atlantic salmon. Improving farming requires identifying triploid specific phenotypic and physiological traits that are uniquely derived from ploidy per se and developed under optimal growing conditions. This study investigated firstly, the impact of ploidy on growth performance and whole body composition of Atlantic salmon at different early freshwater stages [34dph (days post-hatching) alevin, 109dph fry, and 162dph parr] and secondly, whether phenotypic differences at these stages were reflected in protein samples collected from whole fish, white muscle or liver tissue...
February 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213440/muscle-yap-is-a-regulator-of-neuromuscular-junction-formation-and-regeneration
#2
Kai Zhao, Chengyong Shen, Yisheng Lu, Zhihui Huang, Lei Li, Christopher D Rand, Jinxiu Pan, Xiang-Dong Sun, Zhibing Tan, Hongsheng Wang, Guanglin Xing, Yu Cao, Guoqing Hu, Jiliang Zhou, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Yes-associated protein (Yap) is a major effector of the Hippo pathway that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation during development and restricts tissue growth in adult animals. However, its role in synapse formation remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized Yap's role in the formation of neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In HSA-Yap(-/-) mice where Yap was mutated specifically in muscle cells, AChR clusters were smaller and were distributed in a broader region in the middle of muscle fibers, suggesting that muscle Yap is necessary for the size and location of AChR clusters...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213398/foxo-integration-of-insulin-signaling-with-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#3
Sojin Lee, Henry H Dong
The forkhead box O family consists of FoxO1, FoxO3, FoxO4 and FoxO6 proteins in mammals. Expressed ubiquitously in the body, the four FoxO isoforms share in common the amino DNA binding domain, known as "forkhead box" domain. They mediate the inhibitory action of insulin or insulin-like growth factor on key functions involved in cell metabolism, growth, differentiation, oxidative stress, senescence, autophagy and aging. Genetic mutations in FoxO genes or abnormal expression of FoxO proteins are associated with metabolic disease, cancer or altered lifespan in humans and animals...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213288/inhibition-of-estrogen-related-receptor-%C3%AE-attenuates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-migration-by-regulating-rhoa-p27-kip1-and-%C3%AE-catenin-wnt4-signaling-pathway
#4
Qunyi Li, Lei Zhu, Liudi Zhang, Haifei Chen, Yingfeng Zhu, Yongli Du, Wanxian Zhong, Mingkang Zhong, Xiaojin Shi
RhoA/p27(Kip1) and β-Catenin/Wnt4 signaling processes play central roles in proliferation and migration in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). ERRα, a member of orphan nuclear receptors, is a potent prognostic factor in breast, ovarian, colon and other types of tumors. However, biological significance of ERRα in VSMCs as well as the molecular mechanisms remains largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether ERRα is involved in the proliferation and migration of VSMCs in vitro and neointimal formation in vivo...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212891/sulforaphane-inhibits-platelet-derived-growth-factor-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-by-targeting-mtor-p70s6kinase-signaling-independent-of-nrf2-activation
#5
Noha M Shawky, Lakshman Segar
Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a transcription factor) and/or inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are implicated in the suppression of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. The present study has examined the likely regulatory effects of sulforaphane (SFN, an antioxidant) on Nrf2 activation and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced mTOR signaling in VSMCs. Using human aortic VSMCs, nuclear extraction and siRNA-mediated downregulation studies were performed to determine the role of Nrf2 on SFN regulation of PDGF-induced proliferative signaling...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212797/ca-2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-in-vascular-smooth-muscle
#6
F Z Saddouk, R Ginnan, H A Singer
Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways are central regulators of differentiated vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contractile function. In addition, Ca(2+) signals regulate VSM gene transcription, proliferation, and migration of dedifferentiated or "synthetic" phenotype VSM cells. Synthetic phenotype VSM growth and hyperplasia are hallmarks of pervasive vascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, postangioplasty/in-stent restenosis, and vein graft failure. The serine/threonine protein kinase Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a ubiquitous mediator of intracellular Ca(2+) signals...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209379/endocultivation-continuous-application-of-rhbmp-2-via-mini-osmotic-pumps-to-induce-bone-formation-at-extraskeletal-sites
#7
B E Beck-Broichsitter, S T Becker, H Seitz, J Wiltfang, P H Warnke
The continuous presence of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) inside a scaffold may be crucial to the outcome in bone tissue engineering. This study investigated whether the release of the growth factor rhBMP-2 via different continuous application schemes influences histomorphological aspects of the hard and soft tissues induced. Three-dimensionally printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds were implanted into one latissimus dorsi muscle of 42 female Lewis rats. Simultaneously implanted mini-osmotic pumps were used to provide a continuous application of rhBMP-2 over 1, 2, or 4 weeks (total dose 200μg)...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209294/sulfated-glycosaminoglycans-and-non-classically-secreted-proteins-basic-fgf-and-epimorphin-coordinately-regulate-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-cell-behaviors-of-human-scar-dermal-fibroblasts
#8
Tomoatsu Horigome, Shinya Takumi, Kota Shirai, Takumi Kido, Natsumi Hagiwara-Chatani, Ayumi Nakashima, Naoki Adachi, Hiroko Yano, Yohei Hirai
BACKGROUND: Upon skin injuries, dermal fibroblasts actively produce transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which leads to the formation of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-positive granulation tissues. The hyperplasia or incomplete regression of these tissues subsequently causes scar formation in the skin, where sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), side chains of unique proteoglycans, are supposed to play important roles. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of sulfated GAGs on dermal cell behaviors triggered by the TGF-β signaling, along with its possible regulators basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and cell surface epimorphin...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209124/rna-seq-and-metabolomic-analyses-of-akt1-mediated-muscle-growth-reveals-regulation-of-regenerative-pathways-and-changes-in-the-muscle-secretome
#9
Chia-Ling Wu, Yoshinori Satomi, Kenneth Walsh
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a major regulator of systemic metabolism as it serves as the major site for glucose disposal and the main reservoir for amino acids. With aging, cachexia, starvation, and myositis, there is a preferential loss of fast glycolytic muscle fibers. We previously reported a mouse model in which a constitutively-active Akt transgene is induced to express in a subset of muscle groups leading to the hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers with an accompanying increase in strength...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207424/skeletal-muscle-wasting-new-role-of-nonclassical-renin-angiotensin-system
#10
Claudio Cabello-Verrugio, Juan C Rivera, Dominga Garcia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skeletal muscle can be affected by many physiological and pathological conditions that contribute to the development of muscle weakness, including skeletal muscle loss, inflammatory processes, or fibrosis. Therefore, research into therapeutic treatment alternatives or alleviation of these effects on skeletal muscle is of great importance. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that angiotensin (1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] - a vasoactive peptide of the nonclassical axis in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) - and its Mas receptor are expressed in skeletal muscle...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204905/transcriptome-assembly-and-identification-of-genes-and-snps-associated-with-growth-traits-in-largemouth-bass-micropterus-salmoides
#11
Shengjie Li, Hao Liu, Junjie Bai, Xinping Zhu
Growth is one of the most crucial economic traits of all aquaculture species, but the molecular mechanisms involved in growth of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to screen growth-related genes of M. salmoides by RNA sequencing and identify growth-related single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers through a growth association study. The muscle transcriptomes of fast- and slow-growing largemouth bass were obtained using the RNA-Seq technique. A total of 54,058,178 and 54,742,444 qualified Illumina read pairs were obtained for the fast-growing and slow-growing groups, respectively, giving rise to 4,865,236,020 and 4,926,819,960 total clean bases, respectively...
February 15, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204828/tieg1-deficiency-confers-enhanced-myocardial-protection-in-the-infarcted-heart-by-mediating-the-pten-akt-signalling-pathway
#12
Mingqiu Cen, Pengfei Hu, Zhaobin Cai, Tianfu Fang, Jiancheng Zhang, Ming Lu
The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) plays a crucial role in modulating cell apoptosis and proliferation in a number of diseases, including pancreatic cancer, leukaemia and osteoporosis. However, the functional role of TIEG1 in the heart has not been fully defined. In this study, we first investigated the role of TIEG1 in ischaemic heart disease. For in vitro experiments, cardiomyocytes were isolated from both TIEG1 knockout (KO) and wile-type (WT) mice, and the apoptotic ratios were evaluated after a 48‑h ischaemic insult...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192121/convulxin-a-c-type-lectin-like-protein-inhibits-hcasmcs-functions-via-wad-motif-integrin-%C3%AE-v-interaction-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-independent-gene-suppression-of-gro-and-il-8
#13
Chun-Ho Shih, Tin-Bin Chiang, Wen-Jeng Wang
Convulxin (CVX), a C-type lectin-like protein (CLPs), is a potent platelet aggregation inducer. To evaluate its potential applications in angiogenic diseases, the multimeric CVX were further explored on its mode of actions toward human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). The N-terminus of β-chain of CVX (CVX-β) contains a putative disintegrin-like domain with a conserved motif upon the sequence comparison with other CLPs. Importantly, native CVX had no cytotoxic activity as examined by electrophoretic pattern...
February 10, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187784/let-7a-transfected-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorate-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-by-suppressing-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cell-growth-through-stat3-bmpr2-signaling
#14
Gesheng Cheng, Xingye Wang, Yongxin Li, Lu He
BACKGROUND: Cell-based gene therapy has become a subject of interest for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a devastating disease characterized by pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) hyperplasia. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been recently acknowledged as a potential cell vector for gene therapy. Here, we investigated the effect of MSC-based let-7a for PAH. METHODS: After isolation and identification of MSCs from rat bone marrow, cells were infected with recombinant adenovirus vector Ad-let-7a...
February 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186980/diet-induced-obesity-links-to-er-positive-breast-cancer-progression-via-lpa-pkd-1-cd36-signaling-mediated-microvascular-remodeling
#15
Liuyi Dong, Ye Yuan, Cynthia Opansky, Yiliang Chen, Irene Aguilera-Barrantes, Shiyong Wu, Rong Yuan, Qi Cao, Yee Chung Cheng, Daisy Sahoo, Roy L Silverstein, Bin Ren
Obesity increases cancer risk including breast cancer (BC). However, the direct regulatory mechanisms by which obesity promotes BC progression remain largely unknown. We show that lysophosphatidic acid/protein kinase D1 (LPA/PKD-1)-CD36 signaling is a bona fide breast cancer promoter via stimulating microvascular remodeling in chronic diet-induced obesity (DIO). We observed that the growth of an estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer was markedly increased when compared to the lean control, and specifically accompanied by increased microvascular remodeling in a syngeneic BC model in female DIO mice...
February 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183860/diminished-satellite-cell-fusion-and-s6k1-expression-in-myotubes-derived-from-skeletal-muscle-of-low-birth-weight-neonatal-pigs
#16
Ying Chen, Haibo Zhu, Sydney R McCauley, Lidan Zhao, Sally E Johnson, Robert P Rhoads, Samer W El-Kadi
Low birth weight (LBWT) is consistently associated with impaired postnatal muscle growth in mammals. Satellite cell (SC)-mediated myonuclear incorporation precedes protein accumulation in the early stages of postnatal muscle development and growth. The objective of this study was to investigate proliferation and differentiation of SCs and the regulation of protein synthesis signaling in response to insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I stimulation in SC-derived myotubes of LBWT neonatal pigs. SCs isolated from Longissimus dorsi muscle of LBWT and NBWT pigs (3-d-old, n = 8) were cultured and induced to proliferate and differentiate to myotubes in vitro...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183442/high-dose-metformin-420mg-kg-daily-p-o-increases-insulin-sensitivity-but-does-not-affect-neointimal-thickness-in-the-rat-carotid-balloon-injury-model-of-restenosis
#17
June Guo, Troy J Pereira, Prasad Dalvi, Lucy Shu Nga Yeung, Nathan Swain, Danna M Breen, Loretta Lam, Vernon W Dolinsky, Adria Giacca
OBJECTIVE: Our laboratory has shown that insulin's effect to decrease neointimal thickness after arterial injury is greatly diminished in insulin resistant conditions. Thus, in these conditions, a better alternative to insulin could be to use an insulin sensitizing agent. Metformin, the most commonly prescribed insulin sensitizer, has a cardiovascular protective role. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential benefit of metformin on neointimal area after arterial injury in a rat model of restenosis...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183305/controlling-of-growth-performance-lipid-deposits-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-chicken-meat-through-a-probiotic-lactobacillus-johnsonii-during-subclinical-clostridium-perfringens-infection
#18
Hesong Wang, Xueqin Ni, Lei Liu, Dong Zeng, Jing Lai, Xiaodan Qing, Guangyao Li, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing
BACKGROUND: Meat is considered as a major source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) which is essential for humans, therefore its lipid level and fatty acid composition have drawn great attention. As no clinical sign can be found in chicks subclinically infected by Clostridium perfringens (CP), the meat may be purchased and eaten. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ) can control the CP-caused impact on growth, lipid levels, fatty acid composition and other flavor or nutritional quality in the meat...
February 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183280/whole-genome-scan-reveals-the-genetic-signature-of-african-ankole-cattle-breed-and-potential-for-higher-quality-beef
#19
Mengistie Taye, Jaemin Kim, Sook Hee Yoon, Wonseok Lee, Olivier Hanotte, Tadelle Dessie, Stephen Kemp, Okeyo Ally Mwai, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, Seoae Cho, Sung Jong Oh, Hak-Kyo Lee, Heebal Kim
BACKGROUND: Africa is home to numerous cattle breeds whose diversity has been shaped by subtle combinations of human and natural selection. African Sanga cattle are an intermediate type of cattle resulting from interbreeding between Bos taurus and Bos indicus subspecies. Recently, research has asserted the potential of Sanga breeds for commercial beef production with better meat quality as compared to Bos indicus breeds. Here, we identified meat quality related gene regions that are positively selected in Ankole (Sanga) cattle breeds as compared to indicus (Boran, Ogaden, and Kenana) breeds using cross-population (XP-EHH and XP-CLR) statistical methods...
February 9, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180980/myofibroblast-in-the-ligamentum-flavum-hypertrophic-activity
#20
Junseok W Hur, Taegeun Bae, Sunghyeok Ye, Joo-Hyun Kim, Sunhye Lee, Kyoungmi Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jin-Soo Kim, Jang-Bo Lee, Tai-Hyoung Cho, Jung-Yul Park, Junho K Hur
PURPOSE: Majority of the previous studies compared lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and lumbar disc herniation (LDH) patients for analyses of LFH. However, the separation of normal/hypertrophied LF has often been ambiguous and the severity of hypertrophic activity differed. Here, we present a novel analysis scheme for LFH in which myofibroblast is proposed as a major etiological factor for LFH study. METHODS: Seventy-one LF patient tissue samples were used for this study...
February 8, 2017: European Spine Journal
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