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Muscle growth protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458012/klf10-gene-expression-modulates-fibrosis-in-dystrophic-skeletal-muscle
#1
Joseph X DiMario
Dystrophic skeletal muscle is characterized by fibrotic accumulation of extracellular matrix components that compromise muscle structure, function, and capacity for regeneration. Tissue fibrosis is often initiated and sustained through transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling, and KLF10 is an immediate early gene that is transcriptionally activated in response to TGFβ signaling. It encodes a transcriptional regulator that mediates the effects of TGFβ signaling in a variety of cell types. This report presents results of investigation of the effects of loss of KLF10 gene expression in wild-type and dystrophic (mdx) skeletal muscle...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454855/signalling-pathways-regulating-galactosaminoglycan-synthesis-and-structure-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-implications-for-lipoprotein-binding-and-atherosclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Rizwana Afroz, Yingnan Cao, Muhamad Ashraf Rostam, Hang Ta, Suowen Xu, Wenhua Zheng, Narin Osman, Danielle Kamato, Peter J Little
Atherosclerosis commences with the trapping of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) in blood vessels by modified proteoglycans (PGs) with hyperelongated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. GAG chain synthesis and growth factor mediated hyperelongation regulates the composition and size of PGs in a manner that would cause low density lipoprotein (LDLs) retention in vessel wall. Galactosaminoglycans are a class of GAGs, commonly observed on PGs. Multiple enzymes are involved in galactosaminoglycan biosynthesis. Galactosaminoglycan synthesis is regulated by various signalling pathways which are amenable to pharmacological manipulation to treat atherosclerosis...
February 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454793/p300-acetyltransferase-mediates-stiffness-induced-activation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-into-tumor-promoting-myofibroblasts
#3
Changwei Dou, Zhikui Liu, Kangsheng Tu, Hongbin Zhang, Chen Chen, Usman Yaqoob, Yuanguo Wang, Jialing Wen, Jan van Deursen, Delphine Sicard, Daniel Tschumperlin, Hongzhi Zou, Wei-Chien Huang, Raul Urrutia, Vijay H Shah, Ningling Kang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) contribute to desmoplasia and stiffness of liver metastases by differentiating into matrix-producing myofibroblasts. We investigated whether stiffness due to the presence of tumors increases activation of HSCs into myofibroblasts and their tumor-promoting effects, as well as the role of E1A binding protein p300 (EP300 or p300), a histone acetyltransferase that regulates transcription, in these processes. METHODS: HSCs were isolated from liver tissues of patients, mice in which the p300 gene was flanked by 2 loxP sites (p300F/F mice), and p300+/+ mice (controls)...
February 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450728/winter-vitamin-d-3-supplementation-does-not-increase-muscle-strength-but-modulates-the-igf-axis-in-young-children
#4
Charlotte Mortensen, Christian Mølgaard, Hanne Hauger, Michael Kristensen, Camilla T Damsgaard
PURPOSE: To explore whether muscle strength, the insulin-like growth factor axis (IGF-axis), height, and body composition were associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and affected by winter vitamin D supplementation in healthy children, and furthermore to explore potential sex differences. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response winter trial at 55ºN. A total of 117 children aged 4-8 years were randomly assigned to either placebo, 10, or 20 µg/day of vitamin D 3 for 20 weeks...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448039/development-of-sirna-mediated-rna-interference-and-functional-analysis-of-novel-parasitic-nematode-specific-protein-of-setaria-digitata
#5
M B C L Somarathne, Y I N S Gunawardena, N V Chandrasekharan, R S Dassanayake
Despite the differences of the host, parasitic nematodes may share commonalities in their parasitizing genes. Setaria digitata novel protein (SDNP) is such an entity which is parasitic nematode-specific and having sequence similarities with those of W. bancrofti, B. malayi, Loa loa and Onchocerca volvulus. Post-transcriptional gene silencing by siRNA mediated RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used technique in functional genomics. Though the technique has been used in several free-living, plant and animal parasitic nematodes, it has not yet been tried out for the filarial worm S...
February 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448011/oceanographic-upwelling-conditions-influence-signaling-pathways-involved-in-muscle-growth-of-intertidal-fish
#6
Rodrigo Zuloaga, Oscar Almarza, Juan A Valdés, Alfredo Molina, José Pulgar
Few studies have addressed the impact of the upwelling oceanographical conditions on biological processes, such as growth, using a molecular and physiological approach. Upwelling conditions are characterized by low temperature seawater and high nutrient availability, which represents an ideal opportunity to understand how habitat modulates animal performance at different levels of biological complexity. We aimed to assess intraspecific variations in weight, oxygen consumption, protein content, and key signaling pathways involved in muscle-growth (protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)) under experimental trials considering high/low seawater temperatures with full/restricted food rations...
February 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446045/effects-of-extracellular-orotic-acid-on-acute-contraction-induced-adaptation-patterns-in-c2c12-cells
#7
Thomas Beiter, Jens Hudemann, Christof Burgstahler, Andreas M Nieß, Barbara Munz
Dietary administration of orotic acid (OA), an intermediate in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway, is considered to provide a wide range of beneficial effects, including cardioprotection and exercise adaptation. Its mechanisms of action, when applied extracellularly, however, are barely understood. In this study, we evaluated potential effects of OA on skeletal muscle using an in vitro contraction model of electrically pulse-stimulated (EPS) C2C12 myotubes. By analyzing a subset of genes representing inflammatory, metabolic, and structural adaptation pathways, we could show that OA supplementation diminishes the EPS-provoked expression of inflammatory transcripts (interleukin 6, Il6; chemokine (C-X-C Motif) ligand 5, Cxcl5), and attenuated transcript levels of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (Nr4A3), early growth response 1 (Egr1), activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3), and fast-oxidative MyHC-IIA isoform (Myh2)...
February 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445355/plasma-levels-of-myonectin-but-not-myostatin-or-fibroblast-derived-growth-factor-21-are-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-adult-humans-without-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Freddy J K Toloza, Jose O Mantilla-Rivas, Maria C Pérez-Matos, Maria L Ricardo-Silgado, Martha C Morales-Alvarez, Jairo A Pinzón-Cortés, Maritza Pérez-Mayorga, Martha L Arévalo-Garcia, Giovanni Tolosa-González, Carlos O Mendivil
Background: Myokines are a group of protein mediators produced by skeletal muscle under stress or physical exertion. Even though their discovery and effects in cell culture and animal models of disease have elicited great enthusiasm, very little is known about their role in human metabolism. We assessed whether plasma concentrations of three known myokines [myonectin, myostatin, and fibroblast-derived growth factor 21 (FGF-21)] would be associated with direct and indirect indicators of insulin resistance (IR) in individuals who did not have a diagnosis of diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444734/growth-performance-carcass-and-noncarcass-traits-and-meat-quality-of-barbarine-lambs-fed-rosemary-distillation-residues
#9
Y Yagoubi, H Hajji, S Smeti, M Mahouachi, M Kamoun, N Atti
The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of total replacement of oat hay by rosemary distillation residues (RR) on growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Barbarine lambs. A total of 21 lambs were divided into three groups. The control group (C) was offered 600 g of oat hay; the RR87 and RR60 groups received 600 g of pellets containing 87% and 60% of RR, respectively. The CP content was 9% and 14% for RR87 and RR60, respectively. All animals were supplemented by 600 g of concentrate. After 77 days of fattening, lambs were slaughtered...
February 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444710/a-novel-in-vitro-model-for-the-assessment-of-postnatal-myonuclear-accretion
#10
Anita Kneppers, Lex Verdijk, Chiel de Theije, Mark Corten, Ellis Gielen, Luc van Loon, Annemie Schols, Ramon Langen
BACKGROUND: Due to the post-mitotic nature of myonuclei, postnatal myogenesis is essential for skeletal muscle growth, repair, and regeneration. This process is facilitated by satellite cells through proliferation, differentiation, and subsequent fusion with a pre-existing muscle fiber (i.e., myonuclear accretion). Current knowledge of myogenesis is primarily based on the in vitro formation of syncytia from myoblasts, which represents aspects of developmental myogenesis, but may incompletely portray postnatal myogenesis...
February 14, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444251/cultured-equine-satellite-cells-as-a-model-system-to-assess-leucine-stimulated-protein-synthesis-in-horse-muscle
#11
M L DeBoer, K M Martinson, M S Pampusch, A M Hansen, S M Wells, C Ward, M Hathaway
Leucine has been shown to stimulate the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway which plays numerous key regulatory roles in cell growth, survival and metabolism including protein synthesis in a number of species. However, previous work with equine satellite cells has suggested distinct species differences in regards to physiological effects and the magnitude of responses to growth factors and regulators. Because there is limited research available regarding the role of leucine in regulating equine skeletal muscle protein synthesis, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of leucine on the mTOR signaling pathway in cultured equine satellite...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444136/ly2405319-an-analog-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-ameliorates-%C3%AE-smooth-muscle-actin-production-through-inhibition-of-the-succinate-g-protein-couple-receptor-91-gpr91-pathway-in-mice
#12
Cong Thuc Le, Giang Nguyen, So Young Park, Dae Hee Choi, Eun-Hee Cho
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important metabolic regulator expressed predominantly in the liver. In this study, we evaluated the role of LY2405319, an analogue of FGF21, in hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and in a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD)-diet induced mouse model of liver fibrosis. During liver injury, HSCs trans-differentiate into activated myofibroblasts which produce alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and become a major cell type in hepatic fibrogenesis. Succinate and succinate receptor (GPR91) signaling has emerged as a regulator to promote α-SMA production in MCD diet- induced mice...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439246/cyclic-mechanical-stretch-induced-smooth-muscle-cell-changes-in-cerebral-aneurysm-progress-by-reducing-collagen-type-iv-and-collagen-type-vi-levels
#13
Peixi Liu, Yaying Song, Yingjie Zhou, Yingjun Liu, Tianming Qiu, Qingzhu An, Jianping Song, Peiliang Li, Yuan Shi, Sichen Li, Kai Quan, Guo-Yuan Yang, Wei Zhu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cerebral aneurysm growth is characterized by continuous structural weakness of local smooth muscle cells, though the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we examine protein changes in cerebral aneurysm and human brain vascular smooth muscle cells after cyclic mechanical stretch. We further explore the relationship between the smooth muscle cell changes and reductions in the levels of collagen types IV and VI. METHODS: Saccular cerebral aneurysms (n=10) were collected, and temporal artery samples were used as controls...
February 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438213/new-no-donor-ncx-1443-therapeutic-effects-on-pulmonary-hypertension-in-the-sad-mouse-model-of-sickle-cell-disease
#14
Shariq Abid, Kanny Kebe, Amal Houssaïni, Françoise Tomberli, Elisabeth Marcos, Emilie Bizard, Marielle Breau, Aurelien Parpaleix, Claire-Marie Tissot, Bernard Maitre, Larissa Lipskaia, Genevieve Derumeaux, Elena Bastia, Armand Mekontso-Dessap, Serge Adnot
Nitric oxide (NO) donors may be useful for treating pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating sickle cell disease (SCD), as endogenous NO is inactivated by hemoglobin released by intravascular hemolysis. Here, we investigated the effects of the new NO donor NCX1443 on PH in transgenic SAD mice, which exhibit mild SCD without severe hemolytic anemia. In SAD and wild-type (WT) mice, the pulmonary pressure response to acute hypoxia was similar and was abolished by 100 mg/kg NCX1443. The level of PH was also similar in SAD and WT mice exposed to chronic hypoxia (9% O2) alone or with SU5416, and was similarly reduced by daily NCX1443 gavage...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436620/highglucose-induces-podocyteepithelial%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-mesenchymal-transition-by-demethylation%C3%A2-mediated-enhancement-of-mmp9-expression
#15
Li Ling, Libo Chen, Changning Zhang, Shuyan Gui, Haiyan Zhao, Zhengzhang Li
Abnormal expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is correlated with podocyte epithelial-to---mesenchymal transition (EMT) in diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the mechanisms underlying this process are not well defined. Site‑specific demethylation may sustain high expression levels of target genes. In the present study, in order to investigate the association between DNA demethylation of MMP9 promoter and podocyte EMT in DN, human podocytes were cultured in high‑glucose (HG) medium and a rat model of DN was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) to determine whether site‑specific demethylation of the MMP9 promoter was involved in regulating podocyte EMT in DN...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436600/adenovirus-mediated-p311-ameliorates-renal-fibrosis-through-inhibition-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-ilk-pathway-in-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-rats
#16
Fang-Hua Qi, Ping-Ping Cai, Xiang Liu, Guo-Min Si
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical step and key factor during renal fibrosis. Preventing renal tubular EMT is important for delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). P311, a highly conserved 8-kDa intracellular protein, has been indicated as an important factor in myofibroblast transformation and in the progression of fibrosis. However, the related studies on P311 on renal fibrosis are limited and the mechanisms of P311 in the progression of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis remain largely unknown...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435515/the-smyd-family-of-methyltransferases-role-in-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-physiology-and-pathology
#17
Christopher Tracy, Junco S Warren, Marta Szulik, Li Wang, June Garcia, Aman Makaju, Kristi Russell, Mickey Miller, Sarah Franklin
Protein methylation plays a pivotal role in the regulation of various cellular processes including chromatin remodeling and gene expression. SET and MYND domain-containing proteins (Smyd) are a special class of lysine methyltransferases whose catalytic SET domain is split by an MYND domain. The hallmark feature of this family was thought to be the methylation of histone H3 (on lysine 4). However, several studies suggest that the role of the Smyd family is dynamic, targeting unique histone residues associated with both transcriptional activation and repression...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435112/lncrna-malat1-regulates-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotype-switch-via-activation-of-autophagy
#18
Tie-Feng Song, Li-Wen Huang, Ying Yuan, Hui-Qin Wang, Hong-Peng He, Wen-Jian Ma, Li-Hong Huo, Hao Zhou, Nan Wang, Tong-Cun Zhang
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), switching from a differentiated to a proliferative phenotype, contribute to various vascular diseases. However, the role of long noncoding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 MALAT1 in the phenotype switching of VSMCs remains unclear. Here, we report that the knockdown of MALAT1 promotes the transformation of smooth muscle cells from a proliferative phenotype to a differentiated phenotype. MALAT1 knockdown inhibited cellular proliferation and migration, leading to significant cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435059/macc1-and-hgf-are-associated-with-survival-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#19
Guokai Dong, Man Wang, Guangfu Gu, Shanshan Li, Xiaoming Sun, Zhouru Li, Hongxing Cai, Zhengqiu Zhu
Metastasis-associsated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1), a newly identified oncogene, promotes tumor cell proliferation and invasion. In the present study, the expression of MACC1, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, MET proto-oncogene (c-Met), was investigated in human gastric cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemistry. The association between the expression levels of the proteins and the clinicopathological parameters of the tumors were statistically analyzed. Furthermore, lentiviral particles expressing MACC1 were used to infect the hepatic satellite cell (HSC) line LX2...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434913/p68-prompts-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-cervical-cancer-cells-by-transcriptionally-activating-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-pathway
#20
Ming-Yi Li, Jin-Quan Liu, Dong-Ping Chen, Zhou-Yu Li, Bin Qi, Wen-Jing Yin, Lu He
Overexpression of p68 has been reported in various types of cancer. However, little study has been conducted on the expression and role of p68 in cervical cancer. Therefore, the present study focuses on the role of p68 in cervical cancer cells, which may elucidate its potential mechanism of cervical cancer progression and shed light on the precision medical treatment of cervical cancer. Firstly, the expression of p68 was analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
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