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Muscle growth protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928519/can-muscle-protein-metabolism-be-specifically-targeted-by-exercise-training-in-copd
#1
REVIEW
Davina C M Simoes, Ioannis Vogiatzis
Patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) frequently exhibit unintentional accentuated peripheral muscle loss and dysfunction. Skeletal muscle mass in these patients is a strong independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. Factors including protein anabolism/catabolism imbalance, hypoxia, physical inactivity, inflammation, and oxidative stress are involved in the initiation and progression of muscle wasting in these patients. Exercise training remains the most powerful intervention for reversing, in part, muscle wasting in COPD...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928337/dysregulated-genes-targeted-by-micrornas-and-metabolic-pathways-in-bladder-cancer-revealed-by-bioinformatics-methods
#2
Lu Zhang, Cuihua Feng, Yamin Zhou, Qiong Zhou
The present study aimed to identify bladder cancer-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) and target genes, and further analyze the potential molecular mechanisms involved in bladder cancer. The mRNA and miRNA expression profiling dataset GSE40355 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The Limma package in R was used to identify differential expression levels. The Human microRNA Disease Database was used to identify bladder cancer-associated miRNAs and Target prediction programs were used to screen for miRNA target genes...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925919/oncoprotein-hbxip-induces-pkm2-via-transcription-factor-e2f1-to-promote-cell-proliferation-in-er-positive-breast-cancer
#3
Bo-Wen Liu, Tian-Jiao Wang, Lei-Lei Li, Lu Zhang, Yun-Xia Liu, Jin-Yan Feng, Yue Wu, Fei-Fei Xu, Quan-Sheng Zhang, Ming-Zhu Bao, Wei-Ying Zhang, Li-Hong Ye
We have reported that hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP, also termed LAMTOR5) can act as an oncogenic transcriptional co-activator to modulate gene expression, promoting breast cancer development. Pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2 (PKM2), encoded by PKM gene, has emerged as a key oncoprotein in breast cancer. Yet, the regulatory mechanism of PKM2 is still unexplored. Here, we report that HBXIP can upregulate PKM2 to accelerate proliferation of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry analysis using breast cancer tissue microarray uncovered a positive association between the expression of HBXIP and PKM2...
June 20, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924302/role-of-proteoglycans-and-glycosaminoglycans-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#4
Laurino Carmen, Vadala Maria, Julio Cesar Morales-Medina, Annamaria Vallelunga, Beniamino Palmieri, Tommaso Iannitti
Duchenne Muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited fatal X-linked myogenic disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 3500 male live births. It affects voluntary muscles, and heart and breathing muscles. DMD is characterised by continuous degeneration and regeneration cycles resulting in extensive fibrosis and a progressive reduction in muscle mass. Since the identification of a reduction in dystrophin protein as the cause of this disorder, numerous innovative and experimental therapies, focusing on increasing the levels of dystrophin, have been proposed, but the clinical improvement has been unsatisfactory...
June 19, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922168/co-expression-analysis-of-sirtuins-and-related-metabolic-biomarkers-in-juveniles-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-with-differences-in-growth-performance
#5
Paula Simó-Mirabet, Erick Perera, Josep A Calduch-Giner, Juan M Afonso, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Sirtuins (SIRTs) represent a conserved protein family of deacetylases that act as master regulators of metabolism, but little is known about their roles in fish and livestock animals in general. The present study aimed to assess the value of SIRTs for the metabolic phenotyping of fish by assessing their co-expression with a wide-representation of markers of energy and lipid metabolism and intestinal function and health in two genetically different gilthead sea bream strains with differences in growth performance...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922164/development-of-a-porcine-full-thickness-burn-hypertrophic-scar-model-and-investigation-of-the-effects-of-shikonin-on-hypertrophic-scar-remediation
#6
Xingwang Deng, Qian Chen, Lijuan Qiang, Mingwei Chi, Nan Xie, Yinsheng Wu, Ming Yao, Dan Zhao, Jiaxiang Ma, Ning Zhang, Yan Xie
Hypertrophic scars formed after burns remain a challenge in clinical practice. Development of effective scar therapies relies on validated animal models that mimic human hypertrophic scars. A consistent porcine full-thickness burn hypertrophic scar model has yet to be developed. We have previously reported that Shikonin induces apoptosis and reduces collagen production in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts in vitro and may therefore hold potential as a novel scar remediation therapy. In this study, we aimed to validate the potential of Shikonin on scar remediation in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921611/smggds-prevents-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm-formation-and-rupture-by-phenotypic-preservation-of-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells
#7
Masamichi Nogi, Kimio Satoh, Shinichiro Sunamura, Nobuhiro Kikuchi, Taijyu Satoh, Ryo Kurosawa, Junichi Omura, Md Elias Al-Mamun, Mohammad Abdul Hai Siddique, Kazuhiko Numano, Shun Kudo, Satoshi Miyata, Masatoshi Akiyama, Kiichiro Kumagai, Shunsuke Kawamoto, Yoshikatsu Saiki, Hiroaki Shimokawa
Background -Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) and dissection (TAD) are fatal diseases, which cause aortic rupture and sudden death. The small GTP-binding protein GDP dissociation stimulator (SmgGDS) is a crucial mediator of the pleiotropic effects of statins. Previous studies revealed that reduced force generation in AoSMCs causes TAA and TAD. Methods -To examine the role of SmgGDS in TAA formation, we employed an angiotensin II (AngII, 1,000 ng/min/kg, 4 weeks)-induced TAA model. Results -33% Apoe-/- SmgGDS+/- mice died suddenly due to TAA rupture, whereas there was no TAA rupture in Apoe-/- control mice...
June 19, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920270/collagen-vii-deficient-mice-show-morphologic-and-histologic-corneal-changes-that-phenotypically-mimic-human-dystrophic-epidermolysis-bullosa-of-the-eye
#8
Vicki M Chen, Rajani Shelke, Alexander Nyström, Nora Laver, James F Sampson, Cao Zhiyi, Najma Bhat, Noorjahan Panjwani
BACKGROUND: Absence of collagen VII causes blistering of the skin, eyes and many other tissues. This disease is termed dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB). Corneal fibrosis occurs in up to 41% and vision loss in up to 64% of patients. Standard treatments are supportive and there is no cure. The immune-histologic and morphologic changes in the corneas of the mouse model for this disease have not been described in the literature. Our purpose is to characterize the eyes of these mice to determine if this is an appropriate model for study of human therapeutics...
June 16, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917108/hepatocyte-growth-factor-acts-as-a-mitogen-for-equine-satellite-cells-via-protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE-directed-signaling
#9
Amanda M Brandt, Joanna M Kania, Madison L Gonzalez, Sally E Johnson
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signals mediate mouse skeletal muscle stem cell, or satellite cell (SC), reentry into the cell cycle and myoblast proliferation. Because the athletic horse experiences exercise-induced muscle damage, the objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of HGF on equine SC (eqSC) bioactivity. Fresh isolates of adult eqSC were incubated with increasing concentrations of HGF and the initial time to DNA synthesis was measured. Media supplementation with HGF did not shorten (P > 0...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915361/amp-kinase-promotes-glioblastoma-bioenergetics-and-tumour-growth
#10
Rishi Raj Chhipa, Qiang Fan, Jane Anderson, Ranjithmenon Muraleedharan, Yan Huang, Georgianne Ciraolo, Xiaoting Chen, Ronald Waclaw, Lionel M Chow, Zaza Khuchua, Matthew Kofron, Matthew T Weirauch, Ady Kendler, Christopher McPherson, Nancy Ratner, Ichiro Nakano, Nupur Dasgupta, Kakajan Komurov, Biplab Dasgupta
Stress is integral to tumour evolution, and cancer cell survival depends on stress management. We found that cancer-associated stress chronically activates the bioenergetic sensor AMP kinase (AMPK) and, to survive, tumour cells hijack an AMPK-regulated stress response pathway conserved in normal cells. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data revealed that AMPK isoforms are highly expressed in the lethal human cancer glioblastoma (GBM). We show that AMPK inhibition reduces viability of patient-derived GBM stem cells (GSCs) and tumours...
June 18, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913557/effective-control-of-neuropathic-pain-by-transient-expression-of-hepatocyte-growth-factor-in-a-mouse-chronic-constriction-injury-model
#11
Boram Nho, Junghun Lee, Junsub Lee, Kyeong Ryang Ko, Sung Joong Lee, Sunyoung Kim
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multifunctional protein that contains angiogenic and neurotrophic properties. In the current study, we investigated the analgesic effects of HGF by using a plasmid DNA that was designed to express 2 isoforms of human HGF-pCK-HGF-X7 (or VM202)-in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) -induced mouse neuropathic pain model. Intramuscular injection of pCK-HGF-X7 into proximal thigh muscle induced the expression of HGF in the muscle, sciatic nerve, and dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
April 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912715/ectomesenchymal-chondromyxoid-tumor-a-neoplasm-characterized-by-recurrent-rreb1-mkl2-fusions
#12
Brendan C Dickson, Cristina R Antonescu, Prokopios P Argyris, Elizabeth A Bilodeau, Martin J Bullock, Paul D Freedman, Douglas R Gnepp, Richard C Jordan, Ioannis G Koutlas, Cheng-Han Lee, Iona Leong, Mihai Merzianu, Bibianna M Purgina, Lester D R Thompson, Bret Wehrli, John M Wright, David Swanson, Lei Zhang, Justin A Bishop
Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor is a rare and benign neoplasm with a predilection for the anterior dorsal tongue. Despite morphologic heterogeneity, most cases are characterized by a proliferation of bland spindle cells with a distinctive reticular growth pattern and myxoid stroma. The immunophenotype of these neoplasms is likewise variable; most cases express glial fibrillary acid protein and S100 protein, with inconsistent reports of keratin and myoid marker expression. The molecular pathogenesis is poorly understood; however, a subset of cases has been reported to harbor EWSR1 gene rearrangement...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909308/the-multilevel-antibiotic-induced-perturbations-to-biological-systems-early-life-exposure-induces-long-lasting-damages-to-muscle-structure-and-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-flies
#13
David Renault, Hesham Yousef, Amr A Mohamed
Antibiotics have been increasingly used over the past decades for human medicine, food-animal agriculture, aquaculture, and plant production. A significant part of the active molecules of antibiotics can be released into the environment, in turn affecting ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical processes. At lower organizational scales, these substances affect bacterial symbionts of insects, with negative consequences on growth and development of juveniles, and population dynamics. Yet, the multiple alterations of cellular physiology and metabolic processes have remained insufficiently explored in insects...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904053/naoxintong-capsules-inhibit-the-development-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-db-db-mice
#14
Shu Yang, Mengyang Liu, Yuanli Chen, Chuanrui Ma, Lipei Liu, Buchang Zhao, Yong Wang, Xiaoju Li, Yan Zhu, Xiumei Gao, Deling Kong, Yajun Duan, Jihong Han, Xiaoxiao Yang
NaoXinTong Capsule (NXT), a Chinese medicine, is currently used to treat patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Clinical observations indicate its anti-diabetic functions with unclear mechanisms. Herein, we report the effect of NXT on diabetic nephropathy (DN). Type 2 diabetic db/db mice were treated with NXT for 14 weeks. In the course of treatment, NXT reduced diabetes-increased glucose levels and improved renal functions. At the end of treatment, we found that NXT ameliorated serum lipid profiles and other biochemical parameters...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901851/%C3%AE-cedrene-a-newly-identified-ligand-of-mor23-increases-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-strength
#15
Tao Tong, Minji Kim, Taesun Park
SCOPE: Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. In this study, we tested the effects of α-cedrene, a natural ligand of mouse olfactory receptor 23 (MOR23) whose ectopic function regulating myogenesis was reported recently, on skeletal muscle growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: α-Cedrene, not only stimulated hypertrophy but also attenuated free fatty acid-induced atrophy of cultured skeletal myotubes, as evidenced by an increased myotube diameter, fusion index, and total cellular protein content...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901190/curcumin-suppresses-cardiac-fibroblasts-activities-by-regulating-the-proliferation-and-cell-cycle-via-the-inhibition-of-the-p38-mapk-erk-signaling-pathway
#16
Guanhua Fang, Shaoqin Chen, Qiuyu Huang, Liangwan Chen, Dongshan Liao
Cardiac fibrosis is a deleterious effect of many cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have shown that curcumin has exhibited protective effects on cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of curcumin on the activity of human cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved. Human CFs were incubated with or without curcumin (20 µmol/l) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF‑β1; 10 ng/ml), and the expression of α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA), collagen type Iα (COLA)‑1 and COLA3 was evaluated using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901135/cell%C3%A2-specific-histone-modifications-in-atherosclerosis-review
#17
Wanlin Jiang, Devendra K Agrawal, Chandra S Boosani
Histone modifications are the key epigenetic mechanisms that have been identified to regulate gene expression in many human diseases. However, in the early developmental stages, such as in utero and the postnatal stages, histone modifications are essential for gene regulation and cell growth. Atherosclerosis represents a classical example of the involvement of different cell types, and their cumulative effects in the development of atheroma and the progression of the disease. Post translational modifications on proteins either induces their functional activity or renders them inactive...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901113/hras-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-of-salirasib-ras-inhibitor-in-bladder-cancer
#18
Satoshi Sugita, Hideki Enokida, Hirofumi Yoshino, Kazutaka Miyamoto, Masaya Yonemori, Takashi Sakaguchi, Yoichi Osako, Masayuki Nakagawa
The active form of the small GTPase RAS binds to downstream effectors to promote cell growth and proliferation. RAS signal enhancement contributes to tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis in various different cancers. HRAS proto-oncogene GTPase (HRAS), one of the RAS isoforms, was the first human oncogene for which mutations were reported in T24 bladder cancer (BC) cells in 1982, and HRAS mutation or upregulation has been reported in several cancers. According to data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, HRAS expression was significantly upregulated in clinical BC samples compared to healthy samples (P=0...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899023/nedd9-targets-col3a1-to-promote-endothelial-fibrosis-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#19
Andriy O Samokhin, Thomas Stephens, Bradley M Wertheim, Rui-Sheng Wang, Sara O Vargas, Lai-Ming Yung, Minwei Cao, Marcel Brown, Elena Arons, Paul B Dieffenbach, Jason G Fewell, Majed Matar, Frederick P Bowman, Kathleen J Haley, George A Alba, Stefano M Marino, Rahul Kumar, Ivan O Rosas, Aaron B Waxman, William M Oldham, Dinesh Khanna, Brian B Graham, Sachiko Seo, Vadim N Gladyshev, Paul B Yu, Laura E Fredenburgh, Joseph Loscalzo, Jane A Leopold, Bradley A Maron
Germline mutations involving small mothers against decapentaplegic-transforming growth factor-β (SMAD-TGF-β) signaling are an important but rare cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which is a disease characterized, in part, by vascular fibrosis and hyperaldosteronism (ALDO). We developed and analyzed a fibrosis protein-protein network (fibrosome) in silico, which predicted that the SMAD3 target neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 9 (NEDD9) is a critical ALDO-regulated node underpinning pathogenic vascular fibrosis...
June 13, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897818/androgens-induce-growth-of-the-limb-skeletal-muscles-in-a-rapamycin-insensitive-manner
#20
Michael L Rossetti, David H Fukuda, Bradley S Gordon
Signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has been well-defined as an androgen-sensitive transducer mediating skeletal muscle growth in vitro, however, this has yet to be tested in vivo. As such, male mice were subjected to either sham or castration surgery and allowed to recover for 7 weeks to induce atrophy of skeletal muscle. Then, castrated mice were implanted with either a control pellet or pellet that administered rapamycin (~2.5 mg/kg/day). Seven days post implant, a subset of castrated mice with control pellets and all castrated mice with rapamycin pellets were given once weekly injections of nandrolone decanoate (ND) to induce muscle growth over a 6-week period...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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