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Muscle growth protein

I Kafantaris, B Kotsampasi, V Christodoulou, E Kokka, P Kouka, Z Terzopoulou, K Gerasopoulos, D Stagos, C Mitsagga, I Giavasis, S Makri, K Petrotos, D Kouretas
Grape pomace is a by-product of winemaking process and rich in bioactive compounds such as plant polyphenols having antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. As known, oxidative stress may cause a number of pathological conditions in farm animals and thus affecting animal welfare and production. Moreover, pathogenic bacteria affect animals' health status. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether lambs' feed supplemented with grape pomace enhances the antioxidant mechanisms and reduces the growth of pathogenic bacteria...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
The principle of progressive overload must be adhered to for individuals to continually increase muscle size with resistance training. While the majority of trained individuals adhere to this principle by increasing the number of sets performed per exercise session, this does not appear to be an effective method for increasing muscle size once a given threshold is surpassed. Opposite the numerous studies examining differences in training loads and sets of exercise performed, a few studies have assessed the importance of training frequency with respect to muscle growth, none of which have tested very high frequencies of training (e...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
Estelle R Simo-Cheyou, George Vardatsikos, Ashok K Srivastava
We have previously demonstrated that the non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (NR-PTK) c-Src is an upstream regulator of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II-induced activation of protein kinase B (PKB) signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We have also demonstrated that ET-1 potently induces the expression of the early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1), a zinc finger transcription factor that is overexpressed in models of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. However, the involvement of c-Src in ET-1‑induced Egr-1 expression has not yet been investigated and its role in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling remains controversial...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Xie Ge, Si-Yu Chen, Mei Liu, Ting-Ming Liang, Chang Liu
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a key event in the development of in‑stent restenosis. Evodiamine is an indole alkaloid extracted from the Chinese medicine, evodia, and has been shown to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and protect the cardiovascular system. However, whether evodiamine affects VSMC proliferation remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study examined the effects and the mechanisms of action of evodiamine on the proliferation of rat VSMCs. The cells were treated with evodiamine alone or in combination with platelet‑derived growth factor‑BB (PDGF‑BB) stimulation...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Markus Niemelä, Päivikki Kangastupa, Onni Niemelä, Risto Bloigu, Tatu Juvonen
BACKGROUND: Strenuous physical activity activates the participant's immune responses; however, few studies exist, observing exercise-induced simultaneous changes in mediators of inflammation. METHODS: We examined individual responses in soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a marker of immune activation, soluble endocytic receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes (CD163), a marker of monocyte-macrophage activation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from blood samples drawn at baseline, at 3- and 48-h post-races from recreational runners who successfully completed the marathon (199 ± 8 min, n = 4) or half-marathon (132 ± 4 min, n = 4) run...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Bipradas Roy, Mary E Curtis, Letimicia S Fears, Samuel N Nahashon, Hugh M Fentress
Obesity and osteoporosis are two alarming health disorders prominent among middle and old age populations, and the numbers of those affected by these two disorders are increasing. It is estimated that more than 600 million adults are obese and over 200 million people have osteoporosis worldwide. Interestingly, both of these abnormalities share some common features including a genetic predisposition, and a common origin: bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Obesity is characterized by the expression of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), growth hormone (GH), parathyroid hormone (PTH), angiotensin II (Ang II), 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT), Advance glycation end products (AGE), and myostatin, which exert their effects by modulating the signaling pathways within bone and muscle...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Nadia Soudani, Crystal M Ghantous, Zein Farhat, Wassim N Shebaby, Kazem Zibara, Asad Zeidan
Background and Aims: Hypertension and obesity are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease. They are both associated with high leptin levels and have been shown to promote vascular hypertrophy, through the RhoA/ROCK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Calcineurin/NFAT activation also induces vascular hypertrophy by upregulating various genes. This study aimed to decipher whether a crosstalk exists between the RhoA/ROCK pathway, Ca(2+)/calcineurin/NFAT pathway, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the process of mechanical stretch-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy and leptin synthesis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Yuan Ma, Jia-Xiang Zhang, Ya-Nan Liu, Ai Ge, Hao Gu, Wang-Jian Zha, Xiao-Ning Zeng, Mao Huang
In the pathophysiology of asthma, structural cell dysfunction and concomitant microenvironment changes in airways are crucial to pathological progression, which involves oxidative stress. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active anti-oxidative component obtained from propolis, and has been shown to have beneficial effects on several respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, the impact of CAPE on asthma is not well understood. Therefore, this study investigated the advantages of using CAPE to treat asthma and demonstrated the roles of CAPE in the regulation of airway microenvironments...
October 13, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
María S Brea, Romina G Díaz, Daiana S Escudero, Claudia I Caldiz, Enrique L Portiansky, Patricio E Morgan, Néstor G Pérez
BACKGROUND: Myocardial stretch increases force biphasically: the Frank-Starling mechanism followed by the slow force response (SFR). Based on pharmacological strategies, we proposed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR or ErbB1) activation is crucial for SFR development. Pharmacological inhibitors could block ErbB4, a member of the ErbB family present in the adult heart. We aimed to specifically test the role of EGFR activation after stretch, with an interference RNA incorporated into a lentiviral vector (small hairpin RNA [shRNA]-EGFR)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
H L M Tucker, K L Beaudry, C L M Parsons, S E Ellis, R M Akers
Prepubertal mammary development involves elongation and branching of ducts and stromal tissue remodeling. This process is closely linked with ovarian and pituitary hormones, growth factors, and local regulators. Accumulating evidence suggests that the myoepithelial cells also play a role in ductal development in addition to their well-recognized importance in the milk ejection reflex. Following reports that myoepithelial cells changed in correspondence with decreased mammary growth after ovariectomy of prepubertal heifers, we evaluated myoepithelial cells in mammary tissue collected from prepubertal heifers treated with the antiestrogen tamoxifen...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Matteo Ciocci, Egidio Iorio, Felicia Carotenuto, Haneen A Khashoggi, Francesca Nanni, Sonia Melino
The improvement of solubility and/or dissolution rate of poorly soluble natural compounds is an ideal strategy to make them optimal candidates as new potential drugs. Accordingly, the allyl sulfur compounds and omega-3 fatty acids are natural hydrophobic compounds that exhibit two important combined properties: cardiovascular protection and antitumor activity. Here, we have synthesized and characterized a novel formulation of diallyl disulfide (DADS) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) as protein-nanoemulsions (BAD-NEs), using ultrasounds...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Javad Garousi, Sarah Lindbo, Hadis Honarvar, Justin Velletta, Bogdan Mitran, Mohamed Altai, Anna Orlova, Vladimir Tolmachev, Sophia Hober
Radionuclide imaging-based stratification of patients to targeted therapies makes cancer treatment more personalized and therefore more efficient. ADAPTs (ABD Derived Affinity ProTeins) constitute a novel group of imaging probes based on the scaffold of an albumin-binding domain (ABD). To evaluate how different compositions of the N-terminal sequence of ADAPTs influence their biodistribution, a series of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-binding ADAPT6 derivatives with different N-terminal sequences were created: GCH6DANS (2), GC(HE)3DANS (3), GCDEAVDANS (4) and GCVDANS(5) and compared with the parental variant: GCSS(HE)3DEAVDANS (1)...
October 14, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Xiaocui Chen, Jing Li, Zuowang Cheng, Yinghua Xu, Xia Wang, Xiaorui Li, Dongmei Xu, Carolyn M Kapron, Ju Liu
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and environmental pollutant. The kidney is the principal target organ of Cd exposure. Previously, we found that low concentration of Cd damages the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. However, little is known about the effects of Cd on renal mesangial cells, which provide structural support for the glomerular capillary loops and regulate intraglomerular blood flow. In this study, human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs) were cultured in the presence of serum and treated with 4 μM Cd...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio Paoli
BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
María José Acuña, Enrique Brandan
CCN2 or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a matricellular protein that regulates several cellular processes. In skeletal muscle, CTGF is a key modulator of fibrogenesis, is increased in pathological conditions such as muscular dystrophies, and plays a major role in the pathology outcome. Overexpression of CTGF in skeletal muscle of wild-type mice results in muscle damage, fibrosis, and reduction of strength. In contrast, a decrease in CTGF in dystrophic mice increases strength and reduces damage and fibrosis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Annalisa Bonifacio, Gerda M Sanvee, Karin Brecht, Denise V Kratschmar, Alex Odermatt, Jamal Bouitbir, Stephan Krähenbühl
Statins are generally well tolerated, but treatment with these drugs may be associated with myopathy. The mechanisms of statin-associated myopathy are not completely understood. Statins inhibit AKT phosphorylation by an unclear mechanism, whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) activates the IGF-1/AKT signaling pathway and promotes muscle growth. The aims of the study were to investigate mechanisms of impaired AKT phosphorylation by simvastatin and to assess effects of IGF-1 on simvastatin-induced myotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Svitlana Pasteuning-Vuhman, Johanna Boertje-van der Meulen, Maaike van Putten, Maurice Overzier, Peter Ten Dijke, Szymon M Kiełbasa, Wibowo Arindrarto, Ron Wolterbeek, Ksenia V Lezhnina, Ivan V Ozerov, Aleksandr M Aliper, Willem M Hoogaars, Annemieke Aartsma-Rus, Cindy J M Loomans
Skeletal muscle fibrosis and impaired muscle regeneration are major contributors to muscle wasting in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Muscle growth is negatively regulated by myostatin (MSTN) and activins. Blockage of these pathways may improve muscle quality and function in DMD. Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) were designed specifically to block the function of ALK4, a key receptor for the MSTN/activin pathway in skeletal muscle. AON-induced exon skipping resulted in specific Alk4 down-regulation, inhibition of MSTN activity, and increased myoblast differentiation in vitro Unexpectedly, a marked decrease in muscle mass (10%) was found after Alk4 AON treatment in mdx mice...
October 12, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Chongxiang Xiong, Monica V Masucci, Xiaoxu Zhou, Na Liu, Xiujuan Zang, Evelyn Tolbert, Ting C Zhao, Shougang Zhuang
Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein inhibitors have been shown to effectively inhibit tumorgenesis and ameliorate pulmonary fibrosis by targeting bromodomain proteins that bind acetylated chromatin markers. However, their pharmacological effects in renal fibrosis remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of I-BET151, a selective and potent BET inhibitor, on renal fibroblast activation and renal fibrosis. In cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts, exposure of cells to I-BET151, or silencing of bromodoma in-containing protein 4 (Brd4), a key BET protein isoform, significantly reduced their activation as indicated by decreased expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen 1 and fibronectin...
October 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Yeji Kim, Julie C Liu
Peripheral artery disease often requires treatments with vascular grafts for vessel reconstruction. Endothelialization of the vascular grafts is important to achieve long-term patency because endothelial cells regulate thrombosis, inflammation, and growth of smooth muscle cells. One potential source of endothelial cells is human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), which can be routinely differentiated towards the endothelial lineage using exogenous growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
October 12, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Islam Osman, Ninu Poulose, Vadivel Ganapathy, Lakshman Segar
Insulin resistance is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Although high fructose is known to induce insulin resistance, it remains unclear as to how fructose regulates insulin receptor signaling and proliferative phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which play a major role in atherosclerosis. Using human aortic VSMCs, we investigated the effects of high fructose treatment on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation, insulin versus platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phosphorylation of Akt, S6 ribosomal protein, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cell cycle proteins...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
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