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Muscle protein intake

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807333/update-on-maximal-anabolic-response-to-dietary-protein
#1
REVIEW
Il-Young Kim, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Robert R Wolfe
The anabolic response to dietary protein can be defined as the difference between protein synthesis and breakdown, or the net protein balance, in response to ingestion of protein alone or a mixed meal containing protein. Others have concluded that a maximal anabolic response can be achieved with ingestion of 20-35 g of a high quality protein, leading to the formulation of a popular concept that the maximal anabolic response can be achieved by distributing the total protein intake evenly throughout the day, rather than eating a majority of dietary protein with dinner...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800153/increased-autolysis-of-%C3%AE-calpain-in-skeletal-muscles-of-chronic-alcohol-fed-rats
#2
Yulia V Gritsyna, Nikolay N Salmov, Alexander G Bobylev, Anna D Ulanova, Nikolay I Kukushkin, Zoya A Podlubnaya, Ivan M Vikhlyantsev
BACKGROUND: Proteolysis can proceed via several distinct pathways such as the lysosomal, calcium-dependent, and ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome-dependent pathways. Calpains are the main proteases that cleave a large variety of proteins, including the giant sarcomeric proteins titin and nebulin. Chronic ethanol feeding for 6 weeks did not affect the activities of μ-calpain and m-calpain in the m. gastrocnemius. In our research, changes in μ-calpain activity were studied in the m. gastrocnemius and m...
August 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796827/impact-of-ghrelin-on-body-composition-and-muscle-function-in-a-long-term-rodent-model-of-critical-illness
#3
Neil E Hill, Kevin G Murphy, Saima Saeed, Rahul Phadke, Darren Chambers, Duncan R Wilson, Stephen J Brett, Mervyn Singer
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple injuries or sepsis requiring intensive care treatment invariably develop a catabolic state with resultant loss of lean body mass, for which there are currently no effective treatments. Recovery can take months and mortality is high. We hypothesise that treatment with the orexigenic and anti-inflammatory gastric hormone, ghrelin may attenuate the loss of body mass following critical illness and improve recovery. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal injection of the fungal cell wall derivative zymosan to induce a prolonged peritonitis and consequent critical illness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790922/exercise-preserves-lean-mass-and-performance-during-severe-energy-deficit-the-role-of-exercise-volume-and-dietary-protein-content
#4
Jose A L Calbet, Jesús G Ponce-González, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Alfredo Santana, David Morales-Alamo, Hans-Christer Holmberg
The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day). Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE), followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE) and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781773/the-relationship-between-dietary-methionine-and-growth-digestion-absorption-and-antioxidant-status-in-intestinal-and-hepatopancreatic-tissues-of-sub-adult-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#5
Pei Wu, Ling Tang, Weidan Jiang, Kai Hu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Shengyao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wuneng Tang, Yongan Zhang, Xiaoqiu Zhou, Lin Feng
BACKGROUND: Methionine is an essential amino acid for fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary methionine on growth performance, digestive and absorptive ability, as well as antioxidant capacity in the intestine and hepatopancreas of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). RESULTS: Dietary methionine deficiency significantly decreased percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio, as well as activities of hepatopancreatic glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and muscle glutamate-pyruvate transaminase in sub-adult grass carp (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777295/soymilk-improves-muscle-weakness-in-young-ovariectomized-female-mice
#6
Yuriko Kitajima, Shizuka Ogawa, Shintaro Egusa, Yusuke Ono
Estrogens play a key role in an extensive range of physiological functions in various types of tissues throughout the body in females. We previously showed that estrogen insufficiency caused muscle weakness that could be rescued by estrogen administration in a young female ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model. However, long-term estrogen replacement therapy increases risks of breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Soymilk contains plant-based protein and isoflavones that exert estrogen-like activity. Here we examined the effects of prolonged soymilk intake on muscle and its resident stem cells, called satellite cells, in the estrogen-insufficient model...
August 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771840/influence-of-l-carnitine-and-l-arginine-on-protein-synthesis-and-maturation-of-the-semitendinosus-muscle-of-lightweight-piglets
#7
J G Madsen, E Seoni, M Kreuzer, P Silacci, G Bee
Lightweight (LW) piglets from large litters display impaired growth performance compared with heavier littermates. This study investigated the growth performance and muscle development of early-weaned LW piglets (birthweight <1.2 kg) from large litters (17.3 ± 3.0 total born per litter), fed ad libitum a milk replacer supplemented with either l-carnitine (CAR) or l-arginine (ARG) from day 7 to day 28 of age. In total, 36 female and entire male Swiss Large White piglets, weaned on day 7 of age, were artificially reared in pairs in rescue decks...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768660/regulation-of-energy-metabolism-during-social-interactions-in-rainbow-trout-a-role-for-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#8
Kathleen M Gilmour, Paul M Craig, Rashpal S Dhillon, Gigi Y Lau, Jeffrey G Richards
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined in pairs form social hierarchies in which subordinate fish typically experience fasting and high circulating cortisol levels, resulting in low growth rates. The present study investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mediating metabolic adjustments associated with social status in rainbow trout. After 3 d of social interaction, liver AMPK activity in subordinate trout was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham (fish handled in the same fashion as paired fish but held individually) trout...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763700/effect-of-dietary-tartary-buckwheat-extract-supplementation-on-growth-performance-meat-quality-and-antioxidant-activity-in-ewe-lambs
#9
Junxing Zhao, Kan Li, Rui Su, Wenzhong Liu, Youshe Ren, Chunxiang Zhang, Min Du, Jianxing Zhang
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary Tartary buckwheat extract (TBE) supplementation on animal growth performance, meat quality and antioxidative activity in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of lambs. The results showed that dietary TBE increased body weight, average daily gain, carcass weight, dry matter intake, and digestive organ weight. Dietary TBE had no effect on the pH, color, shear force or intramuscular fat of Longissimus muscle examined, whereas the cooking loss was decreased...
July 25, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760111/differences-in-prevalence-of-muscle-wasting-in-patients-receiving-peritoneal-dialysis-per-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-due-to-variation-in-guideline-definitions-of-sarcopenia
#10
Rachel Hung, Bethany Wong, Gabrielle Goldet, Andrew Davenport
BACKGROUND: Muscle wasting is associated with increased risk for mortality. There is no agreed universal definition for muscle wasting (sarcopenia), and we wished to determine whether using different criteria altered the prevalence in patients treated by peritoneal dialysis. METHODS: We measured lean body and appendicular lean mass indices in 325 outpatients by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, comparing muscle mass with that used to define muscle wasting (sarcopenia) by various clinical guideline publications...
August 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758352/fast-digestive-leucine-rich-soluble-milk-proteins-improve-muscle-protein-anabolism-and-mitochondrial-function-in-undernourished-old-rats
#11
Jérôme Salles, Audrey Chanet, Alexandre Berry, Christophe Giraudet, Véronique Patrac, Carla Domingues-Faria, Christophe Rocher, Christelle Guillet, Philippe Denis, Corinne Pouyet, Cécile Bonhomme, Pascale Le Ruyet, Yves Rolland, Yves Boirie, Stéphane Walrand
SCOPE: One strategy to manage malnutrition in older patients is to increase protein and energy intake. Here we evaluate the influence of protein quality during refeeding on improvement in muscle protein and energy metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-month-old male rats (n = 40) were fed 50% of their spontaneous intake for 12 weeks to induce malnutrition, then refed ad libitum with a standard diet enriched with casein or soluble milk proteins (22%) for 4 weeks...
July 31, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757640/effects-of-peripheral-administration-of-a-neuromedin-u-receptor-2-selective-agonist-on-food-intake-and-body-weight-in-obese-mice
#12
T Kaisho, H Nagai, T Asakawa, N Suzuki, H Fujita, K Matsumiya, N Nishizawa, Y Kanematsu-Yamaki, K Dote, J-I Sakamoto, T Asami, S Takekawa
BACKGROUND: Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide with various physiological functions including regulation of smooth-muscle contraction, blood pressure, stress responses, and feeding behaviors. NMU activates two distinct receptors, NMUR1 and NMUR2, which are predominantly expressed in peripheral tissues and the central nervous system, respectively. It is reported that the NMU signaling system regulates food intake and body weight via NMUR2, suggesting that an NMUR2 agonist exhibiting anorectic effects would be a potential therapy for obesity...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755901/protein-energy-wasting-syndrome-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-prevalence-and-specific-clinical-characteristics
#13
Almudena Pérez-Torres, M Elena González Garcia, Belén San José-Valiente, M Auxiliadora Bajo Rubio, Olga Celadilla Diez, Ana M López-Sobaler, Rafael Selgas
INTRODUCTION: Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with increased mortality and differs depending on the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage and the dialysis technique. The prevalence in non-dialysis patients is understudied and ranges from 0 to 40.8%. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional status of a group of Spanish advanced CKD patients by PEW criteria and subjective global assessment (SGA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 186 patients (101 men) with a mean age of 66...
July 26, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740132/absence-of-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-4-timp4-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-due-to-defective-lipid-absorption
#14
Siva S V P Sakamuri, Russell Watts, Abhijit Takawale, Xiuhua Wang, Samuel Hernandez-Anzaldo, Wesam Bahitham, Carlos Fernandez-Patron, Richard Lehner, Zamaneh Kassiri
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (TIMPs) are inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that regulate tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. TIMP4 is highly expressed in adipose tissue, its levels are further elevated following high-fat diet, but its role in obesity is unknown. Eight-week old wild-type (WT) and Timp4-knockout (Timp4 (-/-)) mice received chow or high fat diet (HFD) for twelve weeks. Timp4 (-/-) mice exhibited a higher food intake but lower body fat gain. Adipose tissue of Timp4 (-/-) -HFD mice showed reduced hypertrophy and fibrosis compared to WT-HFD mice...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733716/osteosarcopenia-where-bone-muscle-and-fat-collide
#15
REVIEW
H P Hirschfeld, R Kinsella, G Duque
As the world's population ages, the prevalence of chronic diseases increases. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis are two conditions that are associated with aging, with similar risk factors that include genetics, endocrine function, and mechanical factors. Additionally, bone and muscle closely interact with each other not only anatomically, but also chemically and metabolically. Fat infiltration, a phenomenon observed in age-related bone and muscle loss, is highly prevalent and more severe in sarcopenic and osteoporotic subjects...
July 22, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731598/comparison-of-malnutrition-inflammation-score-anthropometry-and-biochemical-parameters-in-assessing-the-difference-in-protein-energy-wasting-between-normal-weight-and-obese-patients-undergoing-haemodialysis
#16
Elham Alipoor, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mitra Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mehdi Yaseri, Narges S Zahed
AIM: Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is prevalent in haemodialysis. Obesity is an independent risk factor of kidney insufficiency, but it is proposed to have beneficial roles in better outcomes in the final stage of disease. Better nutritional status and body reserves are among probable mechanisms, but direct examinations are limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether obese patients have preferable nutritional status compared to normal weight patients based on malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and other PEW parameters in haemodialysis...
July 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730707/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-novel-murine-model-of-pancreatic-cancer-cachexia
#17
Katherine A Michaelis, Xinxia Zhu, Kevin G Burfeind, Stephanie M Krasnow, Peter R Levasseur, Terry K Morgan, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a complex metabolic and behavioural syndrome lacking effective therapies. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most important conditions associated with cachexia, with >80% of PDAC patients suffering from the condition. To establish the cardinal features of a murine model of PDAC-associated cachexia, we characterized the effects of implanting a pancreatic tumour cell line from a syngeneic C57BL/6 KRAS(G12D) P53(R172H) Pdx-Cre(+/+) (KPC) mouse...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729214/milk-fat-globule-membrane-supplementation-with-voluntary-running-exercise-attenuates-age-related-motor-dysfunction-by-suppressing-neuromuscular-junction-abnormalities-in-mice
#18
Michiko Yano, Yoshihiko Minegishi, Satoshi Sugita, Noriyasu Ota
Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function attenuates physical performance, and maintaining fine muscle innervation is known to play an important role in its prevention. We had previously shown that consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) with habitual exercise improves the muscle mass and motor function in humans and mice. Improvement of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MFGM intake combined with voluntary running (MFGM-VR) on morphological changes of NMJ and motor function in aging mice...
July 18, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727087/effects-of-zilpaterol-hydrochloride-on-methane-production-total-body-oxygen-consumption-and-blood-metabolites-in-finishing-beef-steers
#19
K E Hales, A P Foote, D W Brake, T M Brown-Brandl, V M Artegoitia, H C Freetly
An indirect calorimetry experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d on total body oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, methane production, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers. Sixteen Angus steers (initial BW = 555 ± 12.7 kg) were individually fed at ad libitum intake and used in a completely randomized design. The model included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, day, and treatment × day. Dry matter intake did not differ between the treatments ( = 0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727070/short-term-heat-stress-causes-altered-intracellular-signaling-in-oxidative-skeletal-muscle
#20
S Ganesan, C M Summers, S C Pearce, N K Gabler, R J Valentine, L H Baumgard, R P Rhoads, J T Selsby
Heat stress (HS) causes morbidities and mortalities, in part by inducing organ-specific injury and dysfunction. Further, HS markedly reduces farm animal productivity, and this is especially true for lean tissue accretion. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which short-term HS caused muscle dysfunction in skeletal muscle. We have previously found increased free radical injury in skeletal muscle following 24 h of HS. Thus, we hypothesized that HS would lead to apoptosis, autophagy, and decreased mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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