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Muscle protein intake

Baubak Shamim, John A Hawley, Donny M Camera
Human skeletal muscle satellite cells are activated in response to both resistance and endurance exercise. It was initially proposed that satellite cell proliferation and differentiation were only required to support resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy. However, satellite cells may also play a role in muscle fibre remodelling after endurance-based exercise and extracellular matrix regulation. Given the importance of dietary protein, particularly branched chain amino acids, in supporting myofibrillar and mitochondrial adaptations to both resistance and endurance-based training, a greater understanding of how protein intake impacts satellite cell activity would provide further insight into the mechanisms governing skeletal muscle remodelling with exercise...
March 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
Carole Mast, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Papet
The optimisation of nutritional support for the growing number of older individuals does not usually take into account medication. Paracetamol (acetaminophen; APAP) is the first intention treatment of chronic pain that is highly prevalent and persistent in the elderly. Detoxification of APAP occurs in the liver and utilises sulfate and glutathione (GSH), both of which are issued from cysteine (Cys), a conditionally indispensable amino acid. The detoxification-induced siphoning of Cys could reduce the availability of Cys for skeletal muscle...
March 20, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
Marta Lonnie, Emma Hooker, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Bernard M Corfe, Mark A Green, Anthony W Watson, Elizabeth A Williams, Emma J Stevenson, Simon Penson, Alexandra M Johnstone
With an ageing population, dietary approaches to promote health and independence later in life are needed. In part, this can be achieved by maintaining muscle mass and strength as people age. New evidence suggests that current dietary recommendations for protein intake may be insufficient to achieve this goal and that individuals might benefit by increasing their intake and frequency of consumption of high-quality protein. However, the environmental effects of increasing animal-protein production are a concern, and alternative, more sustainable protein sources should be considered...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
E J Stevenson, A W Watson, J M Brunstrom, B M Corfe, M A Green, A M Johnstone, E A Williams
'Ageing well' has been highlighted as an important research area by the World Health Organization. In the UK, healthy ageing has been identified as a priority research area by multiple Research Councils and is a key NHS priority. Sarcopaenia, the decline of muscle mass/strength and a key component of healthy ageing, can have a major impact on quality of life and is associated with premature mortality. Increasing protein intake at all stages of the life course may help to reduce the rate of muscle decline and the onset of associated health conditions...
March 2018: Nutrition Bulletin
Mathias T Vangsoe, Malte S Joergensen, Lars-Henrik L Heckmann, Mette Hansen
During prolonged resistance training, protein supplementation is known to promote morphological changes; however, no previous training studies have tested the effect of insect protein isolate in a human trial. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of insect protein as a dietary supplement to increase muscle hypertrophy and strength gains during prolonged resistance training in young men. Eighteen healthy young men performed resistance training four day/week for eight weeks. Subjects were block randomized into two groups consuming either an insect protein isolate or isocaloric carbohydrate supplementation within 1 h after training and pre-sleep on training days...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Roger Fielding, Linda Riede, James P Lugo, Aouatef Bellamine
Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness...
March 13, 2018: Nutrients
Caoileann H Murphy, Mahalakshmi Shankaran, Tyler A Churchward-Venne, Cameron J Mitchell, Nathan M Kolar, Louise M Burke, John A Hawley, Amira Kassis, Leonidas G Karagounis, Kelvin Li, Chelsea King, Marc Hellerstein, Stuart M Phillips
We determined how the pattern of protein intake and resistance training (RT) influenced longer-term (2-wk) integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) during energy restriction (ER). MyoPS and proteome kinetics were measured during 2-wk of ER alone and 2-wk of ER plus RT (ER + RT) in overweight/obese older men. Participants were randomized to consume dietary protein in a balanced (BAL: 25% daily protein/meal x 4 meals) or skewed (SKEW: 7:17:72:4% daily protein/meal) pattern (n = 10/group). Participants ingested D2 O during the consecutive 2-wk periods, and skeletal muscle biopsies and serum were obtained at the beginning and conclusion of ER and ER + RT...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Shalender Bhasin, Caroline M Apovian, Thomas G Travison, Karol Pencina, Lynn L Moore, Grace Huang, Wayne W Campbell, Zhuoying Li, Andrew S Howland, Ruo Chen, Philip E Knapp, Martha R Singer, Mitali Shah, Kristina Secinaro, Richard V Eder, Kathleen Hally, Haley Schram, Richelle Bearup, Yusnie M Beleva, Ashley C McCarthy, Erin Woodbury, Jennifer McKinnon, Geeta Fleck, Thomas W Storer, Shehzad Basaria
Importance: The Institute of Medicine set the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein at 0.8 g/kg/d for the entire adult population. It remains controversial whether protein intake greater than the RDA is needed to maintain protein anabolism in older adults. Objective: To investigate whether increasing protein intake to 1.3 g/kg/d in older adults with physical function limitations and usual protein intake within the RDA improves lean body mass (LBM), muscle performance, physical function, fatigue, and well-being and augments LBM response to a muscle anabolic drug...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Michaela C Devries, Christopher McGlory, Douglas R Bolster, Alison Kamil, Maike Rahn, Laura Harkness, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
Background: Older women may not be consuming enough protein to maintain muscle mass. Augmentation of protein intake with leucine may enhance the muscle protein synthetic response in older women to aid in maintaining muscle mass. Objective: We measured the acute (hourly) and integrated (daily) myofibrillar protein synthesis (myoPS) response to consumption of a high-quality mixed protein beverage compared with an isonitrogenous protein beverage with added leucine...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kenji Kuzuhara, Kanako Katai, Tatsuya Hojo, Yoshihiko Fujisawa, Misaka Kimura, Yasuyoshi Yanagida, Yosuke Yamada, Junta Iguchi
Well-controlled seasonal distribution of training intensity appears to be an important variable for endurance athletes' success as competitors and/or for avoidance of overtraining. The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships of training distribution, body composition, energy intake/expenditure, and rowing ergometer performance throughout the 2012-2013 season. In the present study of 15 collegiate male rowers, most of whom started rowing during their time at the university, we divided the 2012-2013 season (total 37 weeks) into 3 phases (off-season, December to mid-March, 16 weeks; pre-season, late March to April, 5 weeks; and in-season, May to August, 16 weeks) and analyzed the transition of 2000-m rowing ergometer time, training intensity/volume, body composition (body weight and body fat) and energy intake/expenditure in each phase...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Penghua Fang, Mei Yu, Wen Min, Shiyu Han, Mingyi Shi, Zhenwen Zhang, Ping Bo
AIMS: Although baicalin has been shown to increase glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle of mice, there is no literature available about the effect of baicalin on insulin sensitivity in adipocytes of diet-induced obese mice. METHODS: In the present study, diet-induced obese mice were given 50mg/kg baicalin intraperitoneally (i.p.) once a day for 21 days, and 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 100, 200, 400 μM baicalin for 3 h. Then insulin resistance indexes and insulin signal protein levels were examined to elucidate whether baicalin increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes of diet-induced obese mice...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Xiao Ya Zhang, Xiangfang Zeng, Xutong Liu, Hongmin Jia, Pingli He, Shiyan Qiao, Xiangbing Mao
The objective of this study was to investigate whether valine (Val) supplementation in a reduced protein (RP) diet regulates growth performance associated with the changes in plasma amino acids (AAs) profile, metabolism, endocrine and neural system in piglets. Piglets or piglets with a catheter in the precaval vein were randomly assigned to two treatments, including two RP diets with standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val: Lysine (Lys) ratio of 0.45 and 0.65, respectively. The results indicated that piglets in the higher Val:Lys ratio treatment had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P < 0...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Wolfgang Kemmler, Matthias Kohl, Ellen Freiberger, Cornel Sieber, Simon von Stengel
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic Obesity (SO) is characterized by low lean and high fat mass; i.e. from a functional aspect a disproportion between engine (muscle) and mass to be moved (fat). At present, most research focuses on the engine, but the close "cross talk" between age-associated adipose and skeletal muscle tissue inflammation calls for comprehensive interventions that affect both components alike. Protein and exercise are likely candidates, however with respect to the latter, the enthusiasm for intense and frequent exercise is rather low, especially in functionally limited older people...
March 9, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Christopher G Guglielmo
Migratory birds are physiologically specialized to accumulate massive fat stores (up to 50-60% of body mass), and to transport and oxidize fatty acids at very high rates to sustain flight for many hours or days. Target gene, protein and enzyme analyses and recent -omic studies of bird flight muscles confirm that high capacities for fatty acid uptake, cytosolic transport, and oxidation are consistent features that make fat-fueled migration possible. Augmented circulatory transport by lipoproteins is suggested by field data but has not been experimentally verified...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Olivier Bouillanne, Jean-Claude Melchior, Cécile Faure, Muriel Paul, Florence Canouï-Poitrine, Yves Boirie, Didier Chevenne, Christine Forasassi, Ester Guery, Stéphane Herbaud, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Nathalie Neveux, Valérie Nivet-Antoine, Alain Astier, Agathe Raynaud-Simon, Stéphane Walrand, Luc Cynober, Christian Aussel
BACKGROUND: Citrulline (CIT), is not extracted by the splanchnic area, can stimulate muscle protein synthesis and could potentially find clinical applications in conditions involving low amino acid (AA) intake, such as in malnourished older subjects. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to research the effects of CIT supplementation on protein metabolism in particular on non-oxidative leucine disposal (NOLD, primary endpoint), and splanchnic extraction of amino acids in malnourished older patients...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Denbela Hidosa, Adugna Tolera, Ajebu Nurfeta
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of lablab and pigeon pea leaf supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, weight gain, and carcass characteristics of goats fed a basal diet of haricot bean haulms. Thirty-two yearling intact male goats with an average initial body weight of 14.4 ± 1.04 kg (Means ± SD) were assigned to one of the four treatments in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were 17.5% lablab + 17.5% pigeon pea leaf + 63% wheat bran (T1), 35% pigeon leaf + 63% wheat bran (T2), 35% lablab leaf + 63% wheat bran (T3), and 88% wheat bran + 10% noug seed cake (T4)...
March 2, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Alan Albert Aragon
Controversy exists about the maximum amount of protein that can be utilized for lean tissue-building purposes in a single meal for those involved in regimented resistance training. It has been proposed that muscle protein synthesis is maximized in young adults with an intake of ~ 20-25 g of a high-quality protein; anything above this amount is believed to be oxidized for energy or transaminated to form urea and other organic acids. However, these findings are specific to the provision of fast-digesting proteins without the addition of other macronutrients...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Richelle V Curtis, Julie J M Kim, John Doelman, John P Cant
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of branched-chain AA (BCAA) supplementation when glucose is infused postruminally into lactating dairy cows consuming a diet low in crude protein (CP) and to test the hypothesis that low BCAA concentrations are responsible for the poor stimulation of milk protein yield by glucose. Twelve early-lactation Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 15% and 12% CP diets in a switchback design of 6-wk periods. Cows consuming the 12% CP diet received 96-h continuous jugular infusions of saline and 1 kg/d of glucose with 0, 75, or 150 g/d of BCAA in a Latin square sequence of treatments...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Abdullah F Alghannam, Javier T Gonzalez, James A Betts
The importance of post-exercise recovery nutrition has been well described in recent years, leading to its incorporation as an integral part of training regimes in both athletes and active individuals. Muscle glycogen depletion during an initial prolonged exercise bout is a main factor in the onset of fatigue and so the replenishment of glycogen stores may be important for recovery of functional capacity. Nevertheless, nutritional considerations for optimal short-term (3-6 h) recovery remain incompletely elucidated, particularly surrounding the precise amount of specific types of nutrients required...
February 23, 2018: Nutrients
A Morales, M Chávez, N Vásquez, J K Htoo, L Buenabad, S Espinoza, M Cervantes
Heat stress (HS) pigs reduce their voluntary feed intake (VFI) and ingestion of indispensable amino acids (AA). Increasing the dietary CP content may help to correct the reduced AA intake by HS pigs, but it may further increase their body heat load. Increasing the AA intake by adding free AA to the diet does not affect the heat load of HS pigs. Two 21-d experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, 30 pigs (31.1 ± 1.2 kg initial BW) were used to determine the performance depression because of HS. Treatments were: thermo neutral pigs fed a 22% CP control diet (TN-C); HS pigs fed the control diet (HS-C); HS pigs fed a 14% CP, AA supplemented diet (HS-AA)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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