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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819350/understanding-sarcopenia-development-a-role-for-healthy-behaviors
#1
Justin P Hardee, James A Carson
For decades the biomedical community has documented the accelerated loss of muscle mass that occurs with advancing aging, termed sarcopenia. The timely review article ("Attenuation of Adverse Effects of Aging on Skeletal Muscle by Regular Exercise and Nutritional Support") by Arthur Leon presents our current state of knowledge on the biological processes responsible for age-induced loss of muscle mass and function. This loss of skeletal muscle has critical health implications as it can negatively affect morbidity and mortality...
January 2017: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814401/effects-of-protein-supplementation-combined-with-resistance-exercise-on-body-composition-and-physical-function-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Chun-De Liao, Jau-Yih Tsauo, Yen-Tzu Wu, Chin-Pao Cheng, Hui-Chuen Chen, Yi-Ching Huang, Hung-Chou Chen, Tsan-Hon Liou
Background: Overweight and obese older people face a high risk of muscle loss and impaired physical function, which may contribute to sarcopenic obesity. Resistance exercise training (RET) has a beneficial effect on muscle protein synthesis and can be augmented by protein supplementation (PS). However, whether body weight affects the augmentation of muscular and functional performance in response to PS in older people undergoing RET remains unclear.Objective: This study was conducted to identify the effects of PS on the body composition and physical function of older people undergoing RET...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813700/regenerative-medicine-approaches-for-age-related-muscle-loss-and-sarcopenia-a-mini-review
#3
Juan Diego Naranjo, Jenna L Dziki, Stephen F Badylak
Sarcopenia is a complex and multifactorial disease that includes a decrease in the number, structure and physiology of muscle fibers, and age-related muscle mass loss, and is associated with loss of strength, increased frailty, and increased risk for fractures and falls. Treatment options are suboptimal and consist of exercise and nutrition as the cornerstone of therapy. Current treatment principles involve identification and modification of risk factors to prevent the disease, but these efforts are of limited value to the elderly individuals currently affected by sarcopenia...
August 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802301/sleep-duration-s-association-with-diet-physical-activity-mental-status-and-weight-among-korean-high-school-students
#4
Jounghee Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sleep deprivation is a critical public health problem, especially in Korean adolescents. This study aimed to identify the association between sleep duration and dietary behaviors, physical activity, mental status, and nutritional status among high school students in South Korea. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Based on the data collected from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, 31,407 high school students who met the inclusion criteria were selected and the association between sleep duration and selected health risk factors was identified using multivariable logistic regression models...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760192/long-sleep-duration-is-associated-with-sarcopenia-in-korean-adults-based-on-data-from-the-2008-2011-knhanes
#5
Yu-Jin Kwon, Suk-Yong Jang, Eun-Cheol Park, A-Ra Cho, Jae-Yong Shim, John A Linton
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia, or loss of muscle mass, occurs with aging and results in frailty, disability, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Recently, researchers have asserted that sarcopenia is not an inevitable process, but is a modifiable condition. Adequate sleep duration is also important to maintain good physical and mental health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the association between sleep duration and sarcopenia in Korean adults. METHODS: Data from 16,148 participants (7,158 men and 8,990 women) were analyzed from the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759113/feasibility-and-preliminary-effects-of-resistance-training-and-nutritional-supplements-during-versus-after-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-a-pilot-randomized-trial
#6
Jon Arne Sandmael, Asta Bye, Tora Skeidsvoll Solheim, Guro Birgitte Stene, Lene Thorsen, Stein Kaasa, Jo-Åsmund Lund, Line Merethe Oldervoll
BACKGROUND: Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) experience involuntary weight loss that has a negative impact on physical function, morbidity, and survival. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of an exercise and nutrition intervention during radiotherapy (RT) compared with after RT, and to examine preliminary effects on skeletal muscle mass. METHODS: Patients with HNC were randomized to an exercise and nutrition intervention during RT (EN-DUR) or after RT (EN-AF)...
July 31, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751584/kynurenines-tryptophan-s-metabolites-in-exercise-inflammation-and-mental-health
#7
REVIEW
Igor Cervenka, Leandro Z Agudelo, Jorge L Ruas
Kynurenine metabolites are generated by tryptophan catabolism and regulate biological processes that include host-microbiome signaling, immune cell response, and neuronal excitability. Enzymes of the kynurenine pathway are expressed in different tissues and cell types throughout the body and are regulated by cues, including nutritional and inflammatory signals. As a consequence of this systemic metabolic integration, peripheral inflammation can contribute to accumulation of kynurenine in the brain, which has been associated with depression and schizophrenia...
July 28, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751550/novel-targeted-therapies-for-cancer-cachexia
#8
REVIEW
Josep M Argilés, Francisco Javier López-Soriano, Britta Stemmler, Sílvia Busquets
Anorexia and metabolic alterations are the main components of the cachectic syndrome. Glucose intolerance, fat depletion, muscle protein catabolism and other alterations are involved in the development of cancer cachexia, a multi-organ syndrome. Nutritional approach strategies are not satisfactory in reversing the cachectic syndrome. The aim of the present review is to deal with the recent therapeutic targeted approaches that have been designed to fight and counteract wasting in cancer patients. Indeed, some promising targeted therapeutic approaches include ghrelin agonists, selective androgen receptor agonists, β-blockers and antimyostatin peptides...
July 27, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750610/an-exploratory-study-on-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-a-bcaa-preparation-used-in-combination-with-cardiac-rehabilitation-for-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#9
Munenori Takata, Eisuke Amiya, Masafumi Watanabe, Yumiko Hosoya, Atsuko Nakayama, Takayuki Fujiwara, Masanobu Taya, Gaku Oguri, Kanako Hyodo, Naoko Takayama, Nami Takano, Tomoe Mashiko, Yukari Uemura, Issei Komuro
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is generally complicated with patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and its presence negatively affects the course of heart failure, however effective nutritional intervention had not been elucidated yet. The primary objective of this study is to explore whether the addition of a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) preparation for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) of patients with CHF further improves cardiopulmonary functions, skeletal muscle functions, and metabolism in comparison with conventional CR...
July 27, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739051/effectiveness-of-nutritional-and-exercise-interventions-to-improve-body-composition-and-muscle-strength-or-function-in-sarcopenic-obese-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Christos Theodorakopoulos, Jacklyn Jones, Elaine Bannerman, Carolyn A Greig
Although sarcopenic obesity (SO) poses a major public health concern, a robust approach for the optimization of body composition and strength/function in SO has not yet been established. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of nutritional (focusing on energy and protein modulation) and exercise interventions, either individually or combined, on body composition and strength/function in older adults with SO. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus were searched...
July 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737585/biomarkers-in-sports-and-exercise-tracking-health-performance-and-recovery-in-athletes
#11
Elaine C Lee, Maren S Fragala, Stavros A Kavouras, Robin M Queen, J Luke Pryor, Douglas J Casa
Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay-persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training. However, there are few recommendations for biomarker panels for tracking changes in individuals participating in physical activity and exercise training programs...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736511/effects-of-methylsulfonylmethane-msm-on-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-muscle-damage-and-pain-following-a-half-marathon-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
Eric D Withee, Kimberly M Tippens, Regina Dehen, Deanne Tibbitts, Douglas Hanes, Heather Zwickey
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and muscle damage occur during exhaustive bouts of exercise, and many runners report pain and soreness as major influences on changes or breaks in training regimens, creating a barrier to training persistence. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-based nutritional supplement that is purported to have pain and inflammation-reducing effects. To investigate the effects of MSM in attenuating damage associated with physical exertion, this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of MSM supplementation on exercise-induced pain, oxidative stress and muscle damage...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724854/improvement-of-pulmonary-function-after-comprehensive-obesity-rehabilitation-program-in-obese-patients
#13
Tamao Takahashi, Satoru Ebihara, Masahiro Kohzuki
Obesity is a major risk factor of cardiovascular, osteoarthritis, metabolic and pulmonary disorders, and exercise is an efficient method for treating obesity. However, obese patients often complain of dyspnea on exertion, which makes it difficult to continue exercise program. Obesity is also known to have an adverse effect on pulmonary function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive obesity rehabilitation (COR) program on pulmonary function in Japanese patients with morbid obesity...
July 2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#14
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719669/a-whey-protein-based-multi-ingredient-nutritional-supplement-stimulates-gains-in-lean-body-mass-and-strength-in-healthy-older-men-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Kirsten E Bell, Tim Snijders, Michael Zulyniak, Dinesh Kumbhare, Gianni Parise, Adrian Chabowski, Stuart M Phillips
Protein and other compounds can exert anabolic effects on skeletal muscle, particularly in conjunction with exercise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of twice daily consumption of a protein-based, multi-ingredient nutritional supplement to increase strength and lean mass independent of, and in combination with, exercise in healthy older men. Forty-nine healthy older men (age: 73 ± 1 years [mean ± SEM]; BMI: 28.5 ± 1.5 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to 20 weeks of twice daily consumption of either a nutritional supplement (SUPP; n = 25; 30 g whey protein, 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690550/targeting-inflammation-and-downstream-protein-metabolism-in-sarcopenia-a-brief-up-dated-description-of-concurrent-exercise-and-leucine-based-multimodal-intervention
#16
REVIEW
Zhi Xia, Jason Cholewa, Yan Zhao, Hua-Yu Shang, Yue-Qin Yang, Kassiana Araújo Pessôa, Quan-Sheng Su, Fernanda Lima-Soares, Nelo Eidy Zanchi
Sarcopenia is defined as the progressive loss of muscle mass with age, and poses a serious threat to the physiological and psychological health of the elderly population with consequential economic and social burdens. Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a central role in the development of sarcopenia such that it alters cellular protein metabolism to favor proteolysis over synthesis, and thereby accelerates muscular atrophy. The purpose of this review is to highlight how exercise and nutrition intervention strategies can attenuate or treat sarcopenia...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689564/sarcopenia
#17
REVIEW
Jean Woo
Sarcopenia refers to age-related muscle loss, defined using a combination of appendicular muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance measures. The pathogenesis depends on a balance between positive and negative regulators of muscle growth. Sarcopenia increases the risk for falls, fractures, dependency, use of hospital services, institutionalization, poor quality of life, and mortality. In clinical practice, brief screening tools, such as the 5-item SARC-F score, may be useful. Although pharmacologic treatments are actively being studied, the current mainstay consists of optimizing nutrition status, in particular protein and vitamin D status, and resistance exercises...
August 2017: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685860/exercise-mediated-modulation-of-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscle
#18
REVIEW
Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Jose A L Calbet
Although exercise exerts multiple beneficial health effects, it may also damage cellular structures. Damaged elements are continuously degraded and its constituents recycled to produce renovated structures through a process called autophagy, which is essential for the adaptation to training. Autophagy is particularly active in skeletal muscle, where it can be evaluated by using specific molecular markers of activation (unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) phosphorylation) and specific proteins indicating increased autophagosome content (increased total LC3, LC3-II, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio)...
July 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683706/sarcopenia-what-should-a-pharmacist-know
#19
Alfonso J Cruz-Jentoft
Sarcopenia (or muscle insufficiency) is a geriatric syndrome characterized by a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function which has adverse consequences, particularly physical disability, falls and death. It can develop slowly, as a chronic condition that emerges over many years, or acutely, generally due to immobilization associated with an acute disease. The physiopathology of sarcopenia is complex, and affects both the muscle and its neurological and hormonal regulation...
July 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669464/frailty-and-sarcopenia-newly-emerging-and-high-impact-complications-of-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Alan J Sinclair, Ahmed H Abdelhafiz, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas
Diabetes increases the risk of physical dysfunction and disability. Diabetes-related complications and coexisting morbidities partially explain the deterioration in physical function. The decline in muscle mass, strength and function associated with diabetes leads to sarcopenia, frailty and eventually disability. Frailty acts as a mediator in the pathogenesis of disability in older people with diabetes and its measurement in routine daily practice is recommended. Frailty is a dynamic process which progresses from a robust condition to a pre-frail stage then frailty and eventually disability...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
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