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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045254/nutritional-interventions-in-sarcopenia-where-do-we-stand
#1
Jean Woo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To document recent evidence regarding the role of nutrition as an intervention for sarcopenia. RECENT FINDINGS: A review of seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) alone on muscle loss in 147 adults showed greater muscle mass gain in the intervention group, but no benefit in muscle strength and physical performance measures. Three other review articles examined nutrition and exercise as combined intervention, and suggest enhancement of benefits of exercise by nutrition supplements (energy, protein, vitamin D)...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037265/does-skeletal-muscle-carnitine-availability-influence-fuel-selection-during-exercise
#2
Francis B Stephens
Fat and carbohydrate are the major fuel sources utilised for oxidative, mitochondrial ATP resynthesis during human skeletal muscle contraction. The relative contribution of these two substrates to ATP resynthesis and total energy expenditure during exercise can vary substantially, and is predominantly determined by fuel availability and exercise intensity and duration. For example, the increased ATP demand that occurs with an increase in exercise intensity is met by increases in both fat and carbohydrate oxidation up to an intensity of approximately 60-70 % of maximal oxygen consumption...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035319/nutritional-therapy-in-liver-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Ahmed Hammad, Toshimi Kaido, Vusal Aliyev, Claudia Mandato, Shinji Uemoto
Protein-energy malnourishment is commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. Malnutrition may further increase morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognized. The metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure render the conventional assessment of nutritional status to be challenging...
October 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031484/effects-of-leucine-enriched-essential-amino-acid-and-whey-protein-bolus-dosing-upon-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-at-rest-and-after-exercise-in-older-women
#4
Daniel J Wilkinson, Syed S I Bukhari, Bethan E Phillips, Marie C Limb, Jessica Cegielski, Matthew S Brook, Debbie Rankin, William K Mitchell, Hisamine Kobayashi, John P Williams, Jonathan Lund, Paul L Greenhaff, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Impaired anabolic responses to nutrition and exercise contribute to loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing (sarcopenia). Here, we tested responses of muscle protein synthesis (MPS), in the under represented group of older women, to leucine-enriched essential amino acids (EAA) in comparison to a large bolus of whey protein (WP). METHODS: Twenty-four older women (65 ± 1 y) received (N = 8/group) 1.5 g leucine-enriched EAA supplements (LEAA_1...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023081/frailty-predicts-adverse-outcomes-in-older-people-with-diabetes
#5
Joanna Ulley, Ahmed H Abdelhafiz
The greatest proportional increase in the number of people with diabetes by age group is predicted to occur in those aged 60 to 79. In older people living with diabetes, geriatric syndromes, which indicate frailty, are emerging as a third category of complications in addition to the traditional microvascular and macrovascular sequelae. Frailty is defined by the presence of three or more phenotypes (weight loss, weakness, decreased physical activity, exhaustion and slow gait speed). The presence of one or two phenotypes describes a pre-frail state, and the absence of phenotypes describes a non-frail person...
January 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977347/nutritional-supplementation-with-physical-activity-improves-muscle-composition-in-mobility-limited-older-adults-the-vive2-study-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Davis A Englund, Dylan R Kirn, Afsaneh Koochek, Hao Zhu, Thomas G Travison, Kieran F Reid, Åsa von Berens, Michael Melin, Tommy Cederholm, Thomas Gustafsson, Roger A Fielding
Background: Nutritional supplementation and physical activity have been shown to positively influence muscle mass and strength in older adults. The efficacy of long-term nutritional supplementation in combination with physical activity in older adults remains unclear. Methods: Mobility-limited (short physical performance battery [SPPB] ≤9) and vitamin D insufficient (serum 25(OH) D 9-24 ng/mL) older adults were recruited for this study. All subjects participated in a physical activity program...
July 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974267/efficacy-of-a-multi-component-exercise-programme-and-nutritional-supplementation-on-musculoskeletal-health-in-men-treated-with-androgen-deprivation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer-impact-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Patrick J Owen, Robin M Daly, Patricia M Livingston, Niamh L Mundell, Jack Dalla Via, Jeremy L Millar, Steve F Fraser
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in developed countries. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a systemic treatment shown to increase survival in selected patients with prostate cancer. The use of ADT continues to increase for all stages and grades of prostate cancer despite known treatment-induced adverse effects. The primary aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of a targeted, multi-component resistance and impact-loading exercise programme together with a daily protein-, calcium- and vitamin D-enriched supplement on bone health in men treated with ADT for prostate cancer...
October 3, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971475/maternal-exercise-modifies-body-composition-and-energy-substrates-handling-in-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-fed-male-offspring
#8
Charline Quiclet, Hervé Dubouchaud, Phanélie Berthon, Hervé Sanchez, Guillaume Vial, Farida Siti, Eric Fontaine, Cécile Batandier, Karine Couturier
Maternal exercise during gestation has been reported to modify offspring metabolism and health. Whether these effects are exacerbated when offspring is under high-fat diet remains rather unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of maternal exercise before and during gestation on the offspring fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF), by assessing its body composition, pancreatic function and the energy substrates handling by two major glucose-utilizing tissues: liver and muscle. Fifteen week-old nulliparous female Wistar rats exercised 4 weeks before as well as during gestation at a constant submaximal intensity (TR) or remained sedentary (CT)...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970205/interventional-strategies-to-combat-muscle-disuse-atrophy-in-humans-focus-on-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-and-dietary-protein
#9
Marlou L Dirks, Benjamin T Wall, Luc J C van Loon
Numerous situations, such as the recovery from illness or rehabilitation after injury, necessitate a period of muscle disuse in otherwise healthy individuals. Even a few days of immobilization or bed rest can lead to substantial loss of skeletal muscle tissue and compromises metabolic health. The decline in muscle mass is largely attributed to a decline in postabsorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates. Re-introduction of some level of muscle contraction by the application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can augment both postabsorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates and, as such, prevent or attenuate muscle loss during short-term disuse in various clinical populations...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969866/oral-nutritional-support-with-or-without-exercise-in-the-management-of-malnutrition-in-nutritionally-vulnerable-older-people-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Jessie Wright, Christine Baldwin
BACKGROUND: Physical functioning declines with advancing age and compounds malnutrition, common in elderly populations. A dual-intervention combining oral nutritional support and exercise may delay these changes. Our aims were to assess whether exercise combined with oral nutritional support (ONS) has greater improvements on physical functioning, quality of life and nutritional status than nutrition intervention alone in nutritionally vulnerable older adults. METHODS: Three electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials of older adults judged to be: sarcopenic, cachexic, frail, malnourished, and/or at risk of malnutrition, receiving ONS and exercise compared to nutrition intervention alone...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957883/what-is-next-after-anamorelin
#11
Jose M Garcia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In spite of its relevance, treatments for the cancer anorexia and cachexia syndrome (CACS) are not available. One of the agents that recently reached phase III clinical trials is anamorelin. Its development, along with that of other agents for this indication, will be reviewed here, with a focus on the gaps in the current knowledge and future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: In spite of several targets showing promising results in early development, their difficulties obtaining regulatory approval underscore the need to reconsider the current strategies in drug development and the challenges in the field of CACS...
September 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934166/is-branched-chain-amino-acids-supplementation-an-efficient-nutritional-strategy-to-alleviate-skeletal-muscle-damage-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Alexandre Fouré, David Bendahan
Amino acids and more precisely, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are usually consumed as nutritional supplements by many athletes and people involved in regular and moderate physical activities regardless of their practice level. BCAAs have been initially shown to increase muscle mass and have also been implicated in the limitation of structural and metabolic alterations associated with exercise damage. This systematic review provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature regarding the beneficial effects of BCAAs supplementation within the context of exercise-induced muscle damage or muscle injury...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924423/vegan-diets-practical-advice-for-athletes-and-exercisers
#13
REVIEW
David Rogerson
With the growth of social media as a platform to share information, veganism is becoming more visible, and could be becoming more accepted in sports and in the health and fitness industry. However, to date, there appears to be a lack of literature that discusses how to manage vegan diets for athletic purposes. This article attempted to review literature in order to provide recommendations for how to construct a vegan diet for athletes and exercisers. While little data could be found in the sports nutrition literature specifically, it was revealed elsewhere that veganism creates challenges that need to be accounted for when designing a nutritious diet...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919844/practical-nutritional-recovery-strategies-for-elite-soccer-players-when-limited-time-separates-repeated-matches
#14
REVIEW
Mayur Krachna Ranchordas, Joel T Dawson, Mark Russell
Specific guidelines that aim to facilitate the recovery of soccer players from the demands of training and a congested fixture schedule are lacking; especially in relation to evidence-based nutritional recommendations. The importance of repeated high level performance and injury avoidance while addressing the challenges of fixture scheduling, travel to away venues, and training commitments requires a strategic and practically feasible method of implementing specific nutritional strategies. Here we present evidence-based guidelines regarding nutritional recovery strategies within the context of soccer...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#15
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919733/cycle-ergometer-and-inspiratory-muscle-training-offer-modest-benefit-compared-with-cycle-ergometer-alone-a-comprehensive-assessment-in-stable-copd-patients
#16
Kai Wang, Guang-Qiao Zeng, Rui Li, Yu-Wen Luo, Mei Wang, Yu-He Hu, Wen-Hui Xu, Lu-Qian Zhou, Rong-Chang Chen, Xin Chen
BACKGROUND: Cycle ergometer training (CET) has been shown to improve exercise performance of the quadriceps muscles in patients with COPD, and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may improve the pressure-generating capacity of the inspiratory muscles. However, the effects of combined CET and IMT remain unclear and there is a lack of comprehensive assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-one patients with COPD were randomly allocated to three groups: 28 received 8 weeks of CET + IMT (combined training group), 27 received 8 weeks of CET alone (CET group), and 26 only received 8 weeks of free walking (control group)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915863/lifestyle-intervention-to-improve-quality-of-life-and-prevent-weight-gain-after-renal-transplantation-design-of-the-active-care-after-transplantation-act-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Gerald Klaassen, Dorien M Zelle, Gerjan J Navis, Desie Dijkema, Frederike J Bemelman, Stephan J L Bakker, Eva Corpeleijn
BACKGROUND: Low physical activity and reduced physical functioning are common after renal transplantation, resulting in a reduced quality of life. Another common post-transplantation complication is poor cardio-metabolic health, which plays a main role in long-term outcomes in renal transplant recipients (RTR). It is increasingly recognized that weight gain in the first year after transplantation, especially an increase in fat mass, is a highly common contributor to cardio-metabolic risk...
September 15, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911059/forcing-the-vicious-circle-sarcopenia-increases-toxicity-decreases-response-to-chemotherapy-and-worsens-with-chemotherapy
#18
F Bozzetti
Sarcopenia has recently emerged as a new condition that, independently from malnutrition, may adversely affect the prognosis of cancer patients. Purpose of this narrative review is to define the prevalence of sarcopenia in different primaries, its role in leading to chemotherapy toxicity and decreased compliance with the oncological therapy and the effect of some drugs on the onset of sarcopenia. Finally, the review aims to describe the current approaches to restore the muscle mass through nutrition, exercise and anti-inflammatory agents or multimodal programmes with a special emphasis on the results of randomized controlled trials...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910538/muscular-contraction-frequency-does-not-affect-plasma-homocysteine-concentration-in-response-to-energy-expenditure-and-intensity-matched-acute-exercise-in-sedentary-males
#19
Natalia Úbeda, Brian P Carson, Ángela García-González, Antonio Aguilar-Ros, Ángel Enrique Díaz-Martínez, Rafael Venta, Nicolás Terrados, Donal J O Gorman, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez
Acute exercise seems to increase total plasma homocysteine (tHcy). That is related to cardiovascular risk, therefore it is important to understand the determinants of its response to all types of exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of cycling at two different rates of muscle contraction on the complete tHcy kinetics. Eight young sedentary males were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal) acute exercise trials at 50% VO2peak on separate occasions at 50 or 80 revolutions per minute (rpm)...
September 14, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905498/effect-of-bimagrumab-on-thigh-muscle-volume-and-composition-in-men-with-casting-induced-atrophy
#20
Daniel S Rooks, Didier Laurent, Jens Praestgaard, Scott Rasmussen, Michael Bartlett, László B Tankó
BACKGROUND: Patients experiencing disuse atrophy report acute loss of skeletal muscle mass which subsequently leads to loss of strength and physical capacity. In such patients, especially the elderly, complete recovery remains a challenge even with improved nutrition and resistance exercise. This study aimed to explore the clinical potential of bimagrumab, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the activin type II receptor, for the recovery of skeletal muscle volume from disuse atrophy using an experimental model of lower extremity immobilization...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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