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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523992/nutrition-and-exercise-in-sarcopenia
#1
Stephen D Anton, Azumi Hida, Robert Mankowski, Andrew Layne, Lawrence Solberg, Arch G Mainous, Thomas W Buford
Sarcopenia is a debilitating condition that involves loss of muscle mass and function, which affects virtually everyone as they age, and can lead to frailty and ultimately disability. In growing recognition of the importance of both muscle strength and muscle mass relative to body size in contributing to functional decline, recent definitions have now incorporated grip strength and a correction for body mass as part of the key criteria that define sarcopenia. With this new definition, a much larger population of older adults are now at risk of sarcopenia...
December 27, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507168/nutritional-interventions-and-the-il-6-response-to-exercise
#2
REVIEW
Stephen R Hennigar, James P McClung, Stefan M Pasiakos
IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biologic effects. In response to prolonged exercise, IL-6 is synthesized by contracting skeletal muscle and released into circulation. Circulating IL-6 is thought to maintain energy status during exercise by acting as an energy sensor for contracting muscle and stimulating glucose production. If tissue damage occurs, immune cells infiltrate and secrete cytokines, including IL-6, to repair skeletal muscle damage. With adequate rest and nutrition, the IL-6 response to exercise is attenuated as skeletal muscle adapts to training...
May 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493406/beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-in-healthy-and-muscle-wasting-conditions
#3
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine that has been reported to have anabolic effects on protein metabolism. The aims of this article were to summarize the results of studies of the effects of HMB on skeletal muscle and to examine the evidence for the rationale to use HMB as a nutritional supplement to exert beneficial effects on muscle mass and function in various conditions of health and disease. The data presented here indicate that the beneficial effects of HMB have been well characterized in strength-power and endurance exercise...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490866/nonpharmacological-interventions-to-treat-physical-frailty-and-sarcopenia-in-older-patients-a-systematic-overview-the-senator-project-ontop-series
#4
REVIEW
Isabel Lozano-Montoya, Andrea Correa-Pérez, Iosief Abraha, Roy L Soiza, Antonio Cherubini, Denis O'Mahony, Alfonso J Cruz-Jentoft
BACKGROUND: Physical frailty (PF) and sarcopenia are predictors of negative health outcomes such as falls, disability, hospitalization, and death. Some systematic reviews (SRs) have been published on different nonpharmacological treatments of frailty and sarcopenia using heterogeneous definitions of them. OBJECTIVE: To critically appraise the evidence from SRs of the primary studies on nonpharmacological interventions to treat PF (defined by Fried's frailty phenotype) and sarcopenia (defined by the EWGSOP) in older patients...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481907/relationship-between-anthropometric-parameters-and-open-angle-glaucoma-the-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#5
Jae Yeun Lee, Tae-Woo Kim, Hyun Tae Kim, Mi Yeon Lee, Hye Won Min, Yu Sam Won, Hyun Seok Kwon, Ki Ho Park, Joon Mo Kim
AIMS: To evaluate the relationships between open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and various anthropometric measurements. DESIGN: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a population-based cross-sectional study using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey. METHODS: A total of 5,255 participants including 247 glaucoma patients, aged ≥ 19 years were included from the KNHANES V database. Glaucoma diagnosis was based on International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458804/nutrition-pharmacological-and-training-strategies-adopted-by-six-bodybuilders-case-report-and-critical-review
#6
Paulo Gentil, Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira, Antonio Paoli, José Alexandre Barbosa Dos Santos, Roberto Deivide Teixeira da Silva, José Romulo Pereira Junior, Edson Pereira da Silva, Rodrigo Ferro Magosso
The purpose of this study was to report and analyze the practices adopted by bodybuilders in light of scientific evidence and to propose evidence-based alternatives. Six (four male and two female) bodybuilders and their coaches were directly interviewed. According to the reports, the quantity of anabolic steroids used by the men was 500-750 mg/week during the bulking phase and 720-1160 mg during the cutting phase. The values for women were 400 and 740 mg, respectively. The participants also used ephedrine and hydrochlorothiazide during the cutting phase...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439567/sarcopenia-obesity-and-mortality-in-us-adults-with-and-without-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Lagu Androga, Deep Sharma, Afolarin Amodu, Matthew K Abramowitz
INTRODUCTION: In pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD), the association of muscle mass with mortality is poorly defined, and no study has examined outcomes related to the co-occurrence of low muscle mass and excess adiposity (sarcopenic-obesity). Methods: We examined abnormalities of muscle and fat mass in adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. We determined whether associations of body composition with all-cause mortality differed between participants with CKD compared to those without...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436486/muscle-wasting-and-cachexia-in-heart-failure-mechanisms-and-therapies
#8
REVIEW
Stephan von Haehling, Nicole Ebner, Marcelo R Dos Santos, Jochen Springer, Stefan D Anker
Body wasting is a serious complication that affects a large proportion of patients with heart failure. Muscle wasting, also known as sarcopenia, is the loss of muscle mass and strength, whereas cachexia describes loss of weight. After reaching guideline-recommended doses of heart failure therapies, the most promising approach to treating body wasting seems to be combined therapy that includes exercise, nutritional counselling, and drug treatment. Nutritional considerations include avoiding excessive salt and fluid intake, and replenishment of deficiencies in trace elements...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421192/exercise-and-protein-intake-a-synergistic-approach-against-sarcopenia
#9
REVIEW
Anna Maria Martone, Emanuele Marzetti, Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Matteo Tosato, Luca Santoro, Angela Di Giorgio, Antonio Nesci, Alex Sisto, Angelo Santoliquido, Francesco Landi
Sarcopenia, the age-dependent loss of muscle mass and function/strength, is increasingly recognized as a major risk factor for adverse outcomes in frail older people. As such, the skeletal muscle is a relevant target for interventions aimed at preventing or postponing the occurrence of negative health-related events in late life. The association among physical inactivity, insufficient intake of energy and protein, and poor muscle health in older adults suggests that physical exercise and targeted nutritional supplementation may offer substantial therapeutic gain against sarcopenia and its negative correlates...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419002/skeletal-muscle-remodeling-interconnections-between-stem-cells-and-protein-turnover
#10
Nicholas A Burd, Michael De Lisio
Nutrition and exercise are important components of a healthy lifestyle to improve rates of hypertrophic and non-hypertrophic skeletal muscle remodeling. We provide evidence to support the hypothesis that muscle stem cells and protein turnover are collaborative, not separate, mechanisms supporting muscle remodeling by facilitating protein, nuclear, and cellular turnover in response to the ingestion of protein dense foods and exercise.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415067/effect-of-whey-protein-in-conjunction-with-a-caloric-restricted-diet-and-resistance-training
#11
Wesley D Dudgeon, Elizabeth P Kelley, Timothy P Scheett
Dudgeon, WD, Kelley, EP, and Scheett, TP. Effect of whey protein in conjunction with a caloric-restricted diet and resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1353-1361, 2017-Caloric-restricted weight loss, especially rapid weight loss, results from a decrease in both lean and fat mass (FM). The goal for many is to lose FM while retaining lean body mass (LBM) and muscular performance thus many turn to supplements. Sixteen resistance-trained men (24 ± 1.6 years of age) completed a 4 d·wk body building style split resistance training program for 8 weeks in conjunction with a pre-exercise, periexercise, and postexercise ingestion of whey protein (WHEY) nutritional supplement or carbohydrate (CON)-based nutritional supplement...
May 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386239/skeletal-muscle-myomir-are-differentially-expressed-by-endurance-exercise-mode-and-combined-essential-amino-acid-and-carbohydrate-supplementation
#12
Lee M Margolis, Holly L McClung, Nancy E Murphy, Christopher T Carrigan, Stefan M Pasiakos
Skeletal muscle microRNAs (myomiR) expression is modulated by exercise, however, the influence of endurance exercise mode, combined with essential amino acid and carbohydrate (EAA+CHO) supplementation are not well defined. This study determined the effects of weighted versus non-weighted endurance exercise, with or without EAA+CHO ingestion on myomiR expression and their association with muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Twenty five adults performed 90 min of metabolically-matched (2.2 VO2 L·m(-1)) load carriage (LC; performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass) or cycle ergometry (CE) exercise, during which EAA+CHO (10 g EAA and 46 g CHO) or non-nutritive control (CON) drinks were consumed...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374726/-the-association-between-physical-inactivity-and-other-behavioural-risk-factors-of-the-development-of-chronic-non-communicative-diseases-among-the-students
#13
A P Anishchenko, A N Arkhangel'skaya, D A Pustovalov, E V Rogoznaya, A L Urakov, K G Gurevich
AIM: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible association between the physical inactivity and other behavioural risk factors of the development of chronic non- communicable diseases among the young persons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 216 1-2 grade students at the mean age of 18.8±1.3 years including 136 women and 80 men educated at A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State Medical Stomatological University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, were recruited for the examination...
2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361840/patient-perceived-barriers-to-lifestyle-interventions-in-cirrhosis
#14
Michael Ney, Leah Gramlich, Vanessa Mathiesen, Robert J Bailey, Mark Haykowsky, Mang Ma, Juan G Abraldes, Puneeta Tandon
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sarcopenia, muscle weakness, and physical frailty are independent predictors of mortality in cirrhosis. These adverse prognostic factors are potentially modifiable with lifestyle interventions, including adequate nutritional intake and physical activity. Our aim was to identify patient-perceived barriers and enablers to these interventions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult patients with cirrhosis were prospectively recruited from two tertiary care liver clinics...
March 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348466/handgrip-strength-as-an-important-bed-side-tool-to-assess-malnutrition-in-patient-with-liver-disease
#15
Praveen Sharma, Abdul Rauf, Abdul Matin, Rachit Agarwal, Pankaj Tyagi, Anil Arora
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is frequently present in patients with cirrhosis. Anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI), mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC), triceps skin fold thickness (TST) and subjective global assessment (SGA) have some limitations in assessment of malnutrition. This study aims to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in non-hospitalized cirrhotic and chronic hepatitis patients and to assess handgrip (HG) strength as a tool for identifying malnutrition...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346572/effectiveness-of-cardiac-rehabilitation-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-sarcopenia-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-analysis
#16
H Harada, H Kai, H Niiyama, Y Nishiyama, A Katoh, N Yoshida, Y Fukumoto, H Ikeda
OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, with the risk of frailty and poor quality of life. This study aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of sarcopenia and to investigate the effects of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR), including nutrition, physical exercise and medication, in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: We retrospectively studied 322 inpatients with CVD (age 72±12 years)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337890/beneficial-effects-of-protein-hydrolysates-in-exercise-and-sports-nutrition
#17
J Yuan, B Jiang, K Li, W Shen, J L Tang
Protein hydrolysates (PH) are rich sources of proteins that supply the need of exercising muscles. PHs are enriched in di- and tripeptides and are better than free amino acids or intact proteins when muscle anabolic effect is considered. Digestion, absorption and muscle uptake of amino acids are faster and more efficient when PH is ingested in comparison to the respective intact protein. PHs not only enhance endurance in high intensity exercise regimen, but also help in faster post-exercise recovery of muscle by promoting glycogen synthesis, although the latter effect requires more convincing evidence...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332118/nutrition-and-training-influences-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-adenosine-diphosphate-sensitivity-and-bioenergetics
#18
REVIEW
Graham P Holloway
Since the seminal finding almost 50 years ago that exercise training increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, a considerable amount of research has been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. The discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α as a major regulator of exercise-induced gene transcription was instrumental in beginning to understand the signals regulating this process. However, almost two decades after its discovery, our understanding of the signals inducing mitochondrial biogenesis remain poorly defined, limiting our insights into possible novel training modalities in elite athletes that can increase the oxidative potential of muscle...
March 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332115/periodized-nutrition-for-athletes
#19
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature...
March 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286988/exercise-and-nutritional-approaches-to-prevent-frail-bones-falls-and-fractures-an-update
#20
REVIEW
R M Daly
Osteoporosis (low bone strength) and sarcopenia (low muscle mass, strength and/or impaired function) often co-exist (hence the term 'sarco-osteoporosis') and have similar health consequences with regard to disability, falls, frailty and fractures. Exercise and adequate nutrition, particularly with regard to vitamin D, calcium and protein, are key lifestyle approaches that can simultaneously optimize bone, muscle and functional outcomes in older people, if they are individually tailored and appropriately prescribed in terms of the type and dose...
April 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
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