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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928523/muscle-atrophy-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-molecular-basis-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#1
REVIEW
Esther Barreiro, Ariel Jaitovich
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience several systemic manifestations such skeletal muscle dysfunction with and without muscle mass loss. Moreover, frequent comorbidities such as nutritional abnormalities, heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension, which are frequently associated with COPD may further contribute to skeletal muscle mass loss and dysfunction. Muscle dysfunction impairs the patients' exercise capacity and quality of life as daily life activities may be hampered by this problem...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928520/can-muscle-protein-metabolism-be-specifically-targeted-by-nutritional-support-and-exercise-training-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
REVIEW
Ramzi Lakhdar, Roberto A Rabinovich
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associates with several extra-pulmonary effects. Muscle dysfunction and wasting is one of the most prominent extra-pulmonary effects and contributes to exercise limitation and health related quality of life (HRQoL), morbidity as well as mortality. The loss of muscle mass is characterised by an impaired balance between protein synthesis (anabolism) and protein breakdown (catabolism) which relates to nutritional disturbances, muscle disuse and the presence of a systemic inflammation, among other factors...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927875/depressed-physical-performance-outlasts-hormonal-disturbances-after-military-training
#3
Håvard Hamarsland, Gøran Paulsen, Paul A Solberg, Ole Gunnar Slaathaug, Truls Raastad
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an arduous one-week military course on measures of physical performance, body composition and blood biomarkers. METHODS: Participants were apprentices in an annual selection course for the Norwegian Special Forces. Fifteen soldiers (23±4 yrs., 1.81±0.06 m, 78±7 kg) completed a hell-week consisting of rigorous activity only interspersed by 2-3 hours of sleep per day. Testing was conducted before and 0, 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after the hell-week...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925809/skeletal-muscle-metabolism-in-duchenne-and-becker-muscular-dystrophy-implications-for-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Ahlke Heydemann
The interactions between nutrition and metabolism and skeletal muscle have long been known. Muscle is the major metabolic organ—it consumes more calories than other organs—and therefore, there is a clear need to discuss these interactions and provide some direction for future research areas regarding muscle pathologies. In addition, new experiments and manuscripts continually reveal additional highly intricate, reciprocal interactions between metabolism and muscle. These reciprocal interactions include exercise, age, sex, diet, and pathologies including atrophy, hypoxia, obesity, diabetes, and muscle myopathies...
June 20, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913945/prevention-and-treatment-of-trismus-in-head-and-neck-cancer-a-case-report-and-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#5
Piotr Wranicz, Bente Brokstad Herlofson, Jan F Evensen, Ulf E Kongsgaard
Introduction Trismus, or limited mouth opening, is a well-known complication of head and neck cancer and its treatment. It may be caused by tumour infiltration into the masticatory muscles or by treatment like surgery and radiotherapy. A limited mouth opening may have a negative effect on nutrition, phonation, dental hygiene and treatment, and quality of life. The severity of this complication depends on the location of the tumour, the type of reconstruction, the total radiation dose, fractionation, and treatment techniques...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909553/increasing-quality-of-life-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-is-there-a-role-for-nutrition
#6
REVIEW
Paulien Vinke, Suzanne M Jansen, Renger F Witkamp, Klaske van Norren
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease primarily affecting the pulmonary vasculature and heart. PAH patients suffer from exercise intolerance and fatigue, negatively affecting their quality of life. This review summarizes current insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PAH. It zooms in on the potential involvement of nutritional status and micronutrient deficiencies on PAH exercise intolerance and fatigue, also summarizing the potential benefits of exercise and nutritional interventions...
June 16, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898671/a-study-protocol-of-older-person-s-exercise-and-nutrition-study-open-a-sit-to-stand-activity-combined-with-oral-protein-supplement-effects-on-physical-function-and-independence-a-cluster-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Helena Grönstedt, Sofia Vikström, Tommy Cederholm, Erika Franzén, Åke Seiger, Anders Wimo, Gerd Faxén-Irving, Anne-Marie Boström
BACKGROUND: Poor nutrition and age per see add to the development of sarcopenia, i.e. loss of muscle mass and strength, which contributes to increased risk of impaired activities of daily living (ADL) and reduced independence. Protein deficiency plays an important role in the development of sarcopenia. In order to increase the muscle mass protein intake should be combined with physical exercise. A daily physical activity, the sit-to-stand exercise, has been proven to decrease older persons' dependence in ADL...
June 7, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898649/bpc157-as-potential-agent-rescuing-from-cancer-cachexia
#8
Eun A Kang, Young Min Han, Jeong Min An, Yong Jin Park, Predrag Sikiric, Deok Hwan Kim, Kwang An Kwon, Yoon Jae Kim, Donghwa Yang, Hann Tchah, Ki Baik Hahm
Cancer cachexia, one of the metabolic syndromes caused by cancer, is a devastating and miserable condition encountered in more than 50% of terminal cancer patients presenting with significant weight loss associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and fat loss. Though cachexia may account for up to 20% of cancer deaths, no significant treatment is still lacking and is of urgent unmet medical need in cancer treatment. Therefore, understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms is essential for anticipating therapeutic approaches...
June 13, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889151/energy-availability-macronutrient-intake-and-nutritional-supplementation-for-improving-exercise-performance-in-endurance-athletes
#9
Gretchen A Casazza, Ashley P Tovar, Christine E Richardson, Angela N Cortez, Brian A Davis
Endurance athletes use nutritional guidelines and supplements to improve exercise performance and recovery. However, use is not always based on scientific evidence of improved performance, which type of athlete would benefit most, or the optimal dose and timing of a particular supplement. Health professionals that give advice to athletes need to target their recommendations on the energy systems and muscle fiber types used for the athlete's sporting event, the goal of the training block, the time of the competitive season, and the characteristics and food preferences of the individual athlete...
June 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878269/ingestion-of-a-multi-ingredient-supplement-does-not-alter-exercise-induced-satellite-cell-responses-in-older-men
#10
Tim Snijders, Kirsten E Bell, Joshua P Nederveen, Nelson I Saddler, Nicole Mazara, Dinesh A Kumbhare, Stuart M Phillips, Gianni Parise
Background: Nutritional supplementation can have beneficial effects on body composition, strength, and function in older adults. However, whether the response of satellite cells can be altered by nutritional supplementation in older adults remains unknown. Objective: We assessed whether a multi-ingredient protein-based supplement taken over a prolonged period of time could alter the muscle satellite cell response after exercise in older men. Methods: Twenty-seven older men [mean ± SD age: 73 ± 1 y; mean ± SD body mass index (kg/m2): 28 ± 1] participated in a randomized double-blind experiment...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872330/relative-handgrip-strength-as-a-marker-of-metabolic-syndrome-the-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-knhanes-vi-2014-2015
#11
Dongwon Yi, Ah Reum Khang, Hye Won Lee, Seok Man Son, Yang Ho Kang
Purpose: Muscles play an important role in energy metabolism. Several studies have investigated the association between muscle mass and metabolic syndrome (MetS), reporting conflicting results. However, studies concerning the association between muscle strength and MetS are limited. We aimed to investigate the association between relative handgrip strength (HGS) and MetS in Korean adults. Participants and methods: We analyzed data from 5,014 Korean adults aged ≥20 years (2,472 men and 2,542 women) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI (2014-2015)...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843282/a-pilot-study-on-the-influence-of-exercising-on-unstable-training-machine-on-balance-control-and-trunk-muscles-activity
#12
Aurelijus Domeika, Ieva Aleknaite-Dambrauskiene, Vytautas Poskaitis, Vidmantas Zaveckas, Vytautas Grigas, Ausra Zvironiene
BACKGROUND: The main position of the working population is becoming sitting. Immobile prolonged sedentary time may cause negative effects including reduced intervertebral discs nutrition. Main ways of mitigating them are regular position changes and exercising. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate influence of the short term training on unstable training machine on balance control and trunk muscles activity in patients with lower back pain. METHODS: Participants (n=16) experiencing lower back pain were trained on an unstable sculling machine "Rehabili"...
May 16, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799502/an-8-week-ketogenic-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-enhanced-exhaustive-exercise-capacity-in-mice
#13
Sihui Ma, Qingyi Huang, Koichi Yada, Chunhong Liu, Katsuhiko Suzuki
Current fueling tactics for endurance exercise encourage athletes to ingest a high carbohydrate diet. However, athletes are not generally encouraged to use fat, the largest energy reserve in the human body. A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. Although KD has been associated with weight-loss, enhanced fat utilization in muscle and other beneficial effects, there is currently no clear proof whether it could lead to performance advantage...
May 25, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799285/rehabilitation-of-patients-with-coexisting-copd-and-heart-failure
#14
Michele Vitacca, Mara Paneroni
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (CHF) frequently coexist, significantly reducing the patient's quality of life (QoL) and increasing morbidity, disability and mortality. For both diseases, a multidisciplinary disease-management approach offers the best outcomes and reduces hospital readmissions. In both conditions, muscle dysfunction may dramatically influence symptoms, exercise tolerance/performance, health status and healthcare costs. The present review describes muscular abnormalities and mechanisms underlying these alterations...
May 25, 2018: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785098/sarcopenia-assessment-of-disease-burden-and-strategies-to-improve-outcomes
#15
REVIEW
Ilaria Liguori, Gennaro Russo, Luisa Aran, Giulia Bulli, Francesco Curcio, David Della-Morte, Gaetano Gargiulo, Gianluca Testa, Francesco Cacciatore, Domenico Bonaduce, Pasquale Abete
Life expectancy is increasing worldwide, with a resultant increase in the elderly population. Aging is characterized by the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength - a phenomenon called sarcopenia. Sarcopenia has a complex multifactorial pathogenesis, which involves not only age-related changes in neuromuscular function, muscle protein turnover, and hormone levels and sensitivity, but also a chronic pro-inflammatory state, oxidative stress, and behavioral factors - in particular, nutritional status and degree of physical activity...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782463/gut-microbiota-probiotics-and-sport-from-clinical-evidence-to-agonistic-performance
#16
Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Francesca Deidda, Teresa Graziano, Serena Allesina, Luca Mogna
Human beings harbor clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as the surface or the deep layers of the skin, the mouth, the lungs, the intestine, the vagina, and all the surfaces exposed to the outer world. The majority of microbes resides in the gut, have a weighty influence on human physiology and nutrition and are vital for human life. There is growing evidence showing that the gut microbiota plays important roles in the maturation of the immune system and the protection against some infectious agents...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764464/daytime-and-nighttime-casein-supplements-similarly-increase-muscle-size-and-strength-in-response-to-resistance-training-earlier-in-the-day-a-preliminary-investigation
#17
Jordan M Joy, Roxanne M Vogel, K Shane Broughton, Urszula Kudla, Nathaniel Y Kerr, Jason M Davison, Robert E C Wildman, Nancy M DiMarco
BACKGROUND: Casein protein consumed before sleep has been suggested to offer an overnight supply of exogenous amino acids for anabolic processes. The purpose of this study was to compare supplemental casein consumed earlier in the day (DayTime, DT) versus shortly before bed (NightTime, NT) on body composition, strength, and muscle hypertrophy in response to supervised resistance training. METHODS: Thirteen males participated in a 10-week exercise and dietary intervention while receiving 35 g casein daily...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757230/exercise-and-nutrition-strategies-to-counteract-sarcopenic-obesity
#18
REVIEW
Inez Trouwborst, Amely Verreijen, Robert Memelink, Pablo Massanet, Yves Boirie, Peter Weijs, Michael Tieland
As the population is aging rapidly, there is a strong increase in the number of individuals with chronic disease and physical limitations. The decrease in skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) and the increase in fat mass (obesity) are important contributors to the development of physical limitations, which aggravates the chronic diseases prognosis. The combination of the two conditions, which is referred to as sarcopenic obesity, amplifies the risk for these negative health outcomes, which demonstrates the importance of preventing or counteracting sarcopenic obesity...
May 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756974/-effects-of-lacto-vegetarian-diet-and-stabilization-core-exercises-on-body-composition-and-pain-in-women-with-fibromyalgia-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez, Belén Leyva-Vela, Alba Martínez-García, Yolanda Nadal-Nicolás
BACKGROUND: fibromyalgia is a disease of unknown origin characterized by chronic muscular pain. The lack of knowledge about this disease is one of the main causes that makes complex to make a diagnosis and an appropriate treatment. OBJECTIVE: the main objective of this study was to know the efficacy of a physiotherapy treatment combined with a lacto-vegetarian dietary-nutritional intervention, on low back pain and body composition in women with fibromyalgia. METHODS: twenty-one women were randomly divided into three groups: A (core stabilization exercises + lacto-vegetarian diet), B (placebo + lacto-vegetarian diet) and C (control)...
March 1, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756416/testosterone-and-sarcopenia
#20
REVIEW
Myung Jun Shin, Yun Kyung Jeon, In Joo Kim
Aging affects metabolism, leading to physiological and functional impairments, and is also related to changes in body composition, including reduced skeletal muscle mass and increased body fat. These changes are correlated with the pathophysiology of sarcopenia, which is defined as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Low testosterone levels are associated with unfavorable body composition changes, and sex hormones decrease with aging. Androgen deficiency, along with lack of exercise and poor nutrition, may be among the modifiable contributors to sarcopenia...
May 11, 2018: World Journal of Men's Health
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