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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137255/potential-genotoxic-and-cytotoxicity-of-emamectin-benzoate-in-human-normal-liver-cells
#1
Zhijie Zhang, Xinyu Zhao, Xiaosong Qin
Pesticide residue inducing cancer-related health problems draw people more attention recently. Emamectin benzoate (EMB) has been widely used in agriculture around the world based on its specificity targets. Although potential risk and the molecular mechanism of EMB toxicity to human liver has not been well-characterized. Unlike well-reported toxicity upon central nervous system, potential genotoxic and cytotoxicity of EMB in human liver cell was ignored and very limited. In this study, we identify genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of EMB to human normal liver cells (QSG7701 cell line) in vitro...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136166/diabetes-induced-hyperglycemia-impairs-male-reproductive-function-a-systematic-review
#2
Constanze C Maresch, Dina C Stute, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira, David M de Kretser, Thomas Linn
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia can result from a loss of pancreatic beta-cells or a decline in their function leading to decreased insulin secretion or may arise from insulin resistance and variable degrees of inadequate insulin secretion resulting in diabetes and related comorbidities. To date several reviews have addressed the issue of diabetes-related male infertility but most have focused on how metabolic syndrome causes the decline in male fertility. However, a comprehensive overview as to how diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male fertility is missing...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132724/emerging-entities-in-renal-cell-neoplasia-thyroid-like-follicular-renal-cell-carcinoma-and-multifocal-oncocytoma-like-tumours-associated-with-oncocytosis
#3
REVIEW
John N Eble, Brett Delahunt
The list of accepted entities of renal cell neoplasia has burgeoned since the turn of the century through recognition of rare tumour types and the discovery of genetic mutations driving renal neoplasia syndromes. This growth has not finished and in this report we present examples of each of these types which were not included in the 2016 World Health Organization classification of renal neoplasia, but are candidates for inclusion in the next edition of the classification. Thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumour type with a distinctive microscopic appearance resembling follicles of the thyroid gland...
November 10, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129015/melanoma-inhibition-by-anthocyanins-is-associated-with-the-reduction-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-and-changes-in-mitochondrial-membrane-potential
#4
Zoriţa Diaconeasa, Huseyin Ayvaz, Dumitriţa Ruginǎ, Loredana Leopold, Andreea Stǎnilǎ, Carmen Socaciu, Flaviu Tăbăran, Lavinia Luput, Diana Carla Mada, Adela Pintea, Andrew Jefferson
Anthocyanins are water soluble pigments which have been proved to exhibit health benefits. Several studies have investigated their effects on several types of cancer, but little attention has been given to melanoma. The phytochemical content of nine different berry samples was assessed by liquid chromatography followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI(+)-MS). Twenty-six anthocyanins were identified, after a previous C18 Sep-pak clean-up procedure. Chokeberry and red grape anthocyanins rich extracts (C-ARE and RG-ARE) were selected to be tested on normal and melanoma cell lines, due to their different chemical pattern...
November 11, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128560/renal-toxicity-of-nanoparticles-of-cadmium-sulphide-in-rat
#5
Kavita Rana, Yeshvandra Verma, Varsha Rani, Suresh Vir Singh Rana
During present investigations, renal toxicity of CdSNPs (cadmium sulphide nanoparticles) (ranged 5-9 nm) was estimated in rat employing specific parameters. Treatment on each alternate day for 45 days with CdSNPs (10 mg/kg b.w.) yielded significant increase in Cd-MT (cadmium metallothionein), lipid peroxidation and H2O2 generation in the kidney of rat in comparison to bulk cadmium. Concentration of creatinine also increased in urine of CdSNPs treated rats. Histopathological observations revealed extensive damage in proximal tubules...
November 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128444/metabolomics-and-gene-expression-analysis-reveal-down-regulation-of-the-citric-acid-tca-cycle-in-non-diabetic-ckd-patients
#6
Stein Hallan, Maryam Afkarian, Leila R Zelnick, Bryan Kestenbaum, Shoba Sharma, Rintaro Saito, Manjula Darshi, Gregory Barding, Daniel Raftery, Wenjun Ju, Matthias Kretzler, Kumar Sharma, Ian H de Boer
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem with very high prevalence and mortality. Yet, there is a paucity of effective treatment options, partly due to insufficient knowledge of underlying pathophysiology. We combined metabolomics (GCMS) with kidney gene expression studies to identify metabolic pathways that are altered in adults with non-diabetic stage 3-4 CKD versus healthy adults. Urinary excretion rate of 27 metabolites and plasma concentration of 33 metabolites differed significantly in CKD patients versus controls (estimate range-68% to +113%)...
October 31, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128343/post-stroke-depression-mechanisms-and-pharmacological-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Roberto Federico Villa, Federica Ferrari, Antonio Moretti
Depression, the most frequent psychiatric disorder following ischaemic stroke, negatively affects survivals' functional outcome, response to rehabilitation and quality of life. Approximately, one-third of them are affected by post-stroke depression (PSD), making it a serious social and public health problem and anti-depressant preventive and curative therapies worth investigating. However, a two-way association between depression and stroke has been also established: stroke increases the risk of PSD, but depression is an independent risk factor for stroke...
November 8, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127319/mitochondrial-gene-polymorphism-is-associated-with-gut-microbial-communities-in-mice
#8
Misa Hirose, Axel Künstner, Paul Schilf, Annika Sünderhauf, Jan Rupp, Olaf Jöhren, Markus Schwaninger, Christian Sina, John F Baines, Saleh M Ibrahim
Gut microbial communities are key mediators of health and disease and have the capacity to drive the pathogenesis of diverse complex diseases including metabolic and chronic inflammatory diseases as well as aging. Host genetics is also a major determinant of disease phenotypes, whereby two different genomes play a role, the nuclear (nDNA)- and mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). We investigated the impact of mutations in mtDNA on the gut microbiota using conplastic mouse strains exhibiting distinct mutations in their mtDNA on an identical nDNA...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127035/the-high-production-volume-fungicide-pyraclostrobin-induces-triglyceride-accumulation-associated-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-independent-of-ppar%C3%AE-activation-in-3t3-l1-cells
#9
Anthony L Luz, Christopher D Kassotis, Heather M Stapleton, Joel N Meyer
Pyraclostrobin is one of the most heavily used fungicides, and has been detected on a variety of produce, suggesting human exposure occurs regularly. Recently, pyraclostrobin exposure has been linked to a variety of toxic effects, including neurodegeneration and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. As pyraclostrobin inhibits electron transport chain complex III, and as mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with metabolic syndrome (cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity), we designed experiments to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies its adipogenic activity...
November 7, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126094/evolutionarily-adapted-hormesis-inducing-stressors-can-be-a-practical-solution-to-mitigate-harmful-effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-low-dose-chemical-mixtures
#10
REVIEW
Se-A Kim, Yu-Mi Lee, Je-Yong Choi, David R Jacobs, Duk-Hee Lee
Although the toxicity of synthetic chemicals at high doses is well known, chronic exposure to low-dose chemical mixtures has only recently been linked to many age-related diseases. However, it is nearly impossible to avoid the exposure to these low-dose chemical mixtures as humans are exposed to a myriad of synthetic chemicals as a part of their daily lives. Therefore, coping with possible harms due to low dose chemical mixtures is challenging. Interestingly, within the range of environmental exposure, disease risk does not increase linearly with increasing dose of chemicals, but often tends to plateau or even decrease with increasing dose...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124110/characterization-of-apoe-and-tomm40-allele-frequencies-in-the-japanese-population
#11
Akira Nishimura, Hidenori Nonomura, Shingo Tanaka, Michihiro Yoshida, Yuka Maruyama, Yutaka Aritomi, Ann M Saunders, Daniel K Burns, Michael W Lutz, Grant Runyan, Eric Lai, Kumar Budur, Allen D Roses
Introduction: Dementia is one of the major health threats to our aging society, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause. In Japan, ∼15% of the elderly population has dementia. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and a polymorphism (rs10524523) in the translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 (TOMM40) gene have been associated with the age of onset of AD. However, differences in allele frequencies of these markers in different ethnic populations are not well known. Methods: Whole blood samples were collected from 300 Japanese subjects, and genomic DNA was extracted to determine APOE alleles and TOMM40 rs10524523 genotypes...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121859/alterations-in-pgc1%C3%AE-expression-levels-are-involved-in-colorectal-cancer-risk-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#12
Jéssica Alonso-Molero, Carmen González-Donquiles, Tania Fernández-Villa, Fernanda de Souza-Teixeira, Laura Vilorio-Marqués, Antonio J Molina, Vicente Martín
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major global public health problem and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been suspected to be involved in this type of tumorigenesis, as supported by an accumulating body of research evidence. However, little is known about how mitochondrial alterations contribute to tumorigenesis. Mitochondrial biogenesis is a fundamental cellular process required to maintain functional mitochondria and as an adaptive mechanism in response to changing energy requirements...
November 9, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121463/determining-the-toxicity-of-rare-earth-oxide-nanomaterials-in-macrophages-and-the-involvement-of-membrane-damage
#13
Jie Gao, Ruibin Li, Fengbang Wang, Xiaolei Liu, Jie Zhang, Ligang Hu, Jianbo Shi, Bin He, Qunfang Zhou, Maoyong Song, Bin Zhang, Guangbo Qu, Sijin Liu, Guibin Jiang
Rare earth oxide nanomaterials (REE NPs) hold considerable promise, with high availability and potential applications as superconductors, imaging agents, glass additives, fertilizers additives and feed additives. These results in potential REE NP exposure to humans and the environment through different routes and adverse effects induced by biological application of these materials are becoming an increasing concern. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of REE NPs: nLa2O3, nEu2O3, nDy2O3 and nYb2O3 from 2...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121349/naringenin-induces-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-regulating-mapk-and-akt-signal-transduction-pathways-in-endometriosis-cells
#14
Sunwoo Park, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
STUDY QUESTION: Does the flavonoid naringenin inhibit proliferation of human endometriosis cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: Naringenin suppresses proliferation and increases apoptosis via depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human endometriosis cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: For management of endometriosis, hormonal therapy is commonly used to decrease production of estrogens by the ovaries, but that has limitations including undesirable side effects with long-term therapies...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115570/luteolin-inhibits-multi-heavy-metal-mixture-induced-hl7702-cell-apoptosis-through-downregulation-of-ros-activated-mitochondrial-pathway
#15
Yafei Wang, Hong Su, Xin Song, Samuel Selorm Fiati Kenston, Jinshun Zhao, Yuanliang Gu
With the rapid economic development in recent years, China is facing a great challenge due to heavy metal pollution. The heavy metals may enter the human body through ingestion of aqua products to cause great health risks. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of luteolin on the combined toxicity of multi-heavy metals (including zinc, manganese, lead, copper, cadmium, mercury, chromium and nickel) were investigated in HL7702 hepatocyte cells. An MTT assay demonstrated that 20 µM luteolin significantly alleviated the multi-heavy metal mixture-induced cell death and morphological changes...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110555/oxidative-stress-or-redox-signalling-new-insights-into-the-effects-of-a-proprietary-multifunctional-botanical-dietary-supplement
#16
Boris V Nemzer, Christoph Centner, Denise Zdzieblik, Bruno Fink, John M Hunter, Daniel König
Recent interest has focused on maintenance of healthy levels of redox signalling and the related oxidants; these parameters are crucial for providing us with concrete nutritional targets that may help us to better understand and maintain "optimal health". Following the above hypothesis, we performed a pilot double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled, single dose study to measure the dose-dependent effects of a proprietary plant-based dietary supplement labelled here as S7 (SPECTRA7), related to how it affected the cellular metabolic index (CMI) in healthy human participants (n = 8)...
November 7, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107503/abrogating-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-mouse-hearts-accelerates-mitochondrial-senescence
#17
Moshi Song, Antonietta Franco, Julie A Fleischer, Lihong Zhang, Gerald W Dorn
Mitochondrial fusion and fission are critical to heart health; genetically interrupting either is rapidly lethal. To understand whether it is loss of, or the imbalance between, fusion and fission that underlies observed cardiac phenotypes, we engineered mice in which Mfn-mediated fusion and Drp1-mediated fission could be concomitantly abolished. Compared to fusion-defective Mfn1/Mfn2 cardiac knockout or fission-defective Drp1 cardiac knockout mice, Mfn1/Mfn2/Drp1 cardiac triple-knockout mice survived longer and manifested a unique pathological form of cardiac hypertrophy...
October 21, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107290/an-unbiased-silencing-screen-in-muscle-cells-identifies-mir-320a-mir-150-mir-196b-and-mir-34c-as-regulators-of-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-metabolism
#18
Dennis Dahlmans, Alexandre Houzelle, Pénélope Andreux, Johanna A Jörgensen, Xu Wang, Leon J de Windt, Patrick Schrauwen, Johan Auwerx, Joris Hoeks
OBJECTIVE: Strategies improving skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity are commonly paralleled by improvements in (metabolic) health. We and others previously identified microRNAs regulating mitochondrial oxidative capacity, but data in skeletal muscle are limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify novel microRNAs regulating skeletal muscle mitochondrial metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted an unbiased, hypothesis-free microRNA silencing screen in C2C12 myoblasts, using >700 specific microRNA inhibitors, and investigated a broad panel of mitochondrial markers...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107116/mitophagy-and-the-release-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#19
REVIEW
James Harris, Nadia Deen, Shahrzad Zamani, Md Abul Hasnat
Mitophagy is a selective form of autophagy in which damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria are specifically targeted by autophagosomes for lysosomal degradation. Studies have demonstrated that loss of autophagy/mitophagy can lead to a build-up of cytosolic reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial DNA, which can, in turn, activate immune signalling pathways that ultimately lead to the releases of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Moreover, release of these cytokines can subsequently promote the release of others, including IL-23 and IL-17...
October 26, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101174/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-in-cardiovascular-health-an-ergogenic-aid-or-exercise-therapeutic
#20
Mary N Woessner, Luke Colin McIlvenna, Joaquin Ortiz de Zevallos, Christopher Neil, Jason David Allen
Oral consumption of inorganic nitrate, which is abundant in green leafy vegetables and roots, has been shown to increase circulating plasma nitrite concentration, which can be converted to NO in low oxygen conditions. The associated beneficial physiological effects include a reduction in blood pressure, modification of platelet aggregation and increases in limb blood flow. There have been numerous studies of nitrate supplementation in healthy recreational and competitive athletes, however, the ergogenic benefits are currently unclear due to a variety of factors including small sample sizes, different dosing regimens, variable nitrate conversion rates, the heterogeneity of participants' initial fitness levels and the types of exercise tests employed...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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