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Mitochondrial health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773773/cuban-epidemic-neuropathy-insights-into-the-toxic-nutritional-hypothesis-through-international-collaboration
#1
Alina González-Quevedo, Rosaralis Santiesteban-Freixas, Janis T Eells, Lucimey Lima, Alfredo A Sadun
From 1991 to 1993, an epidemic of optic and peripheral neuropathy-the largest of the century-broke out in Cuba, affecting more than 50,000 people. Initially the main clinical features were decreased visual acuity, central and cecocentral scotomas, impaired color vision and absence of the papillomacular bundle. Later, peripheral and mixed optic-peripheral forms began to appear. Due to the magnitude of the epidemic, the Cuban government requested help from the international community at the 46th World Health Assembly in 1993...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769323/targeting-bcl-2-regulated-apoptosis-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Kirsteen J Campbell, Stephen W G Tait
The ability of a cell to undergo mitochondrial apoptosis is governed by pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 protein family. The equilibrium of pro- versus anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins ensures appropriate regulation of programmed cell death during development and maintains organismal health. When unbalanced, the BCL-2 family can act as a barrier to apoptosis and facilitate tumour development and resistance to cancer therapy. Here we discuss the BCL-2 family, their deregulation in cancer and recent pharmaceutical developments to target specific members of this family as cancer therapy...
May 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768302/pharmacogenomics-in-papua-new-guineans-unique-profiles-and-implications-for-enhancing-drug-efficacy-while-improving-drug-safety
#3
Joseph D Tucci, Paul P Pumuye, Nuala A Helsby, Daniel T Barratt, Percy P Pokeya, Francis Hombhanje, Andrew A Somogyi
Papua New Guinea (PNG) can be roughly divided into highland, coastal and island peoples with significant mitochondrial DNA differentiation reflecting early and recent distinct migrations from Africa and East Asia, respectively. Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and HIV severely impact on the health of its peoples for which drug therapy is the major treatment and pharmacogenetics has clinical relevance for many of these drugs. Although there is generally little information about known single nucleotide polymorphisms in the population, in some instances, their frequencies have been shown to be higher than anywhere worldwide...
June 2018: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767698/mechanisms-by-which-dietary-fatty-acids-regulate-mitochondrial-structure-function-in-health-and-disease
#4
E Madison Sullivan, Edward Ross Pennington, William D Green, Melinda A Beck, David A Brown, Saame Raza Shaikh
Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles within a cell. Furthermore, mitochondria have a role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and proper calcium concentrations, building critical components of hormones and other signaling molecules, and controlling apoptosis. Structurally, mitochondria are unique because they have 2 membranes that allow for compartmentalization. The composition and molecular organization of these membranes are crucial to the maintenance and function of mitochondria. In this review, we first present a general overview of mitochondrial membrane biochemistry and biophysics followed by the role of different dietary saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in modulating mitochondrial membrane structure-function...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765216/dysfunction-of-various-organelles-provokes-multiple-cell-death-after-quantum-dot-exposure
#5
REVIEW
Yan Wang, Meng Tang
Quantum dots (QDs) are different from the materials with the micrometer scale. Owing to the superiority in fluorescence and optical stability, QDs act as possible diagnostic and therapeutic tools for application in biomedical field. However, potential threats of QDs to human health hamper their wide utilization in life sciences. It has been reported that oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in toxicity caused by QDs. Recently, accumulating research unveiled that disturbance of subcellular structures plays a magnificent role in cytotoxicity of QDs...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757366/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-reveals-pervasive-effects-of-germline-mitochondrial-replacement-on-components-of-health
#6
Ralph Dobler, Damian K Dowling, Edward H Morrow, Klaus Reinhardt
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial replacement, a form of nuclear transfer, has been proposed as a germline therapy to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial replacement therapy has been licensed for clinical application in the UK, and already carried out in other countries, but little is known about negative or unintended effects on the health of offspring born using this technique. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Studies in invertebrate models have used techniques that achieve mitochondrial replacement to create offspring with novel combinations of mitochondrial and nuclear genotype...
May 11, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755410/mitochondrial-chaperones-in-the-brain-safeguarding-brain-health-and-metabolism
#7
José Pedro Castro, Kristina Wardelmann, Tilman Grune, André Kleinridders
The brain orchestrates organ function and regulates whole body metabolism by the concerted action of neurons and glia cells in the central nervous system. To do so, the brain has tremendously high energy consumption and relies mainly on glucose utilization and mitochondrial function in order to exert its function. As a consequence of high rate metabolism, mitochondria in the brain accumulate errors over time, such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, reactive oxygen species, and misfolded and aggregated proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755342/mitochondria-estrogen-and-female-brain-aging
#8
REVIEW
Imane Lejri, Amandine Grimm, Anne Eckert
Mitochondria play an essential role in the generation of steroid hormones including the female sex hormones. These hormones are, in turn, able to modulate mitochondrial activities. Mitochondria possess crucial roles in cell maintenance, survival and well-being, because they are the main source of energy as well as of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cell. The impairment of these important organelles is one of the central features of aging. In women's health, estrogen plays an important role during adulthood not only in the estrous cycle, but also in the brain via neuroprotective, neurotrophic and antioxidant modes of action...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748880/the-cytotoxic-effects-of-propolis-on-breast-cancer-cells-involve-pi3k-akt-and-erk1-2-pathways-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-and-reactive-oxygen-species-generation
#9
Yahima Frión-Herrera, Alexis Díaz-García, Jenny Ruiz-Fuentes, Hermis Rodríguez-Sánchez, José M Sforcin
Propolis has been extensively used to improve health and prevent inflammatory diseases. Different types of Cuban propolis (red, brown and yellow) have been documented. The purpose of this research was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Cuban red propolis (CP) on MDA MB-231 cell line, since breast cancer is considered one of the most common causes of mortality among women. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of CP against MDA MB-231 cells were determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylth-iazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays...
May 10, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745447/dna-methylation-pattern-of-bovine-blastocysts-associated-to-hyperinsulinemia-in-vitro
#10
Denise Laskowski, Patrice Humblot, Marc-André Sirard, Ylva Sjunnesson, Naveed Jhamat, Renée Båge, Göran Andersson
Insulin functions as a regulator of metabolism and plays an important role in reproduction. Hyperinsulinemia is often observed in obesity and diabetes type 2 and is known to impair fertility, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partly understood. Metabolic programming through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation during embryonic development can lead to health implications for the offspring later in life. Our aim was to study the potential effect of hyperinsulinemia on gene expression and DNA methylation of embryos by adding insulin (0...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743987/critical-role-of-zinc-as-either-an-antioxidant-or-a-prooxidant-in-cellular-systems
#11
REVIEW
Sung Ryul Lee
Zinc is recognized as an essential trace metal required for human health; its deficiency is strongly associated with neuronal and immune system defects. Although zinc is a redox-inert metal, it functions as an antioxidant through the catalytic action of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase, stabilization of membrane structure, protection of the protein sulfhydryl groups, and upregulation of the expression of metallothionein, which possesses a metal-binding capacity and also exhibits antioxidant functions. In addition, zinc suppresses anti-inflammatory responses that would otherwise augment oxidative stress...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743972/the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly-of-ros-new-insights-on-aging-and-aging-related-diseases-from-eukaryotic-and-prokaryotic-model-organisms
#12
REVIEW
Ana L Santos, Sanchari Sinha, Ariel B Lindner
Aging is associated with the accumulation of cellular damage over the course of a lifetime. This process is promoted in large part by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated via cellular metabolic and respiratory pathways. Pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and genetic interventions have been used to target cellular and mitochondrial networks in an effort to decipher aging and age-related disorders. While ROS historically have been viewed as a detrimental byproduct of normal metabolism and associated with several pathologies, recent research has revealed a more complex and beneficial role of ROS in regulating metabolism, development, and lifespan...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742915/redox-regulation-of-hexokinases
#13
Petr Heneberg
Significance Hexokinases are key enzymes that are responsible for the first reaction of glycolysis, but they also moonlight other cellular processes, including mitochondrial redox signaling regulation. Modulation of hexokinase activity and spatiotemporal location by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as other gasotransmitters serves as the basis for a unique, underexplored method of tight and flexible regulation of these fundamental enzymes. Recent advances Redox modifications of thiols serve as a molecular code that enables the precise and complex regulation of hexokinases...
May 10, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742430/manipulation-of-mitochondria-dynamics-reveals-separate-roles-for-form-and-function-in-mitochondria-distribution
#14
Tatiana Trevisan, Diana Pendin, Aldo Montagna, Sergio Bova, Anna Maria Ghelli, Andrea Daga
Mitochondria shape is controlled by membrane fusion and fission mediated by mitofusins, Opa1, and Drp1, whereas mitochondrial motility relies on microtubule motors. These processes govern mitochondria subcellular distribution, whose defects are emphasized in neurons because of their polarized structure. We have studied how perturbation of the fusion/fission balance affects mitochondria distribution in Drosophila axons. Knockdown of Marf or Opa1 resulted in progressive loss of distal mitochondria and in a distinct oxidative phosphorylation and membrane potential deficit...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736732/prevalence-and-genotyping-of-echinococcus-granulosus-in-sheep-in-narok-county-kenya
#15
D O Odongo, C M Tiampati, E Mulinge, C K Mbae, R P Bishop, E Zeyhle, J Magambo, M Wasserman, P Kern, T Romig
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus species (sensu lato, s.l.). In East Africa, several species/strains occur in livestock, wildlife, and humans, but there is limited information on frequencies of infection by different genotypes in the various mammalian hosts. We have obtained data on E. granulosus infection prevalence in sheep sampled from abattoirs in Narok County, southern Kenya. We inspected carcasses for the presence of hydatid cysts in 180 sheep randomly selected in five sub-locations...
May 8, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733314/creating-a-structurally-realistic-finite-element-geometric-model-of-a-cardiomyocyte-to-study-the-role-of-cellular-architecture-in-cardiomyocyte-systems-biology
#16
Vijay Rajagopal, Gregory Bass, Shouryadipta Ghosh, Hilary Hunt, Cameron Walker, Eric Hanssen, Edmund Crampin, Christian Soeller
With the advent of three-dimensional (3D) imaging technologies such as electron tomography, serial-block-face scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, the scientific community has unprecedented access to large datasets at sub-micrometer resolution that characterize the architectural remodeling that accompanies changes in cardiomyocyte function in health and disease. However, these datasets have been under-utilized for investigating the role of cellular architecture remodeling in cardiomyocyte function...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732722/network-correlation-analysis-revealed-potential-new-mechanisms-for-neural-tube-defects-beyond-folic-acid
#17
Xiaoya Gao, Richard H Finnell, Hongyan Wang, Yufang Zheng
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are clinically significant congenital malformations which are known to be folic acid (FA) responsive, such that supplementation significantly reduces the prevalence of NTDs. Nonetheless, some individuals fail to respond to FA supplementation; hence NTDs remain a significant public health concern. The mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of FA supplementation remain poorly understood. Mouse models have been used extensively to study the mechanisms driving neural tube closure (NTC)...
May 6, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732485/role-of-melatonin-in-aluminum-related-neurodegenerative-disorders-a-review
#18
José L Esparza, Mercedes Gómez, José L Domingo
Aluminum (Al), a potentially neurotoxic element, provokes various adverse effects on human health such as dialysis dementia, osteomalacia, and microcytic anemia. It has been also associated with serious neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinsonism dementia of Guam. The "aluminum hypothesis" of AD assumes that the metal complexes can potentiate the rate of aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ), enhancing the toxicity of this peptide, and being able of contributing to the pathogenesis of AD...
May 7, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731891/synergistic-effects-of-cisplatin-caffeic-acid-induces-apoptosis-in-human-cervical-cancer-cells-via-the-mitochondrial-pathways
#19
Amonrat Koraneekit, Temduang Limpaiboon, Arunnee Sangka, Patcharee Boonsiri, Sakda Daduang, Jureerut Daduang
Cervical cancer (CxCa) is a major health problem globally and is associated with the presence of human papillomavirus infection. Cisplatin (CDDP) is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent. Owing to its side effects and drug-resistance, novel anticancer agents with lower toxicity, including caffeic acid (CFC), are of interest. However, the effects of CDDP and CFC in combination are, to the best of our knowledge, uninvestigated. The present study investigated the effectiveness of CDDP and CFC in combination and its mechanism of action on four human cervical cancer cell lines, which were compared with the Chlorocebus sabaeus normal kidney Vero cell line...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729853/microscale-frictional-strains-determine-chondrocyte-fate-in-loaded-cartilage
#20
Edward D Bonnevie, Michelle L Delco, Lena R Bartell, Naveen Jasty, Itai Cohen, Lisa A Fortier, Lawrence J Bonassar
Mounting evidence suggests that altered lubricant levels within synovial fluid have acute biological consequences on chondrocyte homeostasis. While these responses have been connected to increased friction, the mechanisms behind this response remain unknown. Here, we combine a frictional bioreactor with confocal elastography and image-based cellular assays to establish the link between cartilage friction, microscale shear strain, and acute, adverse cellular responses. Our incorporation of cell-scale strain measurements reveals that elevated friction generates high shear strains localized near the tissue surface, and that these elevated strains are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and cell death...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
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