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Mitochondrial health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318508/effects-of-novel-brominated-flame-retardant-tbph-and-its-metabolite-tbmehp-on-human-vascular-endothelial-cells-implication-for-human-health-risks
#1
Ping Xiang, Rong-Yan Liu, Hong-Jie Sun, Yun-Wen Yang, Xin-Yi Cui, Lena Q Ma
As a replacement for polybrominated diphenyl ethers, bis-(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) is widely used as a novel flame retardant and has been detected in many environmental matrix including human blood. TBPH can be metabolized into mono-(2-ethyhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBMEHP) by carboxylesterase. However, their adverse effects on human vascular endothelium and their potential impacts on human cardiovascular disease are unknown. In this study, their adverse effects and associated molecular mechanisms on human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317895/upregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-through-the-elevation-of-cyclic-amp-levels-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-enhances-exercise-performance
#2
Toshiya Matsukawa, Hideko Motojima, Yuki Sato, Shinya Takahashi, Myra O Villareal, Hiroko Isoda
Regular exercise and physical training enhance physiological capacity and improve metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscles require peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the process of their adaptation to exercise owing to PGC-1α's ability to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G) is a natural polyphenol and a nutraceutical factor, which has several beneficial effects on human health. Here, the effect of Cy3G on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms involved were investigated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301072/pre-conditions-for-eliminating-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-maintaining-liver-function-after-hepatic-ischaemia-reperfusion
#3
REVIEW
Chenxia Hu, Lanjuan Li
The liver, the largest organ with multiple synthesis and secretion functions in mammals, consists of hepatocytes and Kupffer, stem, endothelial, stellate and other parenchymal cells. Because of early and extensive contact with the external environment, hepatic ischaemia reperfusion (IR) may result in mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy and apoptosis of cells and tissues under various pathological conditions. Because the liver requires a high oxygen supply to maintain normal detoxification and synthesis functions, it is extremely susceptible to ischaemia and subsequent reperfusion with blood...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296041/mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-and-dysfunction-induced-by-single-and-multi-wall-carbon-nanotubes-a-comparative-study
#4
Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Fatemeh Ghanbary, Enayatollah Seydi, Alireza Ghasemi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Khadijeh Ashtari, Mohsen Akbari
With the ever-increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in health-related and engineering applications, the hazardous risks of this material have become a major concern. It is well-known that CNTs accumulate with cytotoxic and genotoxic levels within vital organs. It has also been shown that treating cell cultures with CNTs resulted in cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis/necrosis. The goal of this pilot study is to perform a comprehensive comparative study on the toxicity of single-wall (SW) and multi-wall (MW) carbon nanotubes in rat skin cells...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295377/time-restricted-feeding-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-cardiometabolic-disorders
#5
Girish C Melkani, Satchidananda Panda
The soaring prevalence of obesity and diabetes is associated with an increase in comorbidities, including elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CVDs continue to be among the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. While increased nutrition intake from an energy dense diet is known to disrupt metabolic homeostasis and contributes to the disease risk, circadian rhythm disruption is emerging as a new risk factor for CVD. Circadian rhythms coordinate cardiovascular health via temporal control of organismal metabolism and physiology...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292876/maternal-exercise-upregulates-mitochondrial-gene-expression-and-increases-enzyme-activity-of-fetal-mouse-hearts
#6
Eunhee Chung, Hayli E Joiner, Tracer Skelton, Kalli D Looten, Maria Manczak, P Hemachandra Reddy
Maternal exercise during pregnancy has been shown to improve the long-term health of offspring in later life. Mitochondria are important organelles for maintaining adequate heart function, and mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on mitochondrial biogenesis in hearts are not well understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial gene expression in fetal myocardium would be upregulated by maternal exercise...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291566/with-the-help-of-mom-mitochondrial-contributions-to-cellular-quality-control
#7
REVIEW
Ralf J Braun, Benedikt Westermann
Mitochondria are essential organelles because they have key roles in cellular energy metabolism and many other metabolic pathways. Several quality control systems have evolved to ensure that dysfunctional mitochondria are either repaired or eliminated. The activities of these pathways are crucial for cellular health because they maintain functional mitochondria. In addition, the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the mitochondria-associated degradation pathway (MAD) share some of their core components, are functionally tightly interconnected, and mutually modulate their activities...
March 10, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289216/b-vitamins-attenuate-the-epigenetic-effects-of-ambient-fine-particles-in-a-pilot-human-intervention-trial
#8
Jia Zhong, Oskar Karlsson, Guan Wang, Jun Li, Yichen Guo, Xinyi Lin, Michele Zemplenyi, Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Letizia Trevisi, Bruce Urch, Mary Speck, Liming Liang, Brent A Coull, Petros Koutrakis, Frances Silverman, Diane R Gold, Tangchun Wu, Andrea A Baccarelli
Acute exposure to fine particle (PM2.5) induces DNA methylation changes implicated in inflammation and oxidative stress. We conducted a crossover trial to determine whether B-vitamin supplementation averts such changes. Ten healthy adults blindly received a 2-h, controlled-exposure experiment to sham under placebo, PM2.5 (250 μg/m(3)) under placebo, and PM2.5 (250 μg/m(3)) under B-vitamin supplementation (2.5 mg/d folic acid, 50 mg/d vitamin B6, and 1 mg/d vitamin B12), respectively. We profiled epigenome-wide methylation before and after each experiment using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in peripheral CD4(+) T-helper cells...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286310/joint-toxicity-of-chlorpyrifos-and-cadmium-on-the-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-damage-in-neuronal-cells
#9
Ming-Yuan Xu, Pan Wang, Ying-Jian Sun, Lin Yang, Yi-Jun Wu
Pesticides and heavy metals can be easily biomagnified in food chains and bioaccumulated in individuals, thus pose significant threat to human health. However, their joint toxicity for long-term exposure at low dose has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we investigated the oxidative damages in brain of rats exposed subchronically to organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and heavy metal cadmium (Cd), and their mixtures at the environmentally relevant doses. Rats were given different doses of CPF and Cd by oral gavage for three months...
March 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285932/calf-raise-exercise-increases-walking-performance-in-patients-with-intermittent-claudication
#10
Michel Van Schaardenburgh, Martin Wohlwend, Øivind Rognmo, Erney Mattsson
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of intermittent claudication (IC) are improved by exercise. The improvement might be secondary to increased blood perfusion or increased muscle mitochondrial capacity. Ischemia followed by reperfusion, also named preconditioning, is known to stimulate the mitochondria. We focused on a calf raise exercise inducing preconditioning in the calf muscle of patients with IC. We hypothesized that 8 weeks of this exercise would increase walking performance and mitochondrial capacity without a change in blood flow...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282966/experimental-mitochondria-targeted-dna-methylation-identifies-gpc-methylation-not-cpg-methylation-as-potential-regulator-of-mitochondrial-gene-expression
#11
Monique G P van der Wijst, Amanda Y van Tilburg, Marcel H J Ruiters, Marianne G Rots
Like the nucleus, mitochondria contain their own DNA and recent reports provide accumulating evidence that also the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is subjective to DNA methylation. This evidence includes the demonstration of mitochondria-localised DNA methyltransferases and demethylases, and the detection of mtDNA methylation as well as hydroxymethylation. Importantly, differential mtDNA methylation has been linked to aging and diseases, including cancer and diabetes. However, functionality of mtDNA methylation has not been demonstrated...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279944/adipose-tissue-nad-homeostasis-sirtuins-and-poly-adp-ribose-polymerases-important-players-in-mitochondrial-metabolism-and-metabolic-health
#12
REVIEW
Riikka Jokinen, Sini Pirnes-Karhu, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Eija Pirinen
Obesity, a chronic state of energy overload, is characterized by adipose tissue dysfunction that is considered to be the major driver for obesity associated metabolic complications. The reasons for adipose tissue dysfunction are incompletely understood, but one potential contributing factor is adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction. Derangements of adipose tissue mitochondrial biogenesis and pathways associate with obesity and metabolic diseases. Mitochondria are central organelles in energy metabolism through their role in energy derivation through catabolic oxidative reactions...
February 27, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279520/metabolic-modulators-in-heart-disease-past-present-and-future
#13
REVIEW
Gary D Lopaschuk
Ischemic heart disease and heart failure are leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. They continue to be major burden on health care systems throughout the world, despite major advances made over the past 40 years in developing new therapeutic approaches to treat these debilitating diseases. A potential therapeutic approach that has been underutilized in treating ischemic heart disease and heart failure is "metabolic modulation." Major alterations in myocardial energy substrate metabolism occur in ischemic heart disease and heart failure, and are associated with an energy deficit in the heart...
December 21, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271489/the-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex-and-related-assemblies-in-health-and-disease
#14
Olwyn Byron, John Gordon Lindsay
The family of 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes (2-OADC), typified by the pyruvate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complex (PDC) as its most prominent member, are massive molecular machines (Mr, 4-10 million) controlling key steps in glucose homeostasis (PDC), citric acid cycle flux (OGDC, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine (BCOADC, branched-chain 2-OADC). These highly organised mitochondrial arrays, composed of multiple copies of three separate enzymes, have been widely studied as paradigms for the analysis of enzyme cooperativity, substrate channelling, protein-protein interactions and the regulation of activity by phosphorylation ...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270882/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-deficiency-and-cirrhosis-establishment
#15
REVIEW
Rocio G de la Garza, Luis Alonso Morales-Garza, Irene Martin-Estal, Inma Castilla-Cortazar
Cirrhosis represents the final stage of chronic liver damage, which can be due to different factors such as alcohol, metabolic syndrome with liver steatosis, autoimmune diseases, drugs, toxins, and viral infection, among others. Nowadays, cirrhosis is an important health problem and it is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality, being the 14th most common cause of death worldwide. The physiopathological pathways that lead to fibrosis and finally cirrhosis partly depend on the etiology. Nevertheless, some common features are shared in this complex mechanism...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270856/resistance-training-to-improve-type-2-diabetes-working-toward-a-prescription-for-the-future
#16
REVIEW
Dominik H Pesta, Renata L S Goncalves, Anila K Madiraju, Barbara Strasser, Lauren M Sparks
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is rapidly increasing, and effective strategies to manage and prevent this disease are urgently needed. Resistance training (RT) promotes health benefits through increased skeletal muscle mass and qualitative adaptations, such as enhanced glucose transport and mitochondrial oxidative capacity. In particular, mitochondrial adaptations triggered by RT provide evidence for this type of exercise as a feasible lifestyle recommendation to combat T2D, a disease typically characterized by altered muscle mitochondrial function...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261110/the-neuroinflammatory-etiopathology-of-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-me-cfs
#17
Julian A G Glassford
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating multi-systemic chronic illness of unknown etiology, classified as a neurological disorder by the World Health Organization (WHO). The symptomatology of the condition appears to emanate from a variety of sources of chronic neurological disturbance and associated distortions, and chronicity, in noxious sensory signaling and neuroimmune activation. This article incorporates a summary review and discussion of biomedical research considered relevant to this essential conception perspective...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259747/exosome-based-immunomodulation-during-aging-a-nano-perspective-on-inflamm-aging
#18
REVIEW
Francesco Prattichizzo, Luigina Micolucci, Monica Cricca, Sabrina De Carolis, Emanuela Mensà, Antonio Ceriello, Antonio Domenico Procopio, Massimiliano Bonafè, Fabiola Olivieri
Exosomes are nanovesicles formed by inward budding of endosomal membranes. They exert complex immunomodulatory effects on target cells, acting both as antigen-presenting vesicles and as shuttles for packets of information like proteins, coding and non-coding RNA, and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA fragments. Albeit different, all such functions seem to be encompassed in the adaptive mechanism mediating the complex interactions of the organism with a variety of stressors, providing both for defense and for the evolution of symbiotic relationships with others organisms (gut microbiota, bacteria, and viruses)...
March 1, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257331/vitamin-d-and-muscle-trophicity
#19
Carla Domingues-Faria, Yves Boirie, Stéphane Walrand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent findings on the involvement of vitamin D in skeletal muscle trophicity. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with reduced muscle mass and strength, and its supplementation seems effective to improve these parameters in vitamin D-deficient study participants. Latest investigations have also evidenced that vitamin D is essential in muscle development and repair. In particular, it modulates skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253984/therapeutic-strategies-for-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-oxidative-stress-in-age-related-metabolic-disorders
#20
J S Bhatti, S Kumar, M Vijayan, G K Bhatti, P H Reddy
Mitochondria are complex, intercellular organelles present in the cells and are involved in multiple roles including ATP formation, free radicals generation and scavenging, calcium homeostasis, cellular differentiation, and cell death. Many studies depicted the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in aging and pathogenesis of age-related metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Remarkable advancements have been made in understanding the structure, function, and physiology of mitochondria in metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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