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Mitochondrial health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647693/recognition-investigation-and-management-of-mitochondrial-disease
#1
REVIEW
James E Davison, Shamima Rahman
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles present in virtually all human cells that are needed for a multitude of cellular functions, including energy production, control of cell apoptosis and numerous biochemical catabolic and synthetic pathways that are critical for cellular health. Primary mitochondrial disorders are a group of greater than 200 single gene defects arising from two genomes (nuclear and mitochondrial) leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, and are associated with extremely heterogeneous phenotypes...
June 24, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647451/association-of-mitochondrial-dna-in-peripheral-blood-with-depression-anxiety-and-stress-and-adjustment-disorders-in-primary-health-care-patients
#2
Xiao Wang, Kristina Sundquist, Hamideh Rastkhani, Karolina Palmér, Ashfaque A Memon, Jan Sundquist
Mitochondrial dysfunction may result in a variety of diseases. The objectives here were to examine possible differences in mtDNA copy number between healthy controls and patients with depression, anxiety or stress- and adjustment disorders; the association between mtDNA copy number and disease severity at baseline; and the association between mtDNA copy number and response after an 8-week treatment (mindfulness, cognitive based therapy). A total of 179 patients in primary health care (age 20-64 years) with depression, anxiety and stress- and adjustment disorders, and 320 healthy controls (aged 19-70 years) were included in the study...
June 21, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646706/corn-silk-maysin-ameliorates-obesity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-via-suppression-of-lipogenesis-differentiation-and-function-of-adipocytes
#3
Chang Won Lee, Jeong Yeon Seo, Sun-Lim Kim, Jisun Lee, Ji Won Choi, Yong Il Park
Present study was aimed to investigate the potential anti-obesity effects of maysin, a major flavonoid of corn silk, in vitro and in vivo using 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells and C57BL/6 mice. Maysin decreased the levels of intracellular lipid droplets and triglycerides (TG), and down-regulated the protein expression levels of C/EBP-β, C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, and aP2 in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells, suggesting that maysin inhibits lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation. In addition, maysin was shown to induce the apoptotic cell death in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells via activation of caspase cascades and mitochondrial dysfunction, which may ultimately lead to reduction of adipose tissue mass...
June 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644429/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-studies-of-essential-oil-from-rosa-damascene-mill-kashan-iran
#4
Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Emran Habibi, Mona Modanloo
Aim Rosa damascene Mill. belongs to the family of Roseaceae and its essential oil is produced in large amounts in Iran. The wide application of rose oil has raised questions about potential adverse health effects. We have investigated cytotoxic activity and genotoxic effects of Rosa oil from Kashan, Iran. Methods The cytotoxic effect and IC50 of the essential oil on the cell lines was studied followed by MTT assay. In this assay mitochondrial oxidoreductase enzymes with reducing the tetrazolium dye MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reflect the number of viable cells...
August 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643149/surface-modification-minimizes-the-toxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#5
Balaram Das, Satyajit Tripathy, Jaydeep Adhikary, Sourav Chattopadhyay, Debasis Mandal, Sandeep Kumar Dash, Sabyasachi Das, Aditi Dey, Sankar Kumar Dey, Debasis Das, Somenath Roy
Currently toxicological research in Silver nanoparticle is a leading issue in medical science. The surface chemistry and physical dimensions of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) play an important role in toxicity. The aim of this present study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of Ag-NPs as well as the alteration of toxicity profile due to surface functionalization (PEG and BSA) and the intracellular signaling pathways involved in nanoparticles mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo system...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641197/effects-of-organophosphorus-flame-retardant-tdcpp-on-normal-human-corneal-epithelial-cells-implications-for-human-health
#6
Ping Xiang, Rong-Yan Liu, Chao Li, Peng Gao, Xin-Yi Cui, Lena Q Ma
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is one of the most detected organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in the environment, especially in indoor dust. Continuous daily exposure to TDCPP-containing dust may adversely impact human cornea. However, its detrimental effects on human corneal epithelium are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the cell apoptosis in normal human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) after TDCPP exposure and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our data indicated a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability after TDCPP exposure with LC50 at 202 μg/mL...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640814/a-novel-algorithm-identifies-stress-induced-alterations-in-mitochondrial-connectivity-and-inner-membrane-structure-from-confocal-images
#7
Mathieu Ouellet, Gérald Guillebaud, Valerie Gervais, David Lupien St-Pierre, Marc Germain
Mitochondria exist as a highly interconnected network that is exquisitely sensitive to variations in nutrient availability, as well as a large array of cellular stresses. Changes in length and connectivity of this network, as well as alterations in the mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae), regulate cell fate by controlling metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Given the key roles of mitochondrial dynamics, the process by which mitochondria constantly fuse and fragment, the measure of mitochondrial length and connectivity provides crucial information on the health and activity of various cell populations...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626500/mitophagy-transcriptome-mechanistic-insights-into-polyphenol-mediated-mitophagy
#8
REVIEW
Sijie Tan, Esther Wong
Mitochondria are important bioenergetic and signalling hubs critical for myriad cellular functions and homeostasis. Dysfunction in mitochondria is a central theme in aging and diseases. Mitophagy, a process whereby damaged mitochondria are selectively removed by autophagy, plays a key homeostatic role in mitochondrial quality control. Upregulation of mitophagy has shown to mitigate superfluous mitochondrial accumulation and toxicity to safeguard mitochondrial fitness. Hence, mitophagy is a viable target to promote longevity and prevent age-related pathologies...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626426/potential-of-central-eastern-and-western-africa-medicinal-plants-for-cancer-therapy-spotlight-on-resistant-cells-and-molecular-targets
#9
REVIEW
Armelle T Mbaveng, Victor Kuete, Thomas Efferth
Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA) regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1), human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626421/divergent-metabolic-regulation-of-autophagy-and-mtorc1-early-events-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Mai A Shafei, Matthew Harris, Myra E Conway
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive disease associated with the production and deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles, which lead to synaptic and neuronal damage. Reduced autophagic flux has been widely associated with the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AV), which has been proposed to contribute to aggregate build-up observed in AD. As such, targeting autophagy regulation has received wide review, where an understanding as to how this mechanism can be controlled will be important to neuronal health...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625718/synaptic-functions-of-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Alfonso Araque, Pablo E Castillo, Olivier J Manzoni, Raffaella Tonini
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are a family of lipid molecules that act as key regulators of synaptic transmission and plasticity. They are synthetized "on demand" following physiological and/or pathological stimuli. Once released from postsynaptic neurons, eCBs typically act as retrograde messengers to activate presynaptic type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) and induce short- or long-term depression of neurotransmitter release. Besides this canonical mechanism of action, recent findings have revealed a number of less conventional mechanisms by which eCBs regulate neural activity and synaptic function, suggesting that eCB-mediated plasticity is mechanistically more diverse than anticipated...
June 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622510/microbial-genetic-composition-tunes-host-longevity
#12
Bing Han, Priya Sivaramakrishnan, Chih-Chun J Lin, Isaiah A A Neve, Jingquan He, Li Wei Rachel Tay, Jessica N Sowa, Antons Sizovs, Guangwei Du, Jin Wang, Christophe Herman, Meng C Wang
Homeostasis of the gut microbiota critically influences host health and aging. Developing genetically engineered probiotics holds great promise as a new therapeutic paradigm to promote healthy aging. Here, through screening 3,983 Escherichia coli mutants, we discovered that 29 bacterial genes, when deleted, increase longevity in the host Caenorhabditis elegans. A dozen of these bacterial mutants also protect the host from age-related progression of tumor growth and amyloid-beta accumulation. Mechanistically, we discovered that five bacterial mutants promote longevity through increased secretion of the polysaccharide colanic acid (CA), which regulates mitochondrial dynamics and unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) in the host...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622501/microbiome-and-longevity-gut-microbes-send-signals-to-host-mitochondria
#13
Jan Gruber, Brian K Kennedy
The microbiome has emerged as a major determinant of the functioning of host organisms, affecting both health and disease. Here, Han et al. use the workhorse of aging research, C. elegans, to identify specific mechanisms by which gut bacteria influence mitochondrial dynamics and aging, a first step toward analogous manipulations to modulate human aging.
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619102/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-protects-the-heart-against-ischemic-injury-and-h9c2-cardiomyoblasts-against-oxidative-stress-involvement-of-mitochondrial-function-and-biogenesis
#14
Xiaochao Tian, Weiliang He, Rong Yang, Yingping Liu
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) is an acute and fatal condition that threatens human health. Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) has been used for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Mitochondria may play a protective role in MI injury. However, there are few reports on the cardioprotective effect of NBP or the potential mitochondrial mechanism for the NBP-induced protection against cardiac ischemia injury. We investigated the therapeutic effects of NBP in an in vivo MI model and an in vitro oxidative stress model, as well as the potential mitochondrial mechanism...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600981/pharmacologic-concentrations-of-linezolid-modify-oxidative-phosphorylation-function-and-adipocyte-secretome
#15
Laura Llobet, M Pilar Bayona-Bafaluy, David Pacheu-Grau, Elena Torres-Pérez, José M Arbones-Mainar, M Ángeles Navarro, Covadonga Gómez-Díaz, Julio Montoya, Ester López-Gallardo, Eduardo Ruiz-Pesini
The oxidative phosphorylation system is important for adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, xenobiotics inhibitors of the oxidative phosphorylation system could affect adipocyte differentiation and adipokine secretion. As adipokines impact the overall health status, these xenobiotics may have wide effects on human health. Some of these xenobiotics are widely used therapeutic drugs, such as ribosomal antibiotics. Because of its similarity to the bacterial one, mitochondrial translation system is an off-target for these compounds...
May 31, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595944/ido-chronic-immune-activation-and-tryptophan-metabolic-pathway-a-potential-pathophysiological-link-between-depression-and-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Camila Nayane Carvalho Lima, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, David Freitas de Lucena, Michael Maes, Danielle Macedo
Obesity and depression are among the most pressing health problems in the contemporary world. Obesity and depression share a bidirectional relationship, whereby each condition increases the risk of the other. By inference, shared pathways may underpin the comorbidity between obesity and depression. Activation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is a key factor in the pathophysiology of depression. CMI cytokines, including IFN-γ, TNFα and IL-1β, induce the catabolism of tryptophan (TRY) by stimulating indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) resulting in the synthesis of kynurenine (KYN) and other tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs)...
June 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595784/cadmium-triggers-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-and-monocytes-analysis-using-in-vitro-and-system-toxicology-approaches
#17
Nouf Abdulkareem Omer Alkharashi, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan Periasamy, Jegan Athinarayanan, Ali A Alshatwi
Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known heavy metal that causes environmental pollution and human health problems. Several studies attempted to assess Cd toxicity in vitro and in vivo. However, the systemic profile of cadmium toxicity has not been studied well. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of Cd on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes and gene expression, using a system toxicological approach. Cd effect on cell viability and morphology were analyzed by MTT assay and AO/EB staining respectively...
July 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595325/maternal-lifetime-stress-and-prenatal-psychological-functioning-are-associated-with-decreased-placental-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-in-the-prism-study
#18
Kelly J Brunst, Marco Sanchez Guerra, Chris Gennings, Michele Hacker, Calvin Jara, Michelle Bosquet Enlow, Robert O Wright, Andrea Baccarelli, Rosalind J Wright
Psychosocial stress contributes to placental oxidative stress. Mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress which can lead to changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn). We examined associations between maternal lifetime stress, current negative life events, depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom scores and placental mtDNAcn in a racially/ethnically diverse sample (N = 147) from the PRogramming of Intergenerational Stress Mechanisms study (March 2011- August 2012). In linear regression analyses adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, prenatal fine particulate matter, prenatal smoking, and child sex, all measures of stress were associated with decreased placental mtDNAcn (all P-values < 0...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593918/beyond-obesity-thermogenic-adipocytes-and-cardiometabolic-health
#19
Peter Aldiss, Neele Dellschaft, Harold Sacks, Helen Budge, Michael E Symonds
The global prevalence of obesity and related cardiometabolic disease continues to increase through the 21st century. Whilst multi-factorial, obesity is ultimately caused by chronic caloric excess. However, despite numerous interventions focussing on reducing caloric intake these either fail or only elicit short-term changes in body mass. There is now a focus on increasing energy expenditure instead which has stemmed from the recent 're-discovery' of cold-activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and inducible 'beige' adipocytes...
May 26, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591759/ppar%C3%AE-coactivator-1%C3%AE-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-and-renal-stress-resistance
#20
Ali Poyan Mehr, Samir M Parikh
With one of the highest mitochondrial densities in the body, the kidneys consume approximately 10% of total oxygen while constituting 0.5% of body mass. Renal respiration is linear to solute extraction, linking oxidative metabolism directly to tubular function. This fundamental role of mitochondria in renal health may become an "Achilles heel" under duress. Acute kidney injury (AKI) related to each major class of stressor - inflammation, ischemia, and toxins - exhibits early and prominent mitochondrial injury...
June 8, 2017: Nephron
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