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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209927/improved-health-span-and-lifespan-in-mtdna-mutator-mice-treated-with-the-mitochondrially-targeted-antioxidant-skq1
#1
Irina G Shabalina, Mikhail Yu Vyssokikh, Natalia Gibanova, Robert I Csikasz, Daniel Edgar, Anne Hallden-Waldemarson, Zinaida Rozhdestvenskaya, Lora E Bakeeva, Valeria B Vays, Antonina V Pustovidko, Maxim V Skulachev, Barbara Cannon, Vladimir P Skulachev, Jan Nedergaard
MtDNA mutator mice exhibit marked features of premature aging. We find that these mice treated from age of ≈100 days with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 showed a delayed appearance of traits of aging such as kyphosis, alopecia, lowering of body temperature, body weight loss, as well as ameliorated heart, kidney and liver pathologies. These effects of SkQ1 are suggested to be related to an alleviation of the effects of an enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in mtDNA mutator mice: the increased mitochondrial ROS released due to mitochondrial mutations probably interact with polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiolipin, releasing malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal that form protein adducts and thus diminishes mitochondrial functions...
February 15, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208582/nutrients-in-energy-and-one-carbon-metabolism-learning-from-metformin-users
#2
REVIEW
Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Noemi Cabre, Jordi Camps, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Jose Lopez-Miranda, Javier A Menendez, Jorge Joven
Metabolic vulnerability is associated with age-related diseases and concomitant co-morbidities, which include obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Most of the health problems we face today come from excessive intake of nutrients and drugs mimicking dietary effects and dietary restriction are the most successful manipulations targeting age-related pathways. Phenotypic heterogeneity and individual response to metabolic stressors are closely related food intake. Understanding the complexity of the relationship between dietary provision and metabolic consequences in the long term might provide clinical strategies to improve healthspan...
February 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207880/skeletal-muscle-metabolic-adaptations-to-endurance-exercise-training-are-attainable-in-mice-with-simvastatin-treatment
#3
William M Southern, Anna S Nichenko, Daniel D Shill, Corey C Spencer, Nathan T Jenkins, Kevin K McCully, Jarrod A Call
We tested the hypothesis that a 6-week regimen of simvastatin would attenuate skeletal muscle adaptation to low-intensity exercise. Male C57BL/6J wildtype mice were subjected to 6-weeks of voluntary wheel running or normal cage activities with or without simvastatin treatment (20 mg/kg/d, n = 7-8 per group). Adaptations in in vivo fatigue resistance were determined by a treadmill running test, and by ankle plantarflexor contractile assessment. The tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and plantaris muscles were evaluated for exercised-induced mitochondrial adaptations (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205391/influence-of-iodine-in-excess-on-seminiferous-tubular-structure-and-epididymal-sperm-character-in-male-rats
#4
Amar K Chandra, Arijit Chakraborty
Excess iodine induced public health problems are now emerging in many iodine sufficient regions for indiscriminate intake of iodine through various iodized products. It has been reported that excess iodine can disrupt overall male reproductive physiology by generating oxidative stress in the testis. However, information on the possible effect of iodine in excess on spermatozoa found less. In the present investigation flow cytometric techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to study the spermatozoal functional as well as structural status under the influence of excess iodine; generation of ROS in the spermatozoa as evident by DCFDA, altered acrosomal integrity as observed by fluorescence lectin staining method and depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) noticed by JC-1 staining...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202940/mitochondrial-behaviour-throughout-the-lytic-cycle-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#5
Jana Ovciarikova, Leandro Lemgruber, Krista L Stilger, William J Sullivan, Lilach Sheiner
Mitochondria distribution in cells controls cellular physiology in health and disease. Here we describe the mitochondrial morphology and positioning found in the different stages of the lytic cycle of the eukaryotic single-cell parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The lytic cycle, driven by the tachyzoite life stage, is responsible for acute toxoplasmosis. It is known that whilst inside a host cell the tachyzoite maintains its single mitochondrion at its periphery. We found that upon parasite transition from the host cell to the extracellular matrix, mitochondrion morphology radically changes, resulting in a reduction in peripheral proximity...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202005/impact-of-gut-hormone-fgf-19-on-type-2-diabetes-and-mitochondrial-recovery-in-a-prospective-study-of-obese-diabetic-women-undergoing-bariatric-surgery
#6
Lucia Martinez de la Escalera, Ioannis Kyrou, Jana Vrbikova, Voitech Hainer, Petra Sramkova, Martin Fried, Milan K Piya, Sudhesh Kumar, Gyanendra Tripathi, Philip G McTernan
BACKGROUND: The ileal-derived hormone, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), may promote weight loss and facilitate type-2 diabetes mellitus remission in bariatric surgical patients. We investigated the effect of different bariatric procedures on circulating FGF-19 levels and the resulting impact on mitochondrial health in white adipose tissue (AT). METHODS: Obese and type-2 diabetic women (n = 39, BMI > 35 kg/m(2)) undergoing either biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP), or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) participated in this ethics approved study...
February 16, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197358/biocomplexity-and-fractality-in-the-search-of-biomarkers-of-aging-and-pathology-focus-on-mitochondrial-dna-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Annamaria Zaia, Pierluigi Maponi, Giuseppina Di Stefano, Tiziana Casoli
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents one major health concern for our growing elderly population. It accounts for increasing impairment of cognitive capacity followed by loss of executive function in late stage. AD pathogenesis is multifaceted and difficult to pinpoint, and understanding AD etiology will be critical to effectively diagnose and treat the disease. An interesting hypothesis concerning AD development postulates a cause-effect relationship between accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and neurodegenerative changes associated with this pathology...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196511/antiretroviral-therapy-related-adverse-effects-can-sub-saharan-africa-cope-with-the-new-test-and-treat-policy-of-the-world-health-organization
#8
Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation results in significant HIV transmission reduction. This is the rationale behind the "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Implementation of this policy will lead to an increased incidence of ART-related adverse effects, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Is the region yet ready to cope with such a challenging issue? MAIN BODY: The introduction and widespread use of ART have drastically changed the natural history of HIV/AIDS, but exposure to ART leads to serious medication-related adverse effects mainly explained by mitochondrial toxicities, and the situation will get worse in the near future...
February 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193870/disruption-of-quercetin-metabolism-by-fungicide-affects-energy-production-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#9
Wenfu Mao, Mary A Schuler, May R Berenbaum
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, detoxify phytochemicals in honey and pollen. The flavonol quercetin is found ubiquitously and abundantly in pollen and frequently at lower concentrations in honey. Worker jelly consumed during the first 3 d of larval development typically contains flavonols at very low levels, however. RNA-Seq analysis of gene expression in neonates reared for three days on diets with and without quercetin revealed that, in addition to up-regulating multiple detoxifying P450 genes, quercetin is a negative transcriptional regulator of mitochondrion-related nuclear genes and genes encoding subunits of complexes I, III, IV, and V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193782/mitochondrial-mass-and-activity-as-a-function-of-body-composition-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Laura C O'Brien, Rodney C Wade, Liron Segal, Qun Chen, Jeannie Savas, Edward J Lesnefsky, Ashraf S Gorgey
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is accompanied by deterioration in body composition and severe muscle atrophy. These changes put individuals at risk for insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To determine the relationships between skeletal muscle mitochondrial mass, activity, and body composition, 22 men with motor complete SCI were studied. Body composition assessment was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle to measure citrate synthase (CS) and complex III (CIII) activity...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192862/long-term-dietary-quercetin-enrichment-as-a-cardioprotective-countermeasure-in-mdx-mice
#11
Christopher Ballmann, Thomas Denney, Ronald J Beyers, Tiffany Quindry, Matthew Romero, Joshua T Selsby, John C Quindry
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) causes declines in cardiac health resulting in premature mortality. As a potential countermeasure, quercetin is a polyphenol possessing inherent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that activate proliferator-activated γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) increasing mitochondrial biogenesis protein abundance. We investigated the extent to which lifelong 0.2% dietary quercetin enrichment attenuates dystrophic cardiopathology in mdx mice. Dystrophic animals were fed quercetin or control diet for 12 months while control C57 mice were fed a control diet...
February 13, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192238/molecular-networks-related-to-the-immune-system-and-mitochondria-are-targets-for-the-pesticide-dieldrin-in-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio-central-nervous-system
#12
Andrew M Cowie, Kathleena I Sarty, Angella Mercer, Jin Koh, Karen A Kidd, Christopher J Martyniuk
: The objectives of this study were to determine the behavioral and molecular responses in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) central nervous system (CNS) following a dietary exposure to the pesticide dieldrin. Zebrafish were fed pellets spiked with 0.03, 0.15, or 1.8μg/g dieldrin for 21days. Behavioral analysis revealed no difference in exploratory behaviors or those related to anxiety. Transcriptional networks for T-cell aggregation and selection were decreased in expression suggesting an immunosuppressive effect of dieldrin, consistent with other studies investigating organochlorine pesticides...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191529/the-green-tea-polyphenol-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-and-its-beneficial-roles-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
REVIEW
Hui Bao, Ai Peng
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a condition that affects around 10% of the population, has become a significant public health concern. Current therapeutic strategies to slow down the progression of CKD remain limited. Thus, it is urgent to develop new strategies to manage the patients with CKD. Work within the past decade has improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to CKD. In particular, oxidative stress as well as inflammation appears to play a pivotal role in CKD progression. ()-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin of green tea extract, is known as a powerful antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenger...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190529/mitophagy-and-alzheimer-s-disease-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Jesse S Kerr, Bryan A Adriaanse, Nigel H Greig, Mark P Mattson, M Zameel Cader, Vilhelm A Bohr, Evandro F Fang
Neurons affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience mitochondrial dysfunction and a bioenergetic deficit that occurs early and promotes the disease-defining amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and Tau pathologies. Emerging findings suggest that the autophagy/lysosome pathway that removes damaged mitochondria (mitophagy) is also compromised in AD, resulting in the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria. Results in animal and cellular models of AD and in patients with sporadic late-onset AD suggest that impaired mitophagy contributes to synaptic dysfunction and cognitive deficits by triggering Aβ and Tau accumulation through increases in oxidative damage and cellular energy deficits; these, in turn, impair mitophagy...
February 9, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186866/toward-postgenomics-ophthalmology-a-proteomic-map-of-the-human-choroid-retinal-pigment-epithelium-tissue
#15
Manjunath Dammalli, Krishna R Murthy, Sneha M Pinto, Kalpana Babu Murthy, Raja Sekhar Nirujogi, Anil K Madugundu, Gourav Dey, Bipin Nair, Harsha Gowda, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad
Ophthalmology and visual health research have received relatively limited attention from the personalized medicine community, but this trend is rapidly changing. Postgenomics technologies such as proteomics are being utilized to establish a baseline biological variation map of the human eye and related tissues. In this context, the choroid is the vascular layer situated between the outer sclera and the inner retina. The choroidal circulation serves the photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The RPE is a layer of cuboidal epithelial cells adjacent to the neurosensory retina and maintains the outer limit of the blood-retina barrier...
February 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185987/real-time-pcr-strategy-for-the-identification-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-discrete-typing-units-directly-in-chronically-infected-human-blood
#16
Catalina Muñoz-San Martín, Werner Apt, Inés Zulantay
The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health problem in Latin America. This parasite has a complex population structure comprised by six or seven major evolutionary lineages (discrete typing units or DTUs) TcI-TcVI and TcBat, some of which have apparently resulted from ancient hybridization events. Because of the existence of significant biological differences between these lineages, strain characterization methods have been essential to study T. cruzi in its different vectors and hosts...
February 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181526/no-effect-of-mitochondrial-genotype-on-reproductive-plasticity-following-exposure-to-a-non-infectious-pathogen-challenge-in-female-or-male-drosophila
#17
M Nystrand, E J Cassidy, D K Dowling
Mitochondrial genetic variation shapes the expression of life-history traits associated with reproduction, development and survival, and has also been associated with the prevalence and progression of infectious bacteria and viruses in humans. The breadth of these effects on multifaceted components of health, and their link to disease susceptibility, led us to test whether variation across mitochondrial haplotypes affected reproductive success following an immune challenge in the form of a non-infectious pathogen...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178523/the-mitochondrial-rhomboid-protease-parl-is-regulated-by-pdk2-to-integrate-mitochondrial-quality-control-and-metabolism
#18
Guang Shi, G Angus McQuibban
Mitochondrial quality control (MQC) systems are essential for mitochondrial health and normal cellular function. Dysfunction of MQC is emerging as a central mechanism for the pathogenesis of various diseases, including Parkinson's disease. The mammalian mitochondrial rhomboid protease, PARL, has been proposed as a regulator of PINK1/PARKIN-mediated mitophagy, which is an essential component of MQC. PARL undergoes an N-terminal autocatalytic cleavage (β cleavage), which is required for efficient mitophagy...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163822/arsenite-effects-on-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-in-human-and-mouse-primary-hepatocytes-follow-a-nonlinear-dose-response
#19
Hemantkumar Chavan, Pamela Christudoss, Kristen Mickey, Robert Tessman, Hong-Min Ni, Russell Swerdlow, Partha Krishnamurthy
Arsenite is a known carcinogen and its exposure has been implicated in a variety of noncarcinogenic health concerns. Increased oxidative stress is thought to be the primary cause of arsenite toxicity and the toxic effect is thought to be linear with detrimental effects reported at all concentrations of arsenite. But the paradigm of linear dose response in arsenite toxicity is shifting. In the present study we demonstrate that arsenite effects on mitochondrial respiration in primary hepatocytes follow a nonlinear dose response...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159302/2d-dige-as-a-proteomic-biomarker-discovery-tool-in-environmental-studies-with-procambarus-clarkii
#20
Ricardo Fernández-Cisnal, Miguel A García-Sevillano, José L Gómez-Ariza, Carmen Pueyo, Juan López-Barea, Nieves Abril
: A 2D-DIGE/MS approach was used to assess protein abundance differences in the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii from polluted aquatic ecosystems of Doñana National Park and surrounding areas with different pollution loads. Procambarus clarkii accumulated metals in the digestive glands and gills reflecting sediment concentrations. We first stated that, probably related to elements accumulation, pollution increased oxidative damage in P. clarkii tissues, as shown by the thiol oxidation status of proteins and MDA levels...
January 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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