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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431037/gestational-diabetes-alters-functions-in-offspring-s-umbilical-cord-cells-with-implications-for-cardiovascular-health
#1
Ajith Isaac Amrithraj, Anjaneyulu Kodali, Linh Nguyen, Adrian Kee Keong Teo, Cheng Wei Chang, Neerja Karnani, Kai Lyn Ng, Peter D Gluckman, Yap Seng Chong, Walter Stünkel
As non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus have their roots in prenatal development and conditions such as maternal gestational diabetes (GDM), we aimed to test this hypothesis in primary cells derived from the offspring of GDM mothers compared to control subjects. We have assessed primary umbilical cord derived cells such as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) from both, the offspring of GDM and non-GDM mothers. We have compared the primary isolates in cell based assays measuring proliferation, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and the ability to support blood vessel growth...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420091/dietary-sugars-and-endogenous-formation-of-advanced-glycation-endproducts-emerging-mechanisms-of-disease
#2
REVIEW
Manuela Aragno, Raffaella Mastrocola
The rapid increase in metabolic diseases, which occurred in the last three decades in both industrialized and developing countries, has been related to the rise in sugar-added foods and sweetened beverages consumption. An emerging topic in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to modern nutrition is the role of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs). AGEs can be ingested with high temperature processed foods, but also endogenously formed as a consequence of a high dietary sugar intake. Animal models of high sugar consumption, in particular fructose, have reported AGE accumulation in different tissues in association with peripheral insulin resistance and lipid metabolism alterations...
April 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416944/evaluation-of-digital-pcr-as-a-technique-for-monitoring-acute-rejection-in-kidney-transplantation
#3
Hyeseon Lee, Young-Mi Park, Yu-Mee We, Duck Jong Han, Jung-Woo Seo, Haena Moon, Yu-Ho Lee, Yang-Gyun Kim, Ju-Young Moon, Sang-Ho Lee, Jong-Keuk Lee
Early detection and proper management of kidney rejection are crucial for the long-term health of a transplant recipient. Recipients are normally monitored by serum creatinine measurement and sometimes with graft biopsies. Donor-derived cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid (cfDNA) in the recipient's plasma and/or urine may be a better indicator of acute rejection. We evaluated digital PCR (dPCR) as a system for monitoring graft status using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based detection of donor DNA in plasma or urine...
March 2017: Genomics & Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415709/a-peptide-derived-from-apoptin-inhibits-glioma-growth
#4
Liqiu Zhang, Hengyu Zhao, Zhongqi Cui, Yueshan Lv, Wenjia Zhang, Xiaoyu Ma, Jianan Zhang, Banghao Sun, Danyang Zhou, Lijie Yuan
Glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with poor prognosis due to its resistance to surgery, irradiation, and conventional chemotherapy. Thus, efficient therapeutic approaches for the treatment of GBM are urgently needed. HSP70 is an antiapoptotic protein that participates in the inhibition of both mitochondrial and membrane receptor apoptosis pathways and is highly expressed in glioma tissues. Here, we investigated a derivative of apoptin; specifically, a chicken anemia viral protein with selective toxicity toward cancer cells that can inhibit hyperactive molecules, including HSP70...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414272/regulation-of-mitochondria-dynactin-interaction-and-mitochondrial-retrograde-transport-in-axons
#5
Catherine M Drerup, Amy L Herbert, Kelly R Monk, Alex V Nechiporuk
Mitochondrial transport in axons is critical for neural circuit health and function. While several proteins have been found that modulate bidirectional mitochondrial motility, factors that regulate unidirectional mitochondrial transport have been harder to identify. In a genetic screen, we found a zebrafish strain in which mitochondria fail to attach to the dynein retrograde motor. This strain carries a loss-of-function mutation in actr10, a member of the dynein-associated complex dynactin. The abnormal axon morphology and mitochondrial retrograde transport defects observed in actr10 mutants are distinct from dynein and dynactin mutant axonal phenotypes...
April 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413933/primer-in-genetics-and-genomics-article-3-explaining-human-diversity-the-role-of-dna
#6
Catherine Y Read
Genetic variation lays the foundation for diversity and enables humans to adapt to changing environments. The order of the nucleotides adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules of the nuclear chromosomes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) plays an important role in normal cell division, tissue development, and reproduction but is susceptible to alteration from a large number of random, inherited, or environmental events. Variations can range from a change in a single nucleotide to duplication of entire chromosomes...
May 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413863/metabolism-and-homeostasis-in-the-kidney-metabolic-regulation-through-insulin-signaling-in-the-kidney
#7
REVIEW
Alexander Kuczkowski, Paul T Brinkkoetter
Metabolic signaling pathways orchestrate the dynamic turnover between catabolic and anabolic processes. Thereby, they ensure the viability of the cell and assure proper function of the tissue in changing environments regarding the availability of nutrients. Yet, renal cells are not considered to be prime targets of metabolic signaling. Research of the last decade has proposed new roles of specifically altered metabolic signaling pathways. In particular, the insulin signaling cascade, a potent regulator of cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis, seems to be implicated in the progression of diabetic and non-diabetic kidney disease...
April 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410388/tiger-on-the-prowl-invasion-history-and-spatio-temporal-genetic-structure-of-the-asian-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-skuse-1894-in-the-indo-pacific
#8
Andrew J Maynard, Luke Ambrose, Robert D Cooper, Weng K Chow, Joseph B Davis, Mutizwa O Muzari, Andrew F van den Hurk, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jeomhee M Hasty, Thomas R Burkot, Michael J Bangs, Lisa J Reimer, Charles Butafa, Neil F Lobo, Din Syafruddin, Yan Naung Maung Maung, Rohani Ahmad, Nigel W Beebe
BACKGROUND: Within the last century, increases in human movement and globalization of trade have facilitated the establishment of several highly invasive mosquito species in new geographic locations with concurrent major environmental, economic and health consequences. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an extremely invasive and aggressive daytime-biting mosquito that is a major public health threat throughout its expanding range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals) and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae...
April 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409855/the-mobility-of-mitochondria-intercellular-trafficking-in-health-and-disease
#9
Michael V Berridge, Jiri Neuzil
The view that genes are constrained within somatic cells is challenged by in vitro evidence, and more recently by in vivo studies which demonstrate that mitochondria with their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) payload not only can, but do move between cells in tumour models and in mouse models of tissue damage. Using mouse tumour cell models without mtDNA to reflect mtDNA damage, we have shown that these cells grow tumours only after acquiring mtDNA from cells in the local microenvironment resulting in respiration recovery, tumorigenesis and metastasis...
April 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409332/a-new-mouse-model-of-frailty-the-cu-zn-superoxide-dismutase-knockout-mouse
#10
Sathyaseelan S Deepa, Shylesh Bhaskaran, Sara Espinoza, Susan V Brooks, Anne McArdle, Malcolm J Jackson, Holly Van Remmen, Arlan Richardson
Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that is an important public health problem for the older adults living in the USA. Although several methods have been developed to measure frailty in humans, we have very little understanding of its etiology. Because the molecular basis of frailty is poorly understood, mouse models would be of great value in determining which pathways contribute to the development of frailty. More importantly, mouse models would be critical in testing potential therapies to treat and possibly prevent frailty...
April 13, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408214/prevalence-and-genotypic-characterization-of-bovine-echinococcus-granulosus-isolates-by-using-cytochrome-oxidase-1-co1-gene-in-hyderabad-pakistan
#11
Muhammad Ehsan, Nasreen Akhter, Bachal Bhutto, Abdullah Arijo, Javaid Ali Gadahi
Cystic echinococcosis is an important zoonotic disease; it has serious impacts on animals as well as human health throughout the world. Genotypic characterization of Echinocossus granulosus (E. granulosus) in buffaloes has not been addressed in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the incidence and genotypic characterization of bovine E. granulosus. Out of 832 buffaloes examined, 112 (13.46%) were found infected. The favorable site for hydatid cyst development was liver (8.65%) followed by lungs (4...
April 4, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408026/the-aging-cardiovascular-system-understanding-it-at-the-cellular-and-clinical-levels
#12
REVIEW
Francesco Paneni, Candela Diaz Cañestro, Peter Libby, Thomas F Lüscher, Giovanni G Camici
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) presents a great burden for elderly patients, their caregivers, and health systems. Structural and functional alterations of vessels accumulate throughout life, culminating in increased risk of developing CVD. The growing elderly population worldwide highlights the need to understand how aging promotes CVD in order to develop new strategies to confront this challenge. This review provides examples of some major unresolved clinical problems encountered in daily cardiovascular practice as we care for elderly patients...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401733/effects-of-metals-cadmium-and-chromium-alone-and-in-combination-on-the-liver-and-kidney-tissue-of-male-spraque-dawley-rats-an-ultrastructural-and-electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy-investigation
#13
Chantelle Venter, Hester Magdalena Oberholzer, Franscious Riccardo Cummings, Megan Jean Bester
Heavy metal pollution has increased in the last decades. Water sources are contaminated and human exposure is often long term exposure to variable amounts of different metals. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed via oral gavage for 28 days to cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr), alone and in combination at concentrations 1000 times the human World Health Organization's acceptable water limits. Rat equivalent dosages were used. Blood markers of liver and kidney function were measured, changes to cellular morphology was determined with transmission electron microscopy and the intracellular metal localisation was determined with the electron energy-loss spectroscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy analysis...
April 12, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401438/resveratrol-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-decreases-chronological-life-span-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-in-a-glucose-dependent-manner
#14
Minerva Ramos-Gomez, Ivanna Karina Olivares-Marin, Melina Canizal-García, Juan Carlos González-Hernández, Gerardo M Nava, Luis Alberto Madrigal-Perez
A broad range of health benefits have been attributed to resveratrol (RSV) supplementation in mammalian systems, including the increases in longevity. Nonetheless, despite the growing number of studies performed with RSV, the molecular mechanism by which it acts still remains unknown. Recently, it has been proposed that inhibition of the oxidative phosphorylation activity is the principal mechanism of RSV action. This mechanism suggests that RSV might induce mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in oxidative damage to cells with a concomitant decrease of cell viability and cellular life span...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399507/the-emerging-role-of-retromer-in-neuroprotection
#15
REVIEW
Kirsty J McMillan, Hendrick C Korswagen, Peter J Cullen
Efficient sorting and transportation of integral membrane proteins, such as ion channels, nutrient transporters, signalling receptors, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules is essential for the function of cellular organelles and hence organism development and physiology. Retromer is a master controller of integral membrane protein sorting and transport through one of the major sorting station within eukaryotic cells, the endosomal network. Subtle de-regulation of retromer is an emerging theme in the pathoetiology of Parkinson's disease...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399302/genetic-diversity-and-phylogenetic-relationships-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunit-i-in-cimex-hemipterus-hemiptera-cimicidae-populations-in-malaysia
#16
Siti Nor Ain Seri Masran, Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid
The tropical bed bug is scientifically recognized as a significant public health problem. While there is an increased awareness about their resurgence by medical and life science committees, efficient bed bug management still remains unresolved. The solution may soon arise, as information about bed bugs' infestation dynamics and systematics are becoming more distinguishable. Recent developments in studies about bed bugs are based on molecular intervention by determining their genetic variation and phylogeography...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397803/tomatidine-enhances-lifespan-and-healthspan-in-c-elegans-through-mitophagy-induction-via-the-skn-1-nrf2-pathway
#17
Evandro F Fang, Tyler B Waltz, Henok Kassahun, Qiping Lu, Jesse S Kerr, Marya Morevati, Elayne M Fivenson, Bradley N Wollman, Krisztina Marosi, Mark A Wilson, Wendy B Iser, D Mark Eckley, Yongqing Zhang, Elin Lehrmann, Ilya G Goldberg, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Mark P Mattson, Hilde Nilsen, Vilhelm A Bohr, Kevin G Becker
Aging is a major international concern that brings formidable socioeconomic and healthcare challenges. Small molecules capable of improving the health of older individuals are being explored. Small molecules that enhance cellular stress resistance are a promising avenue to alleviate declines seen in human aging. Tomatidine, a natural compound abundant in unripe tomatoes, inhibits age-related skeletal muscle atrophy in mice. Here we show that tomatidine extends lifespan and healthspan in C. elegans, an animal model of aging which shares many major longevity pathways with mammals...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395669/single-swim-sessions-in-c-elegans-induce-key-features-of-mammalian-exercise
#18
Ricardo Laranjeiro, Girish Harinath, Daniel Burke, Bart P Braeckman, Monica Driscoll
BACKGROUND: Exercise exerts remarkably powerful effects on metabolism and health, with anti-disease and anti-aging outcomes. Pharmacological manipulation of exercise benefit circuits might improve the health of the sedentary and the aging populations. Still, how exercised muscle signals to induce system-wide health improvement remains poorly understood. With a long-term interest in interventions that promote animal-wide health improvement, we sought to define exercise options for Caenorhabditis elegans...
April 10, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395172/monocyte-bioenergetic-function-is-associated-with-body-composition-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-women
#19
Amanda L Willig, Philip A Kramer, Balu K Chacko, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Sonya L Heath, E Turner Overton
Women living with HIV may present with high levels of body fat that are associated with altered bioenergetic function. Excess body fat may therefore exacerbate the bioenergetic dysfunction observed with HIV infection. To determine if body fat is associated with bioenergetic function in HIV, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 42 women with HIV who were virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy. Body composition was determined via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of monocytes was sorted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from participants in the fasting state...
April 4, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394280/acute-pre-post-treatment-with-8th-day-sod-like-supreme-a-free-radical-scavenging-health-product-protects-against-oxidant-induced-injury-in-cultured-cardiomyocytes-and-hepatocytes-in-vitro-as-well-as-in-mouse-myocardium-and-liver-in-vivo
#20
Pou Kuan Leong, Jihang Chen, Wing Man Chan, Hoi Yan Leung, Lincoln Chan, Kam Ming Ko
8th Day superoxide dismutase (SOD)-Like Supreme (SOD-Like Supreme, a free radical scavenging health product) is an antioxidant-enriched fermentation preparation with free radical scavenging properties. In the present study, the cellular/tissue protective actions of SOD-Like Supreme against menadione toxicity in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in AML12 hepatocytes as well as oxidant-induced injury in the mouse myocardium and liver were investigated. SOD-Like Supreme was found to possess potent free radical scavenging activity in vitro as assessed by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay...
April 10, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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