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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924712/cytotoxicity-of-carbon-nanohorns-in-different-human-cells-of-the-respiratory-system
#1
Franziska Schramm, Martina Lange, Pia Hoppmann, Astrid Heutelbeck
One of the new synthetic carbon-based nanomaterials is carbon nanohorns (CNH). A potential risk for employees of production processes is an unintentional intake of these nanomaterials via inhalation. Once taken up, nanoparticles might interact with cells of different tissues as well as with intercellular substances. These interactions may have far-reaching consequences for human health. Currently, many gaps in available information on the CNH toxicological profile remain. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of CNH particles on human epithelial cells of the respiratory system with special consideration given to different particle sizes...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920337/effect-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-acrylamide-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pc12-cells
#2
Y He, D Tan, Y Mi, B Bai, D Jiang, X Zhou, S Ji
Acrylamide (ACR) is a chemical intermediate utilized in industry. ACR is also formed during heating of foods containing carbohydrates and amino acids. Therefore, humans are widely exposed to ACR, and ACR neurotoxicity in humans is a significant public health issue attracting wide attention. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenolic compound in green tea, in PC12 cells treated with ACR. ACR-treated PC12 cells pretreated with various concentrations of EGCG (2...
December 5, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918193/dna-barcodes-identify-medically-important-tick-species-in-canada
#3
Danielle A Ondrejicka, Kevin C Morey, Robert H Hanner
Medically important ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are often difficult to identify morphologically. A standardized, molecular approach using a 658 base pair DNA barcode sequence (from the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) was evaluated for its effectiveness in discriminating ticks in North America, with an emphasis on Canadian ticks. DNA barcodes were generated for 96 of 154 specimens representing 26 ixodid species. A genetic cluster analysis was performed on the barcode sequences, which separated specimens into haplogroups closely corresponding with morphologically identified species...
July 19, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916644/targeted-mitochondrial-uncoupling-beyond-ucp1-the-fine-line-between-death-and-metabolic-health
#4
REVIEW
Mario Ost, Susanne Keipert, Susanne Klaus
In the early 1930s, the chemical uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was promoted for the very first time as a powerful and effective weight loss pill but quickly withdrawn from the market due to its lack of tissue-selectivity with resulting dangerous side effects, including hyperthermia and death. Today, novel mitochondria- or tissue-targeted chemical uncouplers with higher safety and therapeutic values are under investigation in order to tackle obesity, diabetes and fatty liver disease. Moreover, in the past 20 years, transgenic mouse models were generated to understand the molecular and metabolic consequences of targeted uncoupling, expressing functional uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) ectopically in white adipose tissue or skeletal muscle...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914859/fine-and-ultrafine-atmospheric-particulate-matter-at-a-multi-influenced-urban-site-physicochemical-characterization-mutagenicity-and-cytotoxicity
#5
Yann Landkocz, Frédéric Ledoux, Véronique André, Fabrice Cazier, Paul Genevray, Dorothée Dewaele, Perrine J Martin, Capucine Lepers, Anthony Verdin, Lucie Courcot, Saâd Boushina, François Sichel, Maurizio Gualtieri, Pirouz Shirali, Dominique Courcot, Sylvain Billet
Particulate Matter (PM) air pollution is one of the major concerns for environment and health. Understanding the heterogeneity and complexity of fine and ultrafine PM is a fundamental issue notably for the assessment of PM toxicological effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of a multi-influenced urban site PM, with or without the ultrafine fraction. For this purpose, PM2.5-0.3 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 μm) and PM2.5 were collected in Dunkerque, a French coastal industrial city and were extensively characterized for their physico-chemical properties, including inorganic and organic species...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913844/global-dna-methylation-profiling-of-manganese-exposed-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells-reveals-epigenetic-alterations-in-parkinson-s-disease-associated-genes
#6
Prashant Tarale, Saravanadevi Sivanesan, Atul P Daiwile, Reinhard Stöger, Amit Bafana, Pravin K Naoghare, Devendra Parmar, Tapan Chakrabarti, Krishnamurthi Kannan
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for optimal functioning of cellular biochemical pathways in the central nervous system. Elevated exposure to Mn through environmental and occupational exposure can cause neurotoxic effects resulting in manganism, a condition with clinical symptoms identical to idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Epigenetics is now recognized as a biological mechanism involved in the etiology of various diseases. Here, we investigated the role of DNA methylation alterations induced by chronic Mn (100 µM) exposure in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells in relevance to Parkinson's disease...
December 2, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913683/mitochondrial-fission-and-fusion
#7
REVIEW
Hakjoo Lee, Yisang Yoon
Mitochondrial fission and fusion have been recognized as critical processes in the health of mitochondria and cells. Two decades of studies have generated a great deal of information about mitochondrial fission and fusion; however, still much needs to be understood for the basic molecular mechanisms of these important cellular processes. The core protein factors for mitochondrial fission and fusion are dynamin proteins that possess membrane-remodeling properties. This short review covers a recent development and understanding of the mechanisms by which these mechanochemical enzymes mediate mitochondrial fission and fusion...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911307/a-high-cholesterol-diet-increases-27-hydroxycholesterol-and-modifies-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-neurodegeneration-in-rabbit-hippocampus
#8
Sylwia W Brooks, Ava C Dykes, Bernard G Schreurs
Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated in numerous health problems from cardiovascular disease to neurodegeneration. High serum cholesterol levels in midlife have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life which suggests that the pathways leading to AD pathology might be activated decades before the symptoms of the disease are detected. Cholesterol-fed animals, particularly cholesterol-fed rabbits, exhibit brain pathology similar to the changes found in brains of AD patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911100/mitochondria-and-iron-current-questions
#9
Bibbin T Paul, David H Manz, Frank M Torti, Suzy V Torti
Mitochondria are cellular organelles that perform numerous bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and regulatory functions and play a central role in iron metabolism. Extracellular iron is taken up by cells and transported to the mitochondria, where it is utilized for synthesis of cofactors essential to the function of enzymes involved in oxidation-reduction reactions, DNA synthesis and repair, and a variety of other cellular processes. Areas Covered: This article reviews the trafficking of iron to the mitochondria and normal mitochondrial iron metabolism, including heme synthesis and iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908258/neurotoxicity-induced-by-mephedrone-an-up-to-date-review
#10
Flaminia Pantano, Roberta Tittarelli, Giulio Mannocchi, Roberta Pacifici, Alessandro di Luca, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Enrico Marinelli
Mephedrone is a β-ketoamphetamine belonging to the family of synthetic cathinones, an emerging class of designer drugs known for their hallucinogenic and psychostimulant properties as well as for their abuse potential. The aim of this review was to examine the emerging scientific literature on the possible mephedrone-induced neurotoxicity, yet not well defined due to the limited number of experimental studies, mainly carried on animal models. Relevant scientific articles were identified from international literature databases (Medline, Scopus, etc...
November 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906040/identity-of-fasciola-spp-in-sheep-in-egypt
#11
Said Amer, Ahmed ElKhatam, Shereif Zidan, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
BACKGROUND: In Egypt, liver flukes, Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Fasciolidae), have a serious impact on the farming industry and public health. Both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are known to occur in cattle, providing the opportunity for genetic recombination. Little is known on the identity and genetic variability of Fasciola populations in sheep. METHODS: This study was performed to determine the prevalence of liver flukes in sheep in Menofia Province as a representative area of the delta region in Egypt, as measured by postmortem examination of slaughtered animals at three abattoirs...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896594/global-cerebral-ischemia-due-to-circulatory-arrest-insights-into-cellular-pathophysiology-and-diagnostic-modalities
#12
REVIEW
Santosh K Sanganalmath, Purva Gopal, John R Parker, Richard K Downs, Joseph C Parker, Buddhadeb Dawn
Circulatory arrest (CA) remains a major unresolved public health problem in the United States; the annual incidence of which is ~0.50 to 0.55 per 1000 population. Despite seminal advances in therapeutic approaches over the past several decades, brain injury continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality after CA. In brief, CA typically results in global cerebral ischemia leading to delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal pyramidal cells as well as in the cortical layers. The dynamic changes occurring in neurons after CA are still unclear, and predicting these neurological changes in the brain still remains a difficult issue...
November 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889327/epigenetics-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Jooho Lee, Yuri Kim, Simonetta Friso, Sang-Woon Choi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a common hepatic disorder ranging from simple steatosis through steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis, is an emerging health concern. NAFLD is a pathologic condition characterized by the buildup of extra fat in liver cells that is not caused by alcohol consumption. Excess hepatic fat accumulation results from increased delivery of triglycerides (TG) to the liver or conversion of surplus carbohydrates to TG. Importantly, a subgroup of NAFLD results in hepatocellular injury and inflammation, which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and may progress to irreversible cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880996/oxidative-stress-induced-damage-to-paternal-genome-and-impact-of-meditation-and-yoga-can-it-reduce-incidence-of-childhood-cancer
#14
Dada Rima, Basant Kumar Shiv, Chawla Bhavna, Bisht Shilpa, Khan Saima
Background: Sperm DNA damage is underlying aetiology of poor implantation and pregnancy rates but also affects health of offspring and may also result in denovo mutations in germ line and post fertilization. This may result in complex diseases, polygenic disorders and childhood cancers. Childhood cancer like retinoblastoma (RB) is more prevalent in developing countries and the incidence of RB has increased more than three fold in India in the last decade. Recent studies have documented increased incidence of cancers in children born to fathers who consume alcohol in excess and tobacco or who were conceived by assisted conception...
January 9, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880854/increased-paternal-age-at-conception-is-associated-with-transcriptomic-changes-involved-in-mitochondrial-function-in-elderly-individuals
#15
Tapio Nevalainen, Laura Kananen, Saara Marttila, Juulia Jylhävä, Marja Jylhä, Antti Hervonen, Mikko Hurme
The increased paternal age at conception (PAC) has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders, thus raising questions that imply, potential health concerns in the offspring. As opposed to female oogonia, the male germ cells undergo hundreds of cell divisions during the fertile years. Thus, the advanced paternal age is associated with increase of point mutations in the male spermatogonia DNA, implying that this could be the major driving mechanism behind the paternal age effect observed in the offspring...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876411/disruption-of-mitochondrial-quality-control-in-peripheral-artery-disease-new-therapeutic-opportunities
#16
REVIEW
Cintia B Ueta, Katia S Gomes, Márcio A Ribeiro, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Julio C B Ferreira
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a multifactorial disease initially triggered by reduced blood supply to the lower extremities due to atherosclerotic obstructions. It is considered a major public health problem worldwide, affecting over 200 million people. Management of PAD includes smoking cessation, exercise, statin therapy, antiplatelet therapy, antihypertensive therapy and surgical intervention. Although these pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions usually increases blood flow to the ischemic limb, morbidity and mortality associated with PAD continue to increase...
November 19, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875996/differences-in-the-skeletal-muscle-transcriptome-profile-associated-with-extreme-values-of-fatty-acids-content
#17
Aline S M Cesar, Luciana C A Regitano, Mirele D Poleti, Sónia C S Andrade, Polyana C Tizioto, Priscila S N Oliveira, Andrezza M Felício, Michele L do Nascimento, Amália S Chaves, Dante P D Lanna, Rymer R Tullio, Renata T Nassu, James E Koltes, Eric Fritz-Waters, Gerson B Mourão, Adhemar Zerlotini-Neto, James M Reecy, Luiz L Coutinho
BACKGROUND: Lipids are a class of molecules that play an important role in cellular structure and metabolism in all cell types. In the last few decades, it has been reported that long-chain fatty acids (FAs) are involved in several biological functions from transcriptional regulation to physiological processes. Several fatty acids have been both positively and negatively implicated in different biological processes in skeletal muscle and other tissues. To gain insight into biological processes associated with fatty acid content in skeletal muscle, the aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and functional pathways related to gene expression regulation associated with FA content in cattle...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875805/voluntary-aerobic-exercise-increases-arterial-resilience-and-mitochondrial-health-with-aging-in-mice
#18
Rachel A Gioscia-Ryan, Micah L Battson, Lauren M Cuevas, Melanie C Zigler, Amy L Sindler, Douglas R Seals
Mitochondrial dysregulation and associated excessive reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production is a key source of oxidative stress in aging arteries that reduces baseline function and may influence resilience (ability to withstand stress). We hypothesized that voluntary aerobic exercise would increase arterial resilience in old mice. An acute mitochondrial stressor (rotenone) caused greater (further) impairment in peak carotid EDD in old (~27 mo., OC, n=12; -32.5±-10.5%) versus young (~7 mo., YC n=11; -5...
November 22, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875726/the-association-of-uncoupling-protein-2-ucp2-exon-8-insertion-deletion-polymorphism-and-ecg-derived-qrs-duration-a-cross-sectional-study-in-an-australian-rural-population
#19
Yvonne Yin Leng Lee, Yuling Zhou, Herbert F Jelinek, Brett D Hambly, Craig S McLachlan
BACKGROUND: Associations between inherited mitochondrial disease and cardiac conduction have been previously described. However, there are no available studies exploring the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 gene (UCP2) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms interaction on cardiac electrical conduction. Our aim was to determine if ECG-derived QRS duration is associated with UCP2 DD genotype in a cross-sectional Australian aging rural population. METHODS: A retrospective study design utilizing a rural health diabetic screening clinic data-base containing observational data from September 2011 to September 2014...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871799/molecular-mechanisms-of-pfoa-induced-toxicity-in-animals-and-humans-implications-for-health-risks
#20
REVIEW
Kan Li, Peng Gao, Ping Xiang, Xuxiang Zhang, Xinyi Cui, Lena Q Ma
As an emerging persistent organic pollutant (POP), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is one of the most abundant perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the environment. This review summarized the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of PFOA-induced toxicity in animals and humans as well as their implications for health risks in humans. Traditional PFOA-induced signal pathways such as peroxisome proliferating receptor alpha (PPARα), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and pregnane-X receptor (PXR) may not be important for PFOA-induced health effects on humans...
November 18, 2016: Environment International
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