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Psychological Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220090/adaptation-and-validation-of-a-chinese-version-of-patient-health-engagement-scale-for-patients-with-chronic-disease
#1
Yaying Zhang, Guendalina Graffigna, Andrea Bonanomi, Kai-Chow Choi, Serena Barello, Pan Mao, Hui Feng
The Patient Health Engagement Scale (PHE-s) was designed to assess the emotional and psychological attitudes of patients' engagement along their healthcare management journey. The aim of this study was to validate a culturally adapted Chinese version of the PHE-s (CPHE-s). Three hundred and seventy-seven participants were recruited from eight community health centers in a sample of patients with chronic disease in Hunan Province, China. The original Italian PHE-s was translated into Mandarin Chinese using a standardized forward-backward translation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217453/erectile-dysfunction-in-fit-and-healthy-young-men-psychological-or-pathological
#2
REVIEW
Giulia Rastrelli, Mario Maggi
Epidemiological studies consistently show that prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases with ageing. Nonetheless, complaints of ED even in younger men are becoming more and more frequent. Healthcare professionals working in Sexual Medicine but even those operating in different clinical contexts might be adequately prepared to answer this increasing requirement. ED in younger men is likely to be overlooked and dismissed without performing any medical assessment, even the most basic ones, such as collection of medical history and physical exam...
February 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210202/mechanisms-and-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#3
James Giordano, Marom Bikson, Emily S Kappenman, Vincent P Clark, H Branch Coslett, Michael R Hamblin, Roy Hamilton, Ryan Jankord, Walter J Kozumbo, R Andrew McKinley, Michael A Nitsche, J Patrick Reilly, Jessica Richardson, Rachel Wurzman, Edward Calabrese
The US Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a meeting of researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, engineering, and medicine to discuss most pressing issues facing ongoing research in the field of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and related techniques. In this study, we present opinions prepared by participants of the meeting, focusing on the most promising areas of research, immediate and future goals for the field, and the potential for hormesis theory to inform tDCS research...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208851/2d-4d-ratio-and-its-implications-in-medicine
#4
Saravanakumar Jeevanandam, Prathibha K Muthu
Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206836/a-decade-of-counseling-services-in-one-college-of-veterinary-medicine-veterinary-medical-students-psychological-distress-and-help-seeking-trends
#5
Adryanna A S Drake, McArthur Hafen, Bonnie R Rush
Much has been discussed about the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary medical students. Studies investigating general samples of veterinary medical students indicate that, on average, depression and anxiety symptoms are present at higher rates than in comparison samples. However, little is known about veterinary medical students who seek counseling. This study intends to expand the literature on veterinary student well-being, as the first to examine a sample of veterinary medical students seeking counseling services...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206833/an-exploration-of-the-relationship-between-psychological-capital-and-depression-among-first-year-doctor-of-veterinary-medicine-students
#6
Dorothy J Bakker, Sean T Lyons, Peter D Conlon
This study examined the impact of psychological capital on depressive symptoms among Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) students (n=84) over their first two semesters of studies. Our results indicated elevated rates of depression in both the first and second semesters relative to published norms. Using the typology developed by Hafen, Reisbig, White, and Rush (2008), students were classified as either "adaptive" (i.e., improving depressive symptomatology from semester to semester) or "struggling" (i.e., worsening depressive symptomatology from semester to semester)...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206808/job-matching-an-interdisciplinary-scoping-study-with-implications-for-vocational-rehabilitation-counseling
#7
Marina Nützi, Bruno Trezzini, Lorenzo Medici, Urban Schwegler
PURPOSE: Matching a person's capabilities and characteristics with the demands and characteristics of their job is crucial for sustainable employment, in particular for persons with disabilities. The present study aims to summarize and synthesize conceptual and empirical knowledge on job matching (JM) from industrial and organizational psychology (IOP), vocational psychology (VP), and return to work (RTW) research. RESEARCH METHOD: We conducted a scoping study applying Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) framework and using eight electronic databases from psychology, economics, and medicine...
February 2017: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202365/optimising-the-use-of-medicines-to-reduce-acute-kidney-injury-in-children-and-babies
#8
REVIEW
L Oni, D B Hawcutt, M A Turner, M W Beresford, S McWilliam, C Barton, B K Park, P Murray, B Wilm, I Copple, R Floyd, M Peak, A Sharma, D J Antoine
The majority of medications in children are administered in an unlicensed or off-label manner. Paediatricians are obliged to prescribe using the limited evidence available. The 2007 EU regulation on the use of paediatric drugs means pharmaceutical companies are now obliged to (and receive incentives for) contributing to paediatric drug data and carrying out paediatric clinical trials. This is important, as the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of medicines vary across childhood. Additionally, there are significant age-related changes in the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic activity of many drugs...
February 12, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198998/physical-activity-counseling-in-primary-care-insights-from-public-health-and-behavioral-economics
#9
REVIEW
Kerem Shuval, Tammy Leonard, Jeffrey Drope, David L Katz, Alpa V Patel, Melissa Maitin-Shepard, On Amir, Amir Grinstein
Physical inactivity has reached epidemic proportions in modern society. Abundant evidence points to a causal link between physical inactivity and increased risk for numerous noncommunicable diseases, such as some types of cancer and heart disease, as well as premature mortality. Yet, despite this overwhelming evidence, many individuals do not meet the recommended amount of physical activity required to achieve maximum health benefits. Because primary care physicians' advice is highly regarded, clinicians have the unique opportunity to play an important role in enabling patients to modify their behavior at the point of care with the goal of guiding patients to adopt and maintain an active lifestyle...
February 15, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190974/avoiding-misdiagnosis-in-patients-with-dyspnea-and-wheezing-a-case-report-illustrating-the-clinical-implications-of-fixation-error
#10
Fabiano Di Marco, Giuseppe Francesco Sferrazza Papa, Dejan Radovanovic, Pierachille Santus
BACKGROUND: Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous respiratory condition which can be mimicked by a wide range of pathologies including upper airways stenosis. The accurate diagnosis of asthma, as with other conditions, may be influenced by fixation errors, which are common in medicine and occur when a physician concentrates on only one element of a clinical case without considering other relevant aspects. Here we report a challenging case characterized by the contemporaneous presence of a common disease, asthma, together with a rare respiratory disease, idiopathic tracheal stenosis...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188505/undergraduate-neuroscience-majors-a-missed-opportunity-for-psychiatry-workforce-development
#11
Matthew N Goldenberg, John H Krystal
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether and to what extent medical students with an undergraduate college major in neuroscience, relative to other college majors, pursue psychiatry relative to other brain-based specialties (neurology and neurosurgery) and internal medicine. METHODS: The authors analyzed data from AAMC matriculation and graduation surveys for all students who graduated from US medical schools in 2013 and 2014 (n = 29,714). Students who majored in neuroscience, psychology, and biology were compared to all other students in terms of their specialty choice at both time points...
February 10, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185228/failures-of-cognitive-control-or-attention-the-case-of-stop-signal-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#12
Dora Matzke, Matthew Hughes, Johanna C Badcock, Patricia Michie, Andrew Heathcote
We used Bayesian cognitive modelling to identify the underlying causes of apparent inhibitory deficits in the stop-signal paradigm. The analysis was applied to stop-signal data reported by Badcock et al. (Psychological Medicine 32: 87-297, 2002) and Hughes et al. (Biological Psychology 89: 220-231, 2012), where schizophrenia patients and control participants made rapid choice responses, but on some trials were signalled to stop their ongoing response. Previous research has assumed an inhibitory deficit in schizophrenia, because estimates of the mean time taken to react to the stop signal are longer in patients than controls...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183374/experiences-of-codeine-use-misuse-and-dependence-application-of-liese-and-franz-s-cognitive-developmental-model-of-substance-abuse
#13
Marie Claire Van Hout, Ian Norman, Eileen Rich, Michael Bergin
BACKGROUND: Misuse of codeine-containing medicines is an emerging public health issue. AIMS: We present the application of Liese and Franz's (1996) cognitive developmental model of substance abuse to the trajectory from legitimate codeine use for pain, towards that of therapeutic and other forms of misuse, and physical and psychological dependence. It illustrates a cognitive behavioural analysis of the experiences of codeine misusers - which 'surfaces' the specific beliefs, thoughts, emotions and behaviours of this group of hidden codeine dependent individuals, who are distinct and unique from other opioid-dependent cohorts...
February 10, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183240/pharmacotherapy-of-persons-with-dementia-in-long-term-care-in-australia-a-descriptive-audit-of-central-nervous-system-medications
#14
Wendy Moyle, Najwan El Saifi, Brian Draper, Cindy Jones, Elizabeth Beattie, David Shum, Lukman Thalib, Cindy Mervin, Siobhan O Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia are often treated through the prescription of one or more psychotropic medications. However, limited efficacy and potential harmful side-effects has resulted in efforts to reduce the use of psychotropic medication in this population, particularly for those living in long-term care. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the pattern of central nervous system medication usage in older adults with dementia living in long-term care; assess the appropriateness of prescribing against Beers criteria; and detect potential drug interactions from co-administered medications...
February 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183083/maximizing-psychotherapy-outcome-beyond-evidence-based-medicine
#15
Michael J Lambert
Despite evidence that psychotherapy has a positive impact on psychological disorders, 30% of patients fail to respond during clinical trials, and as many as 65% of patients in routine care leave treatment without a measured benefit. In addition, therapists appear to overestimate positive outcomes in their patients relative to measured outcomes and are particularly poor at identifying patients at risk for a negative outcome. These problems suggest the need for measuring and monitoring patient treatment response over the course of treatment while applying standardized methods of identifying at-risk cases...
2017: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182485/-wolves-canis-lupus-and-dogs-canis-familiaris-differ-in-following-human-gaze-into-distant-space-but-respond-similar-to-their-packmates-gaze-correction-to-werhahn-et-al-2016
#16
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze" by Geraldine Werhahn, Zsófia Virányi, Gabriela Barrera, Andrea Sommese and Friederike Range (Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2016[Aug], Vol 130[3], 288-298). In the article, the affiliations for the second and fifth authors should be Wolf Science Center, Ernstbrunn, Austria, and Comparative Cognition, Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna/ Medical University of Vienna/University of Vienna...
February 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165442/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-probiotic-containing-toothpastes-an-in-vitro-evaluation
#17
Miro Klarić, Vjekoslav Mandić, Sanjin Lovrić, Martina Krešić Ćorić, Nikolina Zovko
Most people have heard of the placebo effect, while relatively few have heard of nocebo, even within the circles of medical staff. Placebo effect means positive results by treatment via pharmacological inert substances. In contrast to placebo, by nocebo effect, due to negative beliefs and expectations, opposite results are achieved. Said in a more formal manner, what a sick person expects, unfortunately, he/she most often gets. It is a fact that a high number of medical staff is still uninterested in placebo and nocebo effects, although they would benefit from them...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164813/exercise-and-sports-medicine-issues-in-underserved-populations
#18
REVIEW
Vincent Morelli, Daniel L Bedney, Arie Eric Dadush
Primary care providers can make a strong argument for exercise promotion in underserved communities. The benefits are vitally important in adolescent physical, cognitive, and psychological development as well as in adult disease prevention and treatment. In counseling such patients, we should take into account a patient's readiness for change and the barriers to exercise.
March 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164113/nonpharmacological-interventions-targeted-at-delirium-risk-factors-delivered-by-trained-volunteers-medical-and-psychology-students-reduced-need-for-antipsychotic-medications-and-the-length-of-hospital-stay-in-aged-patients-admitted-to-an-acute-internal-medicine
#19
Stanislaw Gorski, Karolina Piotrowicz, Krzysztof Rewiuk, Monika Halicka, Weronika Kalwak, Paulina Rybak, Tomasz Grodzicki
Purpose. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological multicomponent prevention delivered by trained volunteers (medical and psychology students), targeted at delirium risk factors in geriatric inpatients, was assessed at an internal medicine ward in Poland. Patients and Methods. Participants were recruited to intervention and control groups at the internal medicine ward (inclusion criteria: age ≥ 75, acute medical condition, basic orientation, and logical contact on admission; exclusion criteria: life expectancy < 24 hours, surgical hospitalization, isolation due to infectious disease, and discharge to other medical wards)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163842/assessment-of-maternal-knowledge-about-infantile-colic-in-saudi-arabia
#20
Hassan Al-Shehri, Bader H Al-Mogheer, Talal H Al-Sawyan, Abdulaziz Badr Abualalaa, Omar Ahmed Jarrah, Mosleh Jabari, Abdullah Al-Faris
INTRODUCTION: The infantile colic is a difficult experience met by parents in the first few months of an infant's life. This may lead to increased discomfort for infants as well as psychological distress for mothers. This study aimed at assessing the baseline knowledge of mothers in Saudi Arabia about infantile colic mainly in regard to the etiology and management. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was distributed among mothers in six primary healthcare centers (PHCC) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during their visit for immunization clinics in 2016...
December 2016: Electronic Physician
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