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Psychological Medicine

Latinka Basara, Nataša Jokić Begić, Sanja Popović Grle, Marko Jakopović, Miroslav SamarŽija
Dyspnea or breathlessness is a term primarily used in respiratory medicine. Nevertheless, in the last fifteen years, studies from other fields focus on the affective component of this complex phenomenon due to the frequent observation that psychological states can cause or be caused by dyspnea. Research so far shows that besides the biological component, dyspnea has a strong emotional and psychosocial determinant. This means that apart from its biological factors, dyspnea and its intensity are affected by emotions, personality, anxiety and depression, etc...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Tracy Trevorrow, Eric S Zhou, Jessica R Dietch, Brian D Gonzalez
The Society of Behavioral Medicine recommends school officials start middle and high school classes at 8:30 am or later. Such a schedule promotes students' sleep health, resulting in improvements in physical health, psychological well-being, attention and concentration, academic performance, and driving safety. In this position statement, we propose a four-tiered approach to promote later school start times for middle and high schools.
March 13, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Sabine Salloch, Ina C Otte, Anke Reinacher-Schick, Jochen Vollmann
The impact of patient preferences in evidence-based medicine is a complex issue which touches on theoretical questions as well as medical practice in the clinical context. The interaction between evidence-based recommendations and value-related patient preferences in clinical practice is, however, highly complex and requires not only medical knowledge but social, psychological and communicative competencies on the side of the physician. The multi-layered process of oncology physicians' clinical decision-making was explored in 14 semi-structured interviews with respect to a first diagnosis of a pancreatic adenocarcinoma...
March 12, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
Carine Smith
The modern lifestyle is characterised by various factors that cause accelerating ageing by the upregulation of oxidative stress and inflammation-two processes that are inextricably linked in an endless circle of self-propagation. Inflammation in particular is commonly accepted as aetiological factor in many chronic disease states, such as obesity, diabetes and depression. In terms of disease prevention or treatment, interventions aimed at changing dietary and/or exercise habits have had limited success in practise, mostly due to poor long-term compliance...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Paul I Musey, John A Lee, Cassandra A Hall, Jeffrey A Kline
BACKGROUND: Approximately 80% of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) with chest pain do not have any true cardiopulmonary emergency such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, psychological contributors such as anxiety are thought to be present in up to 58%, but often remain undiagnosed leading to chronic chest pain and ED recidivism. METHODS: To evaluate ED provider beliefs and their usual practices regarding the approach and disposition of patients with low risk chest pain associated with anxiety, we constructed a 22-item survey using a modified Delphi technique...
March 14, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
Marie-Laure Amram, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Florence Rochon, Mylène Bolmont, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli
Cancer itself and its treatments can result in physical and/or psychological adverse events which include disorders of sexual health. Both clinicians and patients are reluctant to talk about sexual issues, body image or intimacy between partners. Barriers from the clinician's perspective include feeling inadequately trained, lack of time or privacy. On the patients' side, embarrassment or belief that their sexual health are an untreatable complication of their disease and its treatment are the main barriers...
March 14, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt, Leandro Daniel Benmergui
During World War II, the U.S. Indian Service conducted social science experiments regarding governance among Japanese Americans imprisoned at the Poston, Arizona, camp. Researchers used an array of techniques culled from anthropological culture and personality studies, psychiatry, psychology, medicine, and public opinion research to probe how the personality traits of the confined Japanese-Americans and camp leaders affected the social interactions within each group and between them. The research drew on prior studies of Indian personality in the US Southwest, Mexico's Native policies, and indirect colonial rule...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Andrés Pomi
BACKGROUND: One of the central challenges of third millennium medicine is the abatement of medical errors. Among the most frequent and hardiest causes of misdiagnosis are cognitive errors produced by faulty medical reasoning. These errors have been analyzed from the perspectives of cognitive psychology and empirical medical studies. We introduce a neurocognitive model of medical diagnosis to address this issue. METHODS: We construct a connectionist model based on the associative nature of human memory to explore the non-analytical, pattern-recognition mode of diagnosis...
November 27, 2017: Diagnosis
J Hiquet, E Christin, F Tovagliaro, J Fougas, O Dubourg, C Chevalier, F Abel, M Ebouat, M-E Ploquin, M Malo, S Gromb-Monnoyeur
BACKGROUND: The Forensic medicine reform in 2011 enabled the development of forensic units specialized in multidisciplinary care of victims of criminal offences. Thanks to an annual budgetary allocation, the Ministry of Justice handles the financing of judicial acts, while the health care facilities assume the medical, psychological and social aspects. The objective of this study was to determine the direct costs of medical care provided to rape victims (such as defined in the article 222-23 of the Penal Code) in order to see how its funding could be reconsidered to prevent any additional cost that could be caused by non-sufficient medical, psychological and social care...
March 9, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Anne Lelièvre, Stéphane Gérard, Sophie Hermabessière, Monique Martinez, Bruno Péran, Yves Rolland
Confronted with the growing incidence of age-related pathologies and the limits of so-called traditional medicine oriented towards the prescribing of medicines, non-pharmacological approaches have grown considerably in the geriatric community. A literature review focused on the therapeutic benefit of humour, laughter and the use of clowns on the physical and psychological health of elderly people.
March 2018: Soins. Gérontologie
Lynsey Shaw Cobden
This is not an article about 'shell-shock'. It explores the military medical response to nervous disorders in the Royal Flying Corps. The First World War exposed the propensity of pilots to the nervous and psychological rigours of aerial warfare, but their unique experiences have been overlooked in favour of 'trauma' in infantrymen. This represents a critical lacuna in the historiography of military medicine, for flying personnel were studied apart from 'shell-shocked' soldiers. This article will show that flyers were believed to be medically different, and what set them apart from men in the trenches was their unique employment...
February 2, 2018: Br J Mil Hist
Agnes Norbury, Ben Seymour
Response rates to available treatments for psychological and chronic pain disorders are poor, and there is a considerable burden of suffering and disability for patients, who often cycle through several rounds of ineffective treatment. As individuals presenting to the clinic with symptoms of these disorders are likely to be heterogeneous, there is considerable interest in the possibility that different constellations of signs could be used to identify subgroups of patients that might preferentially benefit from particular kinds of treatment...
2018: F1000Research
Suprakash Chaudhury, Ajay Kumar Bakhla, Subhas Soren
Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS; Ranchi Indian Mental Hospital; Ranchi Manasik Aryogyashala) traces its origin from a lunatic asylum for Indian soldiers established at Munghyr in Bihar in 1795 and thus is the first mental hospital in India established by the British purely for Indian patients as well as the second oldest functioning mental hospital in India. The hospital made great strides in improving patients care and using modern methods of assessment and treatment as well as education and research during the tenure of Dr J E Dhunjibhoy the first Indian medical superintendent...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Antonios Paraschakis, Ioannis Michopoulos, Vasiliki Efstathiou, Christos Christodoulou, Ilias Boyokas, Athanassios Douzenis
We investigated all cases of completed suicide in the city area of Piraeus -the largest port in Greece- for the years 2006 up to 2015. We searched, among others, parameters regarding the victims' psychiatric medication intake and drug and alcohol use that -to the best of our knowledge- had never been investigated before by a study on suicides in Greece within the crisis' years. We documented variations before (2006-2010) and during (2011-2015) crisis. Information was provided by the victims' forensic records at the Piraeus Department of Forensic Medicine...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Edward H Reynolds
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Maira Rezende Formenton, Marco Aurélio Amador Pereira, Denise Tabacchi Fantoni
Massage therapy is becoming increasingly popular in human and animal physiotherapy and rehabilitation. Wider application of the technique led to research efforts aimed at providing scientific support to anecdotal beneficial effects, particularly pain relief. Recent studies have shown that massage therapy alters dopamine and serotonin levels, decreases noradrenaline levels, and modulates the immune system. Psychological effects such as reduction of stress and anxiety, with improvement of depressive patients, have been reported in humans...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Chantal F Hillebregt, Eline W M Scholten, Marjolijn Ketelaar, Marcel W M Post, Johanna M A Visser-Meily
INTRODUCTION: Many patients and family members experience a large gap between the protected environment during inpatient medical rehabilitation and life in the community after discharge. They feel insufficiently prepared to cope with the consequences of their disability in daily life. This study protocol describes the design measuring the effectiveness and implementation of family group conferences on the empowerment of patients with a high risk of chronic disability and their significant others...
March 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Shokouhsadat Hamedi, Masoud Honarvar
BACKGROUND: Beta vulgaris (family: Chenopodiacea) is now much used in the food industry as a rich source of sugar but it is much less considered in medicine. Beet has been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years to treat a variety of diseases such as constipation, decreased libido, gut and joint pain and dandruff. METHODS: This study introduced the benefits of Beta vulgaris by reviewing of Iranian traditional documents from 10th century until now and also compared modern phytotherapy of plant beet from the electronic data banks such as ISI, Pub Med and Scopus with findings that extracted from traditional literature...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Ainhoa Urtasun, Imanol Nuñez
The neoclassic economic rationale has taken for granted that the effect of effort on health is negative. However, several studies in the field of occupational health and medicine claim that working is clearly better for health than non-working or being unemployed, as some psychological and physical condition may improve with work effort. This paper analyzes the effect of work effort on occupational health. The proposed human capital approach builds upon the classic economic perspective, that assumes a negative effect of effort on health, and extends it by allowing positive effects, as suggested by occupational researchers...
February 28, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
F Mathy, A Malchair
In line with Evidence-based medicine and more recently with the emergence of Evidence-based practice in psychology, what are the current trends in medical prescriptions in child psychiatry? The use of psychotropic drugs for children and adolescents is constantly increasing, although most pharmacological prescriptions in child psychiatry result in off-label drug use. This article aims at understanding the legal and scientific framework that regulates the prescription of psychopharmacological treatments for children and adolescents...
February 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
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