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Muscle nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444662/early-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-skeletal-muscle-to-obesity-and-obesity-resistance-differentially-regulated-by-high-fat-diet
#1
Jingyu Sun, Tao Huang, Zhengtang Qi, Songhui You, Jingmei Dong, Chen Zhang, Lili Qin, Yunhe Zhou, Shuzhe Ding
The mechanism for different susceptibilities to obesity after short-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding is largely unknown. Given the close association between obesity occurrence and mitochondrial dysfunction, the early events in skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations between HFD-induced obesity (DIO) and HFD-induced obesity resistant (DIO-R) lean phenotype under excess nutritional environment were explored.ICR/JCL male mice were randomly divided into 2 groups, as follows: low-fat diet (LFD) and HFD groups...
April 25, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442508/aging-human-body-changes-in-bone-muscle-and-body-fat-with-consequent-changes-in-nutrient-intake
#2
Pegah JafariNasabian, Julia E Inglis, Wendimere Reilly, Owen J Kelly, Jasminka Z Ilich
Aging affects almost all physiological processes, but changes in body composition and body phenotype are most observable. In this review, we focus on these changes, including loss of bone and muscle and increase in body fat or redistribution of the latter, possibly leading to osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome. We also address low-grade chronic inflammation, prevalent in aging adults and a cause of many disorders including those associated with body composition. Changes in dietary intake and nutritional requirements of older individuals, that all may lead to some disturbances on tissue and organ levels, are discussed as well...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441953/anatomic-fat-depots-and-cardiovascular-risk-a-focus-on-the-leg-fat-using-nationwide-surveys-knhanes-2008-2011
#3
Eugene Han, Yong-Ho Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, In-Kyu Lee, Bong-Soo Cha
BACKGROUND: Although central fat is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiometabolic disorders, the effect of other regional fats or muscle distribution on CVD risk has not been fully investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using nationally representative samples of 15,686 subjects from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Individual CVD risk was evaluated in adults aged ≥20 without prior CVD, using atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk equations according to the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines...
April 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439567/sarcopenia-obesity-and-mortality-in-us-adults-with-and-without-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Lagu Androga, Deep Sharma, Afolarin Amodu, Matthew K Abramowitz
INTRODUCTION: In pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD), the association of muscle mass with mortality is poorly defined, and no study has examined outcomes related to the co-occurrence of low muscle mass and excess adiposity (sarcopenic-obesity). Methods: We examined abnormalities of muscle and fat mass in adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. We determined whether associations of body composition with all-cause mortality differed between participants with CKD compared to those without...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437447/carbonic-anhydrase-iii-car3-is-not-required-for-fatty-acid-synthesis-and-does-not-protect-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#5
Sarah W Renner, Lauren M Walker, Lawrence J Forsberg, Jonathan Z Sexton, Jay E Brenman
Carbonic anhydrases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the reversible condensation of water and carbon dioxide to carbonic acid, which spontaneously dissociates to bicarbonate. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3) is nutritionally regulated at both the mRNA and protein level. It is highly enriched in tissues that synthesize and/or store fat: liver, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Previous characterization of Car3 knockout mice focused on mice fed standard diets, not high-fat diets that significantly alter the tissues that highly express Car3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436486/muscle-wasting-and-cachexia-in-heart-failure-mechanisms-and-therapies
#6
REVIEW
Stephan von Haehling, Nicole Ebner, Marcelo R Dos Santos, Jochen Springer, Stefan D Anker
Body wasting is a serious complication that affects a large proportion of patients with heart failure. Muscle wasting, also known as sarcopenia, is the loss of muscle mass and strength, whereas cachexia describes loss of weight. After reaching guideline-recommended doses of heart failure therapies, the most promising approach to treating body wasting seems to be combined therapy that includes exercise, nutritional counselling, and drug treatment. Nutritional considerations include avoiding excessive salt and fluid intake, and replenishment of deficiencies in trace elements...
April 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434761/improvement-in-nutritional-status-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-4-by-a-nutrition-education-program-with-no-impact-on-renal-function-and-determined-by-male-sex
#7
Almudena Pérez-Torres, Elena González Garcia, Helena Garcia-Llana, Gloria Del Peso, Ana María López-Sobaler, Rafael Selgas
OBJECTIVE: Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a rapid deterioration of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is little information regarding the effect of nutrition intervention. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nutrition education program (NEP) in patients with nondialysis dependent CKD (NDD-CKD), based on the diagnostic criteria for PEW proposed by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431912/osteosarcopenic-obesity-prevalence-and-relation-with-frailty-and-physical-performance-in-middle-aged-and-older-women
#8
Claudia Szlejf, Lorena Parra-Rodríguez, Oscar Rosas-Carrasco
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) and to investigate its association with frailty and physical performance in Mexican community-dwelling middle-aged and older women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. SETTING: The FraDySMex study, a 2-round evaluation of community-dwelling adults from 2 municipalities in Mexico City. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 434 women aged 50 years or older, living in the designated area in Mexico City...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428966/nutrition-and-metabolism-in-burn-patients
#9
REVIEW
Audra Clark, Jonathan Imran, Tarik Madni, Steven E Wolf
Severe burn causes significant metabolic derangements that make nutritional support uniquely important and challenging for burned patients. Burn injury causes a persistent and prolonged hypermetabolic state and increased catabolism that results in increased muscle wasting and cachexia. Metabolic rates of burn patients can surpass twice normal, and failure to fulfill these energy requirements causes impaired wound healing, organ dysfunction, and susceptibility to infection. Adequate assessment and provision of nutritional needs is imperative to care for these patients...
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428844/stable-isotope-analyses-a-method-to-distinguish-intensively-farmed-from-wild-frogs
#10
Carolin Dittrich, Ulrich Struck, Mark-Oliver Rödel
Consumption of frog legs is increasing worldwide, with potentially dramatic effects for ecosystems. More and more functioning frog farms are reported to exist. However, due to the lack of reliable methods to distinguish farmed from wild-caught individuals, the origin of frogs in the international trade is often uncertain. Here, we present a new methodological approach to this problem. We investigated the isotopic composition of legally traded frog legs from suppliers in Vietnam and Indonesia. Muscle and bone tissue samples were examined for δ(15)N, δ(13)C, and δ(18)O stable isotope compositions, to elucidate the conditions under which the frogs grew up...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427958/micro-anatomical-changes-in-major-blood-vessel-caused-by-dengue-virus-serotype-2-infection
#11
Sivan Padma Priya, S Sakinah, Mok Pooi Ling, Hui-Yee Chee, Akon Higuchi, Rukman Awang Hamat, Vasantha Kumari Neela, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Murugan A Munusamy, Ashraf A Hatamleh, Ahmed E Al-Sabri, Ibrahim Ahmad Abdulaziz Al-Suwailem, Mariappan Rajan, Giovanni Benelli, Marlina, S Suresh Kumar
Dengue virus (DENV) has emerged as a major economic concern in developing countries, with 2.5 billion people believed to be at risk. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) lining the circulatory system from heart to end vessels perform crucial functions in the human body, by aiding gas exchange in lungs, gaseous, nutritional and its waste exchange in all tissues, including the blood brain barrier, filtration of fluid in the glomeruli, neutrophil recruitment, hormone trafficking, as well as maintenance of blood vessel tone and hemostasis...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426081/total-substitution-of-dietary-fish-oil-by-vegetable-oils-stimulates-muscle-hypertrophic-growth-in-senegalese-sole-and-the-upregulation-of-fgf6
#12
Graciliana Lopes, Luís Filipe Costa Castro, Luísa Maria Pinheiro Valente
The long term effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by increasing the levels of vegetable oils (VO), 0% (CTR), 50% (VO50) and 100% (VO100), in diets for Senegalese sole were evaluated in terms of skeletal muscle cellularity and expression of related genes. After 140 days of feeding, all fish had similar body weight and length. The inclusion of 50% VO did not result in differences in muscle cellularity, but dorsal muscle cross-sectional area and fast-twitch fibre diameter increased in fish fed total FO substitution, whilst fibre density was reduced (P < 0...
April 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421192/exercise-and-protein-intake-a-synergistic-approach-against-sarcopenia
#13
REVIEW
Anna Maria Martone, Emanuele Marzetti, Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Matteo Tosato, Luca Santoro, Angela Di Giorgio, Antonio Nesci, Alex Sisto, Angelo Santoliquido, Francesco Landi
Sarcopenia, the age-dependent loss of muscle mass and function/strength, is increasingly recognized as a major risk factor for adverse outcomes in frail older people. As such, the skeletal muscle is a relevant target for interventions aimed at preventing or postponing the occurrence of negative health-related events in late life. The association among physical inactivity, insufficient intake of energy and protein, and poor muscle health in older adults suggests that physical exercise and targeted nutritional supplementation may offer substantial therapeutic gain against sarcopenia and its negative correlates...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420559/recent-trends-in-the-prevalence-of-underweight-overweight-and-obesity-in-korean-adults-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-from-1998-to-2014
#14
Hyun-Young Shin, Hee-Taik Kang
BACKGROUND: Recent obesity studies have reported that the rising trend in obesity has stabilized or leveled off. Our study aimed to update estimates of the recent prevalence trend in obesity based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998-2014. METHODS: A total of 66,663 subjects were included and defined as being either underweight, overweight, or obese, in accordance with a BMI of 18.5 kg/m(2) or lower, 23 kg/m(2) or higher, and 25 kg/m(2) or higher, respectively...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420091/dietary-sugars-and-endogenous-formation-of-advanced-glycation-endproducts-emerging-mechanisms-of-disease
#15
REVIEW
Manuela Aragno, Raffaella Mastrocola
The rapid increase in metabolic diseases, which occurred in the last three decades in both industrialized and developing countries, has been related to the rise in sugar-added foods and sweetened beverages consumption. An emerging topic in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to modern nutrition is the role of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs). AGEs can be ingested with high temperature processed foods, but also endogenously formed as a consequence of a high dietary sugar intake. Animal models of high sugar consumption, in particular fructose, have reported AGE accumulation in different tissues in association with peripheral insulin resistance and lipid metabolism alterations...
April 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419002/skeletal-muscle-remodeling-interconnections-between-stem-cells-and-protein-turnover
#16
Nicholas A Burd, Michael De Lisio
Nutrition and exercise are important components of a healthy lifestyle to improve rates of hypertrophic and non-hypertrophic skeletal muscle remodeling. We provide evidence to support the hypothesis that muscle stem cells and protein turnover are collaborative, not separate, mechanisms supporting muscle remodeling by facilitating protein, nuclear, and cellular turnover in response to the ingestion of protein dense foods and exercise.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415067/effect-of-whey-protein-in-conjunction-with-a-caloric-restricted-diet-and-resistance-training
#17
Wesley D Dudgeon, Elizabeth P Kelley, Timothy P Scheett
Dudgeon, WD, Kelley, EP, and Scheett, TP. Effect of whey protein in conjunction with a caloric-restricted diet and resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1353-1361, 2017-Caloric-restricted weight loss, especially rapid weight loss, results from a decrease in both lean and fat mass (FM). The goal for many is to lose FM while retaining lean body mass (LBM) and muscular performance thus many turn to supplements. Sixteen resistance-trained men (24 ± 1.6 years of age) completed a 4 d·wk body building style split resistance training program for 8 weeks in conjunction with a pre-exercise, periexercise, and postexercise ingestion of whey protein (WHEY) nutritional supplement or carbohydrate (CON)-based nutritional supplement...
May 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413683/obtaining-accurate-glucose-measurements-from-wild-animals-under-field-conditions-comparing-a-hand-held-glucometer-with-a-standard-laboratory-technique-in-grey-seals
#18
Kimberley A Bennett, Lucy M Turner, Sebastian Millward, Simon E W Moss, Ailsa J Hall
Glucose is an important metabolic fuel and circulating levels are tightly regulated in most mammals, but can drop when body fuel reserves become critically low. Glucose is mobilized rapidly from liver and muscle during stress in response to increased circulating cortisol. Blood glucose levels can thus be of value in conservation as an indicator of nutritional status and may be a useful, rapid assessment marker for acute or chronic stress. However, seals show unusual glucose regulation: circulating levels are high and insulin sensitivity is limited...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410342/sarcopenia-is-common-in-overweight-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-may-predict-need-for-surgery
#19
Dawn W Adams, Shelly Gurwara, Heidi J Silver, Sara N Horst, Dawn B Beaulieu, David A Schwartz, Douglas L Seidner
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with altered body composition, such as low muscle mass, which affects clinical outcomes. Body composition changes in overweight patients with IBD are less understood. The study aim was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenic overweight and obese patients in a cohort of patients with IBD starting new anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy and examine differences in response. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of patients with IBD starting a new anti-tumor necrosis factor-α medication that had computed tomography within 3 months of initiation...
April 13, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409828/leucine-elicits-myotube-hypertrophy-and-enhances-maximal-contractile-force-in-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-in-vitro
#20
N R W Martin, M C Turner, R Farrington, D J Player, M P Lewis
The amino acid leucine is thought to be important for skeletal muscle growth by virtue of its ability to acutely activate mTORC1 and enhance muscle protein synthesis, yet little data exist regarding its impact on skeletal muscle size and its ability to produce force. We utilised a tissue engineering approach in order to test whether supplementing culture medium with leucine could enhance mTORC1 signalling, myotube growth and muscle function. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target proteins 4EBP-1 and rpS6 and myotube hypertrophy appeared to occur in a dose dependent manner, with 5 and 20mM of leucine inducing similar effects, which were greater than those seen with 1mM...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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