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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328096/approximate-bayesian-computation-techniques-for-optical-characterization-of-nanoparticle-clusters
#1
Ozan Burak Ericok, Ali Taylan Cemgil, Hakan Erturk
Characterization of nanoparticle aggregates from observed scattered light leads to a highly complex inverse problem. Even the forward model is so complex that it prohibits the use of classical likelihood-based inference methods. In this study, we compare four so-called likelihood-free methods based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) that requires only numeric simulation of the forward model without the need of evaluating a likelihood. In particular, rejection, Markov chain Monte Carlo, population Monte Carlo, and adaptive population Monte Carlo (APMC) are compared in terms of accuracy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324245/heavy-light-chain-assay-as-a-biomarker-for-diagnosis-and-follow-up-of-multiple-myeloma
#2
Hyojin Chae, Eunhee Han, Jaeeun Yoo, Jaewoong Lee, Jeong Joong Lee, Kyoungho Cha, Myungshin Kim, Yonggoo Kim, Sung-Eun Lee, Chang-Ki Min
BACKGROUND: The heavy-light chain (HLC) assay enables the accurate measurement of each isotype-specific heavy and light chain (i.e., IgGĸ, IgGλ, IgAĸ, and IgAλ) and the derivation of an HLC-pair ratio. However, to date, only limited data have validated the usefulness of serial HLC measurements in the routine follow-up of intact immunoglobulin multiple myeloma (MM) patients. METHODS: A total of 36 diagnostic and 671 post-treatment sera from 115 IgG and 61 IgA MM patients were assessed with capillary zone electrophoresis, immunosubtraction electrophoresis, total immunoglobulin measurement, free light chain, and HLC assay...
January 8, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323348/mouse-antibody-of-igm-class-is-prone-to-non-enzymatic-cleavage-between-ch1-and-ch2-domains
#3
Tomasz Klaus, Krystyna Stalińska, Dominik Czaplicki, Paweł Mak, Bozena Skupien-Rabian, Sylwia Kedracka-Krok, Karolina Wiatrowska, Monika Bzowska, Monika Machula, Joanna Bereta
IgM is a multivalent antibody which evolved as a first line defense of adaptive immunity. It consists of heavy and light chains assembled into a complex oligomer. In mouse serum there are two forms of IgM, a full-length and a truncated one. The latter contains μ' chain, which lacks a variable region. Although μ' chain was discovered many years ago, its origin has not yet been elucidated. Our results indicate that μ' chain is generated from a full-length heavy chain by non-enzymatic cleavage of the protein backbone...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315287/monitoring-multiple-myeloma
#4
Kyle A Udd, Tanya M Spektor, James R Berenson
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by the accumulation in bone marrow of terminally differentiated plasma cells. MM is a slowly growing, heterogeneous disease with no known cure. Patients with MM have a median survival of approximately 5 years, during which they may experience significant morbidity. More reliable and rapid determination of changes in the clinical status of patients with MM is becoming increasingly important because of the increasing number of available treatments for these patients...
December 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301798/enhanced-elimination-of-cyclophosphamide-by-high-cut-off-haemodialysis-single-dose-pharmacokinetics-in-a-patient-with-cast-nephropathy
#5
Gabriele Eden, W Nikolaus Kühn-Velten, Carsten Hafer, Jan T Kielstein
High cut-off (HCO) haemodialysis removes free light chains in patients with multiple myeloma. This is possible as HCO dialysers allow clearance of molecules up to a molecular weight of 65 kDa. In contrast, high-flux dialysers, which are used in routine haemodialysis, only remove molecules up to a molecular weight of 20 kDa. Even though patients with advanced myeloma frequently need dialysis and alkylating agents, drug dosing recommendations in this patient population are scarce at best or absent as for cyclophosphamide dosing in patients with myeloma undergoing HCO dialysis...
January 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296866/obesity-and-risk-of-monoclonal-gammopathy-of-undetermined-significance-and-progression-to-multiple-myeloma-a-population-based-study
#6
Marianna Thordardottir, Ebba K Lindqvist, Sigrun H Lund, Rene Costello, Debra Burton, Neha Korde, Sham Mailankody, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Lenore J Launer, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Ola Landgren, Sigurdur Y Kristinsson
All multiple myeloma (MM) cases are preceded by the premalignant state monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Results from previous studies show a positive association between obesity and MM; however, the association between obesity and MGUS is controversial. The aims were to determine (1) if obesity is associated with an increased risk of MGUS and light-chain MGUS (LC-MGUS) and (2) whether obesity is associated with a higher risk of progression to MM and other lymphoproliferative (LP) diseases...
November 14, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287521/could-conservative-iron-chelation-lead-to-neuroprotection-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
Caroline Moreau, Véronique Danel, Jean Christophe Devedjian, Guillaume Grolez, Kelly Timmerman, Charlotte Laloux, Maud Petrault, Flore Gouel, Aurélie Jonneaux, Mary Dutheil, Cedrick Lachaud, Renaud Lopes, Gregory Kuchinski, Florent Auger, Maeva Kyheng, Alain Duhamel, Thierry Perez, Pierre-Francois Pradat, Helene Blasco, Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex, Philippe Corcia, Patrick Oeckl, Markus Otto, Luc Dupuis, Guillaume Garçon, Luc Defebvre, Ioav Zvi Cabantchik, James Duce, Régis Bordet, David Devos
Iron accumulation has been observed in mouse models and both sporadic and familial forms of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Iron chelation could reduce iron accumulation and the related excess of oxidative stress in the motor pathways. However, classical iron chelation would induce systemic iron depletion. We assess the safety and efficacy of conservative iron chelation (i.e. chelation with low risk of iron depletion) in a murine preclinical model and pilot clinical trial. In Sod1G86R mice, deferiprone increased the mean life span as compared with placebo...
December 29, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279596/light-chain-multiple-myeloma-an-evaluation-of-its-biochemical-investigations
#8
S Y Zahari Sham, S C Thambiah, I N Samsudin, S M Lim
Multiple myeloma is a type of plasma cell dyscrasia, characterised by presence of paraprotein or monoclonal (M)-protein in serum or urine. The M-protein may consist of an intact immunoglobulin, the heavy chain only or the light chain only. The latter, designated as light chain multiple myeloma (LCMM) makes up almost 20% of myelomas. Clinical manifestation is often heralded by hypercalcaemia, renal impairment, normocytic normochromic anaemia and bone lesions, reflecting end-organ damage, collectively known as the acronym CRAB...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272916/solution-properties-of-amphoteric-random-copolymers-bearing-pendant-sulfonate-and-quaternary-ammonium-groups-with-controlled-structures
#9
Rina Nakahata, Shin-Ichi Yusa
Amphoteric random copolymers P(AMPS/APTAC50)x, where x = 41, 89, and 117, composed of sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate (AMPS) and 3-acrylamidopropyltrimethylammonium chloride (APTAC) were prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer radical polymerization. P(AMPS/APTAC50)x can dissolve in pure water to form small inter-polymer aggregates. In aqueous solutions of NaCl, P(AMPS/APTAC50)x can dissolve in the unimer state. An amphoteric random copolymer P(AMPS/APTAC50)c with high molecular weight was prepared via conventional free-radical polymerization...
December 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260587/right-ventricular-longitudinal-strain-a-tool-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-in-light-chain-amyloidosis
#10
Charles Uzan, Olivier Lairez, Pascale Raud-Raynier, Rodrigue Garcia, Bruno Degand, Luc P Christiaens, Michaela B Rehman
OBJECTIVES: Light-chain (AL) amyloidosis can lead to an infiltrative cardiomyopathy with increased wall thickness (IWT) of very poor prognosis. Our primary aim was to analyse the right ventricle (RV) in patients with IWT to discriminate AL amyloidosis from IWT due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or to arterial hypertension (HTN). Our secondary aim was to assess if RV dysfunction predicts overall mortality in cardiac AL amyloidosis. METHODS: We retrospectively and consecutively compared clinical, biological and echocardiographic data of 315 patients with IWT: 105 biopsy-proven AL amyloidosis patients, 105 patients with HCM and 105 patients with HTN...
December 20, 2017: Amyloid: the International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244720/functional-imaging-with-18f-fdg-pet-ct-and-diffusion-weighted-imaging-dwi-in-early-response-evaluation-of-combination-therapy-of-elotuzumab-lenalidomide-and-dexamethasone-in-a-relapsed-multiple-myeloma-patient
#11
Christos Sachpekidis, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Stefan Delorme, Hartmut Goldschmidt
Elotuzumab is the first monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of relapsed-refractory multiple myeloma (MM) in combination with lenalidomide, an immunodulatory drug, and dexamethasone. We report on a multiply pre-treated MM patient with disease progression due to appearance of new focal lesions on imaging modalities, who was started on a combination treatment of elotuzumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone. After completion of three cycles of the new therapy the patient responded very well with a major decline of serological myeloma activity parameters serum monoclonal protein, kappa light chains, free light chains (FLC) ratio...
December 15, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239143/role-of-plasmapheresis-in-the-management-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-should-we-abandon-it
#12
Vedran Premuzic, Josip Batinic, Pavle Roncevic, Nikolina Basic-Jukic, Damir Nemet, Bojan Jelakovic
The aim of the current study was to determine whether plasmapheresis in combination with chemotherapy could significantly remove free light chains (FLC) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and therefore improve renal recovery and patient survival. During the study period, 29 patients with MM and AKI presented to our unit and were treated with two different therapy modalities (plasmapheresis with chemotherapy or bortezomib). At the end of treatment, a significant decrease of FLCs was present in the group treated with plasmapheresis compared to the bortezomib group...
December 14, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226427/case-report-treatment-of-light-chain-amyloidosis-with-daratumumab-monotherapy-in-two-patients
#13
Charlotte Gran, Gösta Gahrton, Evren Alici, Hareth Nahi
Immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis (AL) affects multiple organs, most prominently the kidney and the heart. Renal and cardiac impairment are both associated with poor prognosis.(1) Typical treatment regimens for AL include proteasome inhibitors, alkylating agents, and steroids as well as autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for younger, fit patients. Complete response after treatment is associated with a better outcome and can be measured by free light chain (FLC) reduction.(2, 3) Monoclonal antibodies such as daratumumab (Dara, human IgG1 anti-CD38) have shown promising efficacy for the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226183/in-vitro-homeostatic-proliferation-of-human-cd8-t-cells
#14
Hossam A Abdelsamed, Caitlin C Zebley, Ben Youngblood
Long-lived T-cell-mediated immunity requires persistence of memory T cells in an antigen-free environment while also maintaining a heightened capacity to recall effector functions. Such antigen-independent homeostatic proliferation is mediated in part by the common gamma-chain cytokines IL-7 and IL-15. To further explore the mechanisms governing maintenance of effector functions in long-lived memory T cells during antigen-independent proliferation, human naïve and memory CD8 T cells can be sorted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), labeled with the proliferation-tracking dye carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and then purified based on their levels of cell division...
November 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223373/adverse-prognostic-factors-for-morbidity-and-mortality-during-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-mobilization-in-patients-with-light-chain-amyloidosis
#15
Jason C Yeh, Brandon R Shank, Denái R Milton, Muzaffar H Qazilbash
Patients with immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis undergoing peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell (PBSC) mobilization for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) can experience significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to describe the adverse events and identify prognostic factors associated with the development of morbidity and mortality in patients with AL amyloidosis who had begun PBSC mobilization for auto-HCT. A retrospective study was performed in 101 consecutive patients with AL amyloidosis who underwent PBSC mobilization for auto-HCT between January 2006 and December 2013...
December 6, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223152/electron-transfer-through-the-acceptor-side-of-photosystem-i-interaction-with-exogenous-acceptors-and-molecular-oxygen
#16
REVIEW
D A Cherepanov, G E Milanovsky, A A Petrova, A N Tikhonov, A Yu Semenov
This review considers the state-of-the-art on mechanisms and alternative pathways of electron transfer in photosynthetic electron transport chains of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. The mechanisms of electron transport control between photosystems (PS) I and II and the Calvin-Benson cycle are considered. The redistribution of electron fluxes between the noncyclic, cyclic, and pseudocyclic pathways plays an important role in the regulation of photosynthesis. Mathematical modeling of light-induced electron transport processes is considered...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222028/sodium-butyrate-enhanced-physical-barrier-function-referring-to-nrf2-jnk-and-mlck-signaling-pathways-in-the-intestine-of-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#17
Pei Wu, Li Tian, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Fei Xie, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Juan Yang, Yong-An Zhang, He-Qun Shi, Lin Feng
This study evaluated the effect of dietary sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation on the intestinal physical barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The fish were fed one powdery sodium butyrate (PSB) diet (1000.0 mg kg-1 diet) and five graded levels of microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) diets: 0.0 (control), 500.0, 1000.0, 1500.0 and 2000.0 mg kg-1 diet for 60 days. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila to explore the effect of SB supplementation on intestinal physical barrier function and the potential mechanisms in fish...
December 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220051/improving-extraction-and-post-purification-concentration-of-membrane-proteins
#18
Hasin Feroz, HyeYoung Kwon, Jing Peng, Hyeonji Oh, Bryan Ferlez, Carol S Baker, John H Golbeck, Guillermo C Bazan, Andrew L Zydney, Manish Kumar
Membrane proteins (MPs), despite being critically important drug targets for the pharmaceutical industry, are difficult to study due to challenges in obtaining high yields of functional protein. Most current extraction efforts use specialized non-ionic detergents to solubilize and stabilize MPs, with MPs being concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF). However, many detergents are retained during the UF step, which can destabilize MPs and/or interfere with their characterization. Here, we studied the influence of detergent selection on the extraction and UF-based concentration of biomedically-relevant MPs, the light-driven sodium and chloride transporters, KR2 and halorhodopsin (pHR) which are also model proteins for more complex mammalian rhodopsins...
December 8, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216427/a-novel-micro-emulsion-phase-transition-towards-the-elucidation-of-third-phase-formation-in-spent-nuclear-fuel-reprocessing
#19
Junju Mu, Ryuhei Motokawa, Kazuhiro Akutsu, Shotaro Nishitsuji, Andrew J Masters
We present evidence that the organic/third phase transition, as may be observed in the Plutonium Uranium Reduction EXtraction process (PUREX) at high metal loading, is an unusual transition between two isotropic, bi-continuous micro-emulsion phases. As this system contains so many components, however, we seek first to investigate the properties of a simpler system, viz. the related metal-free, quaternary system of water/n-dodecane/nitric acid/tri-butyl phosphate (TBP). Under appropriate conditions, this system exhibits three coexisting phases, namely the light organic phase, the third phase and the aqueous phase...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209721/effect-of-high-cutoff-hemodialysis-vs-conventional-hemodialysis-on-hemodialysis-independence-among-patients-with-myeloma-cast-nephropathy-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Frank Bridoux, Pierre-Louis Carron, Brigitte Pegourie, Eric Alamartine, Karine Augeul-Meunier, Alexandre Karras, Bertrand Joly, Marie-Noëlle Peraldi, Bertrand Arnulf, Cécile Vigneau, Thierry Lamy, Alain Wynckel, Brigitte Kolb, Bruno Royer, Nolwenn Rabot, Lotfi Benboubker, Christian Combe, Arnaud Jaccard, Bruno Moulin, Bertrand Knebelmann, Sylvie Chevret, Jean-Paul Fermand
Importance: Cast nephropathy is the main cause of acute kidney injury in multiple myeloma and persistent reduction in kidney function strongly affects prognosis. Strategies to rapidly remove nephrotoxic serum-free light chains combined with novel antimyeloma agents have not been evaluated prospectively. Objective: To compare the hemodialysis independence rate among patients newly diagnosed with myeloma cast nephropathy treated with hemodialysis using a high-cutoff dialyzer (with very large membrane pores and high permeability to immunoglobulin light chains) or a conventional high-flux dialyzer (with small pores and lower permeability)...
December 5, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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