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Wildness medicine

Ponnusamy Baskaran, Aloka Kumari, Bhekumthetho Ncube, Johannes Van Staden
Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels is an important endangered medicinal and commercial plant in South Africa. In vitro propagation systems are required for biomass production and bioactivity analysis to supplement wild resources/stocks. Adventitious roots from somatic embryogenic explants using suspension culture and ex vitro-grown plants produced via somatic embryogenesis were established using different plant growth regulator treatments. The adventitious root biomass and different parts of ex vitro-grown and mother plants were used to investigate the potential for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antibacterial activities...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Xiaoqian Cheng, Kenan Rajjoub, Alexey Shashurin, Dayun Yan, Jonathan H Sherman, Ka Bian, Ferid Murad, Michael Keidar
It has been reported since late 1970 that magnetic field interacts strongly with biological systems. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has also been widely studied over the past few decades in physics, biology, and medicine. In this study, we propose a novel idea to combine static magnetic field (SMF) with CAP as a tool for cancer therapy. Breast cancer cells and wild type fibroblasts were cultured in 96-well plates and treated by CAP with or without SMF. Breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 showed a significant decrease in viability after direct plasma treatment with SMF (compared to only plasma treatment)...
October 17, 2016: Bioelectromagnetics
Zahra Boghrati, Maryam Naseri, Mitra Rezaie, Ngoc Pham, Ronald J Quinn, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran, Mehrdad Iranshahi
OBJECTIVES: In food industry, the inhibition of tyrosinase is very important, because this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds found in fruits and vegetables into quinones, which contribute in undesirable color and taste of fruits and vegetables. Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes (Lamiaceae), a wild-growing flowering plant that has many applications in food preparations and traditional medicine. In Persian language, this medicinal herb is called Kalpoureh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments were used to determine the chemical structures of the isolated compounds...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Ghulam Dastagir, Muhammad Afzal Rizvi
Medicinal plants are being used for treating various diseases. According to World Health Organization 80% of the world population depends on indigenous medicinal plant remedies. Herbal medicine employs fruits, vegetables, as dry materials or their extracts for the treatment of different diseases and health maintenance. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) has been used in Europe since prehistoric times. It is well documented in written form starting with the ancient Greeks. Glycyrrhizin is the major active constituent obtained from liquorice roots, one of the most widely used in herbal preparations for the treatment of liver complaints...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Lakey, Kinley Dorji
BACKGROUND: Human beings use plants for a multitude of purposes of which a prominent one across the globe is for their medicinal values. Medicinal plants serve as one of the major sources of income for high altitude inhabitants in the Himalaya, particularly in countries like Nepal, and Bhutan. People here harvest huge volumes of medicinal plants indiscriminately, risking their sustainability. This paper attempts to identify some of the priority medicinal plant species harvested in the wild and assess their ecological status for their judicious utilization, and to help provide policy guidance for possible domestication and support strategic conservation frameworks...
October 11, 2016: BMC Ecology
Viktor Ulicsni, Ingvar Svanberg, Zsolt Molnár
BACKGROUND: There is scarce information about European folk knowledge of wild invertebrate fauna. We have documented such folk knowledge in three regions, in Romania, Slovakia and Croatia. We provide a list of folk taxa, and discuss folk biological classification and nomenclature, salient features, uses, related proverbs and sayings, and conservation. METHODS: We collected data among Hungarian-speaking people practising small-scale, traditional agriculture. We studied "all" invertebrate species (species groups) potentially occurring in the vicinity of the settlements...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Nicolas Gaboriaud-Kolar, Vasillios Myrianthopoulos, Konstantina Vougogiannopoulou, Panagiotis Gerolymatos, David A Horne, Richard Jove, Emmanuel Mikros, Sangkil Nam, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis
Drug resistance in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) requires the development of new CML chemotherapeutic drugs. Indirubin, a well-known mutikinase inhibitor, is the major active component of "Danggui Longhui Wan", a Chinese traditional medicine used for the treatment of CML symptoms. An in-house collection of indirubin derivatives was screened at 1 μM on wild-type and imatinib-resistant T315I mutant CML cells. Herein are reported that only 15 analogues of the natural 6-bromoindirubin displayed potent cytotoxicity in the submicromolar range...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Dushani L Palliyaguru, Dionysios V Chartoumpekis, Nobunao Wakabayashi, John J Skoko, Yoko Yagishita, Shivendra V Singh, Thomas W Kensler
Small molecules of plant origin offer presumptively safe opportunities to prevent carcinogenesis, mutagenesis and other forms of toxicity in humans. However, the mechanisms of action of such plant-based agents remain largely unknown. In recent years the stress responsive transcription factor Nrf2 has been validated as a target for disease chemoprevention. Withania somnifera (WS) is a herb used in Ayurveda (an ancient form of medicine in South Asia). In the recent past, withanolides isolated from WS, such as Withaferin A (WA) have been demonstrated to be preventive and therapeutic against multiple diseases in experimental models...
October 4, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Renata Kasper-Pakosz, Marcin Pietras, Łukasz Łuczaj
BACKGROUND: The study of plants and fungi sold in open-air markets is an important part of ethnobotanical enquiry. Only few such studies were carried out in Europe. METHODS: Four of the largest open-air markets of south-eastern Poland were visited regularly, and the plants sold in them were recorded between 2013 and 2015. The aim of the study was to record native and/or wild species sold in the markets. All the plants sold in the markets were photographed regularly...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Zhihui Jiang, Jian Wang, Huiting Xue, Meng Wang, Hai Jiang, Yinku Liang, Alberto C Dias, Marslin Gregory, Chen Chen, Xiaoying Zhang
BACKGROUND: In Chinese folk medicine, Corni fructus (C. fructus) has traditionally been used to improve liver function, although the mechanism underlying its activity remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of wild C. fructus methanolic extract against acute alcoholic liver injury. METHODS: Alcohol was administered to mice for three consecutive days, either alone or in combination with C. fructus methanolic extract (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight/d)...
October 7, 2016: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
Lulu Yang, Jianjun Chen, Weiming Hu, Tianshun Yang, Yanjun Zhang, Tamura Yukiyoshi, Yanyang Zhou, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation...
2016: PloS One
Rowaida N Al-Badani, Joyce Kelly R Da Silva, William N Setzer, Nasser A Awadh Ali, Bushra A Muharam, Ahmed J A Al-Fahad
Lavandula pubescens Decne. is one of five Lavandula species growing wild in Yemen. The plant is used in Yemeni traditional medicine, and the essential oil tends to be rich in carvacrol. In this work, L. pubescens was collected from eight different locations in Yemen, the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, and the oils analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to differentiate between the L. pubescens samples...
October 4, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Anna-Lisa Kofahl, Sebastian Theilenberg, Jakob Bindl, Deniz Ulucay, Judith Wild, Sylvia Napiletzki, Birgit Schu-Schätter, Alexandra Vohlen, Bogdan Pintea, Jürgen Finsterbusch, Elke Hattingen, Carsten Urbach, Karl Maier
PURPOSE: It is well known that pathological changes in tissue alter its mechanical properties. This holds also true for brain tissue. In case of the brain, however, obtaining information about these properties is hard due to the surrounding cranial bone. In this paper a novel technique to create an imaging contrast based on the aforementioned properties is presented. METHODS: The method is based on an excitation of the brain induced by a short fall. The response of the brain tissue is measured using a motion sensitive MRI sequence...
October 3, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Hongliang Li, Shuqiang Cao, Xuanbin Wang, Qimin Zuo, Ping Chen, Ying Liu, Ming Liu, Yibin Feng, Xincai Hao, Longchao Xiang, Xiaohua Zeng
Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., which is known as Heshouwu in China, is a Taoist medicine sourced from the Wudang mountain area. At present, the quality of the Heshouwu sourced from this region is unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the quality of wild Heshouwu collected from the Wudang mountain area, particularly the 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) and combined anthraquinone (CAQ) content, compared with that of commercially available Heshouwu. Furthermore, the potential quantities of organic pesticide residues were determined...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kira Bettermann, Anita Kuldeep Mehta, Eva M Hofer, Christina Wohlrab, Nicole Golob-Schwarzl, Vendula Svendova, Michael G Schimek, Cornelia Stumptner, Andrea Thüringer, Michael R Speicher, Carolin Lackner, Kurt Zatloukal, Helmut Denk, Johannes Haybaeck
: Backround: Steatohepatitis (SH)-associated liver carcinogenesis is an increasingly important issue in clinical medicine. SH is morphologically characterized by steatosis, hepatocyte injury, ballooning, hepatocytic cytoplasmic inclusions termed Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs), inflammation and fibrosis. RESULTS: 17-20-months-old Krt18-/- and Krt18+/- mice in contrast to wt mice spontaneously developed liver lesions closely resembling the morphological spectrum of human SH as well as liver tumors...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
Atieh Hakimi, Maryam Zolfaghari, Karim Sorkheh
Glycyrrhiza glabra is an endangered and national-protected medicinal plant species distributed in semi-arid and arid areas of South of Iran. This study addresses the genetic diversity and relationship between populations in different habitats by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The plant materials consisted of 90 individuals from nine different populating areas of Dezful, Ramhormoz, Ahvaz, Abadan, Khorramshahr, Behbahan, Haft-tapeh, Andimeshk, and Shushtar. Twenty-three AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 1019 bands with 94...
September 28, 2016: Biochemical Genetics
Mosaab Yahyaa, Muhammad Ibdah, Sally Marzouk, Mwafaq Ibdah
Fruits from wild carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. carota) have been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. The oil of its seeds, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, has drawn attention in recent years because of its potential pharmaceutical application. A combined chemical, biochemical, and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the differential accumulation of terpene volatiles in carrot fruits of wild accessions. This work reports a similarity-based cloning strategy identification and functional characterization of one carrot monoterpene terpene synthase, WtDcTPS1...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Esben S S Hansen, Neil J Stewart, Jim M Wild, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Christoffer Laustsen
PURPOSE: A decline in cortico-medullary osmolality gradient of the kidney may serve as an early indicator of pathological disruption of the tubular reabsorption process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of hyperpolarized (13) C,(15) N2 -urea MRI as a biomarker of renal function in healthy porcine kidneys resembling the human physiology. METHODS: Five healthy female Danish domestic pigs (weight 30 kg) were scanned at 3 Tesla (T) using a (13) C 3D balanced steady-state MR pulse sequence following injection of hyperpolarized (13) C,(15) N2 -urea via a femoral vein catheter...
September 26, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Agustina Tri Endharti, Adisti Wulandari, Anik Listyana, Eviana Norahmawati, Sofy Permana
BACKGROUND: Indonesian mistletoe grows on various trees. Mango Mistletoes (Dendrophthoe pentandra) is one type of mistletoe that grown on mango tree (.benalu mangga in bahasa Indonesia). Our study used mistletoe as a parasitic plant that has been used for traditional medicine. It has been known that Dendrophtoe pentandra extract (DPE) anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Furthermore, it is necessary to follow-up study in vivo to evaluate the response to treatment of new cancer therapeutic agents...
September 26, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Hua Sun, Hui Liu, Huinan Zhao, Ying Wang, Yao-Lan Li, Wen-Cai Ye, Baojian Wu
1. Anhuienoside C (AC), a triterpenoid saponin derived from the traditional Chinese medicine "Di Wu", has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatoid arthritis activities. Here we aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of AC and its deglycosylated metabolites in rats. 2. AC was administered to rats by intravenous injection or oral gavage. AC and its four deglycosylated metabolites (M1, M2, M3 and M4) in biological samples were quantified using a UPLC-QTOF/MS system. The pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by compartmental modeling...
September 23, 2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
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