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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922162/nonmelanoma-skin-cancer-in-mountain-guides-high-prevalence-and-lack-of-awareness-warrant-development-of-evidence-based-prevention-tools
#1
Alexander Zink, Elisabeth Koch, Florian Seifert, Markus Rotter, Christoph D Spinner, Tilo Biedermann
AIMS OF THE STUDY: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer in Switzerland and Europe. The main causative factor is exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which puts outdoor workers in general at a higher risk of developing NMSC than indoor workers. However, few studies have clinically examined the risk of developing NMSC to outdoor workers, especially mountain guides. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of NMSC and corresponding precancerous lesions, and the associated risk behaviour of mountain and ski guides in order to develop future prevention programmes...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920763/microbial-activity-response-to-solar-radiation-across-contrasting-environmental-conditions-in-salar-de-huasco-northern-chilean-altiplano
#2
Klaudia L Hernández, Beatriz Yannicelli, Lasse M Olsen, Cristina Dorador, Eduardo J Menschel, Verónica Molina, Francisco Remonsellez, Martha B Hengst, Wade H Jeffrey
In high altitude environments, extreme levels of solar radiation and important differences of ionic concentrations over narrow spatial scales may modulate microbial activity. In Salar de Huasco, a high-altitude wetland in the Andean mountains, the high diversity of microbial communities has been characterized and associated with strong environmental variability. Communities that differed in light history and environmental conditions, such as nutrient concentrations and salinity from different spatial locations, were assessed for bacterial secondary production (BSP, (3)H-leucine incorporation) response from short-term exposures to solar radiation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920609/two-new-liolaemus-lizards-from-the-andean-highlands-of-southern-chile-squamata-iguania-liolaemidae
#3
Jaime Troncoso-Palacios, Hugo A Diaz, German I Puas, Edvin Riveros-Riffo, Alvaro A Elorza
Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920377/phenological-shifts-of-native-and-invasive-species-under-climate-change-insights-from-the-boechera-lythrum-model
#4
REVIEW
Robert I Colautti, Jon Ågren, Jill T Anderson
Warmer and drier climates have shifted phenologies of many species. However, the magnitude and direction of phenological shifts vary widely among taxa, and it is often unclear when shifts are adaptive or how they affect long-term viability. Here, we model evolution of flowering phenology based on our long-term research of two species exhibiting opposite shifts in floral phenology: Lythrum salicaria, which is invasive in North America, and the sparse Rocky Mountain native Boechera stricta Genetic constraints are similar in both species, but differences in the timing of environmental conditions that favour growth lead to opposite phenological shifts under climate change...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919534/adsorption-of-acid-extractable-organics-from-oil-sands-process-affected-water-onto-biomass-based-biochar-metal-content-matters
#5
Tazul I Bhuiyan, Jin K Tak, Sebastian Sessarego, Don Harfield, Josephine M Hill
The impact of biochar properties on acid-extractable organics (AEO) adsorption from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) was studied. Biochar from wheat straw with the highest ash content (14%) had the highest adsorption capacity (0.59 mg/g) followed by biochar from pulp mill sludge, switchgrass, mountain pine, hemp shives, and aspen wood. The adsorption capacity had no obvious trend with surface area, total pore volume, bulk polarity and aromaticity. The large impact of metal content was consistent with the carboxylates (i...
December 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918576/respect-ed-rates-of-pulmonary-emboli-pe-and-sub-segmental-pe-with-modern-computed-tomographic-pulmonary-angiograms-in-emergency-departments-a-multi-center-observational-study-finds-significant-yield-variation-uncorrelated-with-use-or-small-pe-rates
#6
David Mountain, Gerben Keijzers, Kevin Chu, Anthony Joseph, Catherine Read, Gabriel Blecher, Jeremy Furyk, Chrianna Bharat, Karthik Velusamy, Andrew Munro, Kylie Baker, Frances Kinnear, Ahses Mukherjee, Gina Watkins, Paul Buntine, Georgia Livesay, Daniel Fatovich
INTRODUCTION: Overuse of CT Pulmonary Angiograms (CTPA) for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE), particularly in Emergency Departments (ED), is considered problematic. Marked variations in positive CTPA rates are reported, with American 4-10% yields driving most concerns. Higher resolution CTPA may increase sub-segmental PE (SSPE) diagnoses, which may be up to 40% false positive. Excessive use and false positives could increase harm vs. benefit. These issues have not been systematically examined outside America...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917987/the-future-of-pastoralism-an-introduction
#7
J Zinsstag, E Schelling, B Bonfoh, L Crump, S KrÄtli
Two-thirds of the agricultural land on planet Earth is grassland on which no other crops can be grown, either because of limited rainfall, high altitude or mountainous conditions. Most of these semi-arid and high-altitude pastoral ecosystems are used by livestock husbandry systems with various forms of mobility and are not in competition with crop production for human nutrition. By devoting an issue of its Scientific and Technical Review to pastoralism, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is encouraging debate on this important topic and helping to shape the future of pastoralists and their livestock...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917971/pastoralism-in-europe-characteristics-and-challenges-of-highland-lowland-transhumance
#8
K Liechti, J-P Biber
Transhumant pastoralism remains a prevalent form of land use across Europe, especially in mountain areas. Besides generating food and other products, it provides a range of public goods and services that are often highly valued by broader society. But transhumance faces structural challenges associated with life in remote mountain areas, including economic pressures, lack of services, low prestige, and ageing populations. These threaten its future. The decline of transhumant systems leads to ecological, economic, and socio-cultural losses, e...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917328/gps-imaging-of-vertical-land-motion-in-california-and-nevada-implications-for-sierra-nevada-uplift
#9
William C Hammond, Geoffrey Blewitt, Corné Kreemer
We introduce Global Positioning System (GPS) Imaging, a new technique for robust estimation of the vertical velocity field of the Earth's surface, and apply it to the Sierra Nevada Mountain range in the western United States. Starting with vertical position time series from Global Positioning System (GPS) stations, we first estimate vertical velocities using the MIDAS robust trend estimator, which is insensitive to undocumented steps, outliers, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity. Using the Delaunay triangulation of station locations, we then apply a weighted median spatial filter to remove velocity outliers and enhance signals common to multiple stations...
October 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917060/antarctotrechus-balli-sp-n-carabidae-trechini-the-first-ground-beetle-from-antarctica
#10
Allan C Ashworth, Terry L Erwin
Fossil elytra of a small trechine carabid are reported from the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at lat. 85°S. They were compared with counterparts from the extant genera Trechisibus, Tasmanorites, Oxytrechus and Pseudocnides. The fossils share some characters but are sufficiently different to be described as a new genus and species. We named the new species Antarctotrechus balli in honour of George E. Ball who made major contributions to the study of carabids through his own research and the training of students while at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916856/a-novel-gravity-compensation-method-for-high-precision-free-ins-based-on-extreme-learning-machine
#11
Xiao Zhou, Gongliu Yang, Qingzhong Cai, Jing Wang
In recent years, with the emergency of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros), gravity compensation has become a major source influencing the navigation accuracy in inertial navigation systems (INS), especially for high-precision INS. This paper presents preliminary results concerning the effect of gravity disturbance on INS. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a novel gravity compensation method for high-precision INS, which estimates the gravity disturbance on the track using the extreme learning machine (ELM) method based on measured gravity data on the geoid and processes the gravity disturbance to the height where INS has an upward continuation, then compensates the obtained gravity disturbance into the error equations of INS to restrain the INS error propagation...
November 29, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915182/using-spatial-metrics-and-surveys-for-the-assessment-of-trans-boundary-deforestation-in-protected-areas-of-the-maya-mountain-massif-belize-guatemala-border
#12
S D Chicas, K Omine, J B Ford, K Sugimura, K Yoshida
Understanding the trans-boundary deforestation history and patterns in protected areas along the Belize-Guatemala border is of regional and global importance. To assess deforestation history and patterns in our study area along a section of the Belize-Guatemala border, we incorporated multi-temporal deforestation rate analysis and spatial metrics with survey results. This multi-faceted approach provides spatial analysis with relevant insights from local stakeholders to better understand historic deforestation dynamics, spatial characteristics and human perspectives regarding the underlying causes thereof...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914177/virtual-touch-tissue-imaging-and-quantification-in-the-evaluation-of-thyroid-nodules
#13
Hang Zhou, Xian-Li Zhou, Hui-Xiong Xu, Dan-Dan Li, Bo-Ji Liu, Yi-Feng Zhang, Jun-Mei Xu, Xiao-Wan Bo, Xiao-Long Li, Le-Hang Guo, Shen Qu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic performance of a 2-dimensional shear wave elastographic technique (Virtual Touch tissue imaging and quantification [VTIQ]; Siemens Medical Solutions, Mountain View, CA) for predicting thyroid malignancy. METHODS: A total of 302 thyroid nodules underwent conventional sonography and VTIQ before fine-needle aspiration examination or surgery. Compared with histopathologic or cytologic results in combination with follow-up, the diagnostic performance of various shear wave speed (SWS) indices (minimum [SWSmin ], maximum [SWSmax ], and mean [SWSmean ]) on VTIQ as well as conventional sonographic features for predicting thyroid malignancy was evaluated in all of the nodules...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913463/single-dose-intravenous-iron-for-iron-deficiency-a-new-paradigm
#14
Michael Auerbach, Thomas Deloughery
Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common hematologic problem in the world. Although oral iron is often viewed as front-line therapy, extensive published evidence has accumulated that IV iron is superior, in both efficacy and safety, to oral iron in many clinical situations and should be introduced much sooner in the treatment paradigm of iron-deficient patients. In this chapter, we will review the formulations of IV iron that allow total complete replacement doses in 1 or 2 sessions including practical tips for administration...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911783/deglacial-temperature-history-of-west-antarctica
#15
Kurt M Cuffey, Gary D Clow, Eric J Steig, Christo Buizert, T J Fudge, Michelle Koutnik, Edwin D Waddington, Richard B Alley, Jeffrey P Severinghaus
The most recent glacial to interglacial transition constitutes a remarkable natural experiment for learning how Earth's climate responds to various forcings, including a rise in atmospheric CO2 This transition has left a direct thermal remnant in the polar ice sheets, where the exceptional purity and continual accumulation of ice permit analyses not possible in other settings. For Antarctica, the deglacial warming has previously been constrained only by the water isotopic composition in ice cores, without an absolute thermometric assessment of the isotopes' sensitivity to temperature...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909817/phylogenetic-structure-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-along-an-elevation-gradient
#16
Cameron P Egan, Ragan M Callaway, Miranda M Hart, Jason Pither, John Klironomos
Despite the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi within terrestrial ecosystems, we know little about how natural AM fungal communities are structured. To date, the majority of studies examining AM fungal community diversity have focused on single habitats with similar environmental conditions, with relatively few studies having assessed the diversity of AM fungi over large-scale environmental gradients. In this study, we characterized AM fungal communities in the soil along a high-elevation gradient in the North American Rocky Mountains...
December 1, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909816/ecological-and-physical-barriers-shape-genetic-structure-of-the-alpine-porcini-boletus-reticuloceps
#17
Bang Feng, Jian Wei Liu, Jianping Xu, Kuan Zhao, Zai Wei Ge, Zhu L Yang
The Alpine porcini, Boletus reticuloceps, is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom distributed in subalpine areas of Southwest China, central China, and Taiwan Island. This distribution pattern makes it an ideal organism to infer how ectomycorrhizal fungi have reacted to historical tectonic and climatic changes, and to illustrate the mechanism for the disjunction of organisms between Southwest China and Taiwan. In this study, we explored the phylogeographic pattern of B. reticuloceps by microsatellite genotyping, DNA sequencing, ecological factor analysis, and species distribution modeling...
December 1, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908625/a-novel-integrated-modelling-framework-to-assess-the-impacts-of-climate-and-socio-economic-drivers-on-land-use-and-water-quality
#18
Matthias Zessner, Martin Schönhart, Juraj Parajka, Helene Trautvetter, Hermine Mitter, Mathias Kirchner, Gerold Hepp, Alfred Paul Blaschke, Birgit Strenn, Erwin Schmid
Changes in climatic conditions will directly affect the quality and quantity of water resources. Further on, they will affect them indirectly through adaptation in land use which ultimately influences diffuse nutrient emissions to rivers and therefore potentially the compliance with good ecological status according to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). We present an integrated impact modelling framework (IIMF) to track and quantify direct and indirect pollution impacts along policy-economy-climate-agriculture-water interfaces...
November 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907263/seasonal-patterns-in-%C3%AE-2-h-values-of-multiple-tissues-from-andean-birds-provide-insights-into-elevational-migration
#19
Mariana Villegas, Seth D Newsome, John G Blake
Elevational migration is a widespread phenomenon in tropical avifauna but it is difficult to identify using traditional approaches. Hydrogen isotope (δ(2) H) values of precipitation decrease with elevation so δ(2) H analysis of multiple bird tissues with different isotopic incorporation rates may be a reliable method for characterizing seasonal elevational migration. Here we compare δ(2) H values in metabolically inert (feathers and claws) and metabolically active (whole blood) tissues to examine whether an upslope migration occurs prior to the breeding season in the Yungas Manakin (Chiroxiphia boliviana)...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907251/climate-influences-on-whitebark-pine-mortality-from-mountain-pine-beetle-in-the-greater-yellowstone-ecosystem
#20
Polly C Buotte, Jeffrey A Hicke, Haiganoush K Preisler, John T Abatzoglou, Kenneth F Raffa, Jesse A Logan
Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle are not well understood, yet are important considerations in whether to list whitebark pine as a threatened or endangered species. We sought to increase the understanding of climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pine forests, which are less well understood than in lodgepole pine, by quantifying climate-beetle relationships, analyzing climate influences during the recent outbreak, and estimating the suitability of future climate for beetle outbreaks...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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