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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101368/polymorphisms-in-the-canine-monoamine-oxidase-a-maoa-gene-identification-and-variation-among-five-broad-dog-breed-groups
#1
James Sacco, Andrew Ruplin, Paul Skonieczny, Michael Ohman
BACKGROUND: In humans, reduced activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) due to genetic polymorphisms within the MAOA gene leads to increased brain neurotransmitter levels associated with aggression. In order to study MAOA genetic diversity in dogs, we designed a preliminary study whose objectives were to identify novel alleles in functionally important regions of the canine MAOA gene, and to investigate whether the frequencies of these polymorphisms varied between five broad breed groups (ancient, herding, mastiff, modern European, and mountain)...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100226/multidimensional-poverty-and-catastrophic-health-spending-in-the-mountainous-regions-of-myanmar-nepal-and-india
#2
Sanjay K Mohanty, Nand Kishor Agrawal, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Dhrupad Choudhury, Sabarnee Tuladhar, E Valdemar Holmgren
BACKGROUND: Economic burden to households due to out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) is large in many Asian countries. Though studies suggest increasing household poverty due to high OOPE in developing countries, studies on association of multidimensional poverty and household health spending is limited. This paper tests the hypothesis that the multidimensionally poor are more likely to incur catastrophic health spending cutting across countries. DATA AND METHODS: Data from the Poverty and Vulnerability Assessment (PVA) Survey carried out by the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has been used in the analyses...
January 18, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100029/isolation-with-asymmetric-gene-flow-during-the-nonsynchronous-divergence-of-dry-forest-birds
#3
Jessica A Oswald, Isaac Overcast, William M Mauck, Michael J Andersen, Brian Tilston Smith
Dry forest bird communities in South America are often fragmented by intervening mountains and rainforests, generating high local endemism. The historical assembly of communities often results from dynamic processes linked to numerous population histories among co-distributed species. Nevertheless, species may diversify in the same way through time if landscape and environmental features, or species ecologies, similarly structure populations. Here we tested whether six co-distributed taxon pairs that occur in the dry forests of the Tumbes and Marañón Valley of northwestern South America show concordant patterns and modes of diversification...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097845/-fatal-case-of-rickettsiosis-in-a-toddler-from-southeastern-mexico
#4
César Lugo-Caballero, Karla Dzul-Rosado, Georgina Rodríguez-Moreno, Raúl Tello-Martín, Karina López-Ávila, Jorge Zavala-Castro
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, a bacteria transmitted by infected ticks. It is characterized by fever, exanthema, arthralgias and myalgias; but sometimes its clinical presentation is non specific. Due to its similarities with other exanthematic diseases like dengue or chikungunya, Rocky Mountain spotted fever is not a first line diagnosis, even though countries like Mexico show the ecologic and socioeconomic characteristics that favor its transmission, with a 30% mortality rate among pediatric patients...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097059/the-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-an-endemic-monotypic-genus-hagenia-rosaceae-structural-comparative-analysis-gene-content-and-microsatellite-detection
#5
Andrew W Gichira, Zhizhong Li, Josphat K Saina, Zhicheng Long, Guangwan Hu, Robert W Gituru, Qingfeng Wang, Jinming Chen
Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097048/effects-of-grazing-intensity-and-the-use-of-veterinary-medical-products-on-dung-beetle-biodiversity-in-the-sub-mountainous-landscape-of-central-italy
#6
Mattia Tonelli, José R Verdú, Mario E Zunino
Grazing extensification and intensification are among the main problems affecting European grasslands. We analyze the impact of grazing intensity (low and moderate) and the use of veterinary medical products (VMPs) on the dung beetle community in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy). Grazing intensity is a key factor in explaining the diversity of dung beetles. In the case of the alpha diversity component, sites with a low level of grazing activity-related in a previous step to the subsequent abandonment of traditional farming-is characterized by a loss of species richness (q = 0) and a reduction in alpha diversity at the levels q = 1 and q = 2...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096430/testing-hypotheses-about-individual-variation-in-plasma-corticosterone-in-free-living-salamanders
#7
Jessica R Thomas, Andrew J Magyan, Peter E Freeman, Sarah K Woodley
In vertebrates, many responses to stress as well as homeostatic maintenance of basal metabolism are regulated by plasma glucocorticoid hormones (GCs). Despite having crucial functions, levels of GCs are typically variable among individuals. We examined the contribution of several physiological factors to individual variation in plasma corticosterone (CORT) and the number of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the magnocellular preoptic area of the brain in free-living Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093669/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-anastrepha-striata-diptera-tephritidae-in-three-natural-regions-of-southwestern-colombia-using-mitochondrial-sequences
#8
Jenny Johana Gallo-Franco, Sandra Marcela Velasco-Cuervo, Elkin Aguirre-Ramirez, Ranulfo González Obando, Nancy Soraya Carrejo, Nelson Toro-Perea
Anastrepha striata is widely distributed across the Americas and is a pest of economically important crops, especially crops of the Myrtaceae family. Insect population structures can be influenced by the presence of physical barriers or characteristics associated with habitat differences. This study evaluated the effect of the Western Andes on the population structure of A. striata. Individuals were collected from Psidium guajava fruits from three natural regions of southwestern Colombia (Pacific Coast, mountainous region and the inter-Andean valley of the Cauca River)...
January 16, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092009/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-determined-by-pine-needles-and-semipermeable-membrane-devices-along-an-altitude-profile-in-taurus-mountains-turkey
#9
Cafer Turgut, Mehmet Ali Mazmanci, Birgül Mazmanci, Melis Yalçın, PerihanBinnur Kurt Karakuş, Levent Atatanir, Menekşe Keski, Bernhard Henkelmann, Gerd Pfister, Karl-Werner Schramm
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at different altitudes of Taurus Mountains in semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and in half-, one-and-a-half-, and two-and-a-half-year-old pine needles. SPMDs were deployed for three different exposure periods: March to September (Summer), September to March (Winter), and March to March (whole year) at eight sites where needle samples were collected. The values of PAHs in needles were between 4.4 to 6066 pg g/fw in half-year-old, 7.2 to 111,115 pg g/fw in 1...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091741/chemical-physical-and-biological-factors-shape-littoral-invertebrate-community-structure-in-coal-mining-end-pit-lakes
#10
Andreas Luek, Joseph B Rasmussen
Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087920/spatial-and-temporal-variation-of-water-quality-in-the-bertam-catchment-cameron-highlands-malaysia
#11
G Rasul
The spatio-temporal variability of water quality associated with anthropogenic activities was studied for the Bertam River and its main tributaries within the Bertam Catchment, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A number of physico-chemical parameters of collected samples were analyzed to evaluate their spatio-temporal variability. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed significant temporal and spatial differences (p<0.05) in most of the parameters across the Catchment. Parameters except DO and COD displayed higher values in rainy season...
December 16, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086808/a-quiet-harvest-linkage-between-ritual-seed-selection-and-the-historical-use-of-the-finger-bladed-knife-as-a-traditional-plant-breeding-tool-in-ifugao-philippines
#12
REVIEW
Kevin M Murphy
The transverse harvest knife, also commonly called the finger or finger-bladed knife, has been utilized by rice farmers in southeast Asia for many centuries. The finger knife persisted in many traditional cultures long after the introduction of the sickle, a tool which provided farmers with the means to execute a much faster harvest. Several theories in interpretative archaeology have attempted to account for this rejection of more modern technological innovations. These theories, which include community-based social organization ideas and practical reasons for the continued use of the finger knife, are presented in this paper...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080904/photoreceptor-degeneration-in-a-mountain-lion-cub-puma-concolor
#13
Andrew R DiSalvo, Christopher M Reilly, K Tomo Wiggans, Leslie W Woods, Ray F Wack, Deana L Clifford
An orphaned 4-mo-old female mountain lion cub ( Puma concolor ) was captured along the coastline in Montaña de Oro State Park in Los Osos, California, USA. Following suspicion that the cub was visually impaired, ophthalmic examination revealed diffuse bilateral retinal atrophy. Due to a poor prognosis, humane euthanasia was elected. Necropsy and histopathological findings were consistent with photoreceptor degeneration. Based on the cub's signalment, history, and histopathology, a genetic or nutritional etiology was suspected, with the former etiology more strongly supported...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080902/a-serologic-and-polymerase-chain-reaction-survey-of-equine-herpesvirus-in-burchell-s-zebras-equus-quagga-hartmann-s-mountain-zebras-equus-zebra-hartmannae-and-thomson-s-gazelles-eudorcas-thomsonii-in-a-mixed-species-savannah-exhibit
#14
Karen M Lopez, Gregory J Fleming, Natalie D Mylniczenko
Reports of equine herpesvirus (EHV) 1 and EHV-9 causing clinical disease in a wide range of species have been well documented in the literature. It is thought that zebras are the natural hosts of EHV-9 both in the wild and in captive collections. Concerns about potential interspecies transmission of EHV-1 and EHV-9 in a mixed species savannah exhibit prompted serologic and polymerase chain reaction surveys. Eighteen Burchell's zebras ( Equus quagga ), 11 Hartmann's mountain zebras ( Equus zebra hartmannae), and 14 Thomson's gazelles ( Eudorcas thomsonii ) cohabitating the same exhibit were examined for EHV-1 virus neutralization titers, and evidence of virus via EHV 1-5 polymerase chain reactions...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079352/the-way-forward-in-italy-for-iodine
#15
Antonella Olivieri, Caterina DI Cosmo, Simona DE Angelis, Roberto DA Cas, Paolo Stacchini, Augusto Pastorelli, Paolo Vitti
Italy is dealing with iodine deficiency since ancient times. Indeed, iodine deficiency disorders, specifically goiter and cretinism, have been reported in some regions of Northern Italy already in the first century AD. However, a clear relationship between endemic goiter and endemic cretinism was recognized only in 1848 by an "ad hoc" committee appointed by the king of Sardinia, which identified extensive areas afflicted by these disorders in Piedmont, Liguria and Sardinia. With the identification in the early 20th century of iodine deficiency as the cause of endemic goiter1 many epidemiological studies were conducted in Italy...
January 12, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079148/modulation-of-snow-reflectance-and-snowmelt-from-central-asian-glaciers-by-anthropogenic-black-carbon
#16
Julia Schmale, Mark Flanner, Shichang Kang, Michael Sprenger, Qianggong Zhang, Junming Guo, Yang Li, Margit Schwikowski, Daniel Farinotti
Deposited mineral dust and black carbon are known to reduce the albedo of snow and enhance melt. Here we estimate the contribution of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) to snowmelt in glacier accumulation zones of Central Asia based on in-situ measurements and modelling. Source apportionment suggests that more than 94% of the BC is emitted from mostly regional anthropogenic sources while the remaining contribution comes from natural biomass burning. Even though the annual deposition flux of mineral dust can be up to 20 times higher than that of BC, we find that anthropogenic BC causes the majority (60% on average) of snow darkening...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076968/influence-of-southwest-monsoons-in-the-kashmir-valley-western-himalayas
#17
Ghulam Jeelani, Rajendrakumar D Deshpande, Rouf A Shah, Wasim Hassan
The regional climate of the Himalayas is predominated by the southwest monsoons and the western disturbances. The uplift of the Pir Panjal to its present height is believed to restrict the southwest monsoons from entering into the Kashmir Valley in the western Himalayas. In the present study, monthly precipitation samples were collected across the Kashmir Valley from June 2013 to May 2014 for δ(18)O and δ(2)H analyses to constrain the influence of southwest monsoons in the valley. Except in August, the precipitation is enriched in (18)O and (2)H from June to September and depleted from October to May...
January 12, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070700/clouds-homogenize-shoot-temperatures-transpiration-and-photosynthesis-within-crowns-of-abies-fraseri-pursh-poiret
#18
J Melissa Hernandez-Moreno, Nicole M Bayeur, Harold D Coley, Nicole M Hughes
Multiple studies have examined the effects of clouds on shoot and canopy-level microclimate and physiological processes; none have yet done so on the scale of individual plant crowns. We compared incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), leaf temperatures, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic gas exchange of shoots in three different spatial locations of Abies fraseri crowns on sunny (clear to partly cloudy) versus overcast days. The field site was a Fraser fir farm (1038 m elevation) in the Appalachian mountains, USA...
January 10, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070699/in-situ-soil-cos-exchange-of-a-temperate-mountain-grassland-under-simulated-drought
#19
Florian Kitz, Katharina Gerdel, Albin Hammerle, Tamara Laterza, Felix M Spielmann, Georg Wohlfahrt
During recent years, carbonyl sulfide (COS), a trace gas with a similar diffusion pathway into leaves as carbon dioxide (CO2), but with no known "respiration-like" leaf source, has been discussed as a promising new approach for partitioning net ecosystem-scale CO2 fluxes into photosynthesis and respiration. The utility of COS for flux partitioning at the ecosystem scale critically depends on the understanding of non-leaf sources and sinks of COS. This study assessed the contribution of the soil to ecosystem-scale COS fluxes under simulated drought conditions at temperate grassland in the Central Alps...
January 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070306/ecological-genomics-of-local-adaptation-in-cornus-florida-l-by-genotyping-by-sequencing
#20
Andrew L Pais, Ross W Whetten, Qiu-Yun Jenny Xiang
Discovering local adaptation, its genetic underpinnings, and environmental drivers is important for conserving forest species. Ecological genomic approaches coupled with next-generation sequencing are useful means to detect local adaptation and uncover its underlying genetic basis in nonmodel species. We report results from a study on flowering dogwood trees (Cornus florida L.) using genotyping by sequencing (GBS). This species is ecologically important to eastern US forests but is severely threatened by fungal diseases...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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