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Altitude illness

Anna Hartman-Ksycińska, Jolanta Kluz-Zawadzka, Bogumił Lewandowski
High-altitude illness is a result of prolonged high-altitude exposure of unacclimatized individuals. The illness is seen in the form of acute mountain sickness (AMS) which if not treated leads to potentially life-threatening high altitude pulmonary oedema and high-altitude cerebral oedema. Medical problems are caused by hypobaric hypoxia stimulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) release. As a result, the central nervous system, circulation and respiratory system function impairment occurs. The most important factor in AMS treatment is acclimatization, withdrawing further ascent and rest or beginning to descent; oxygen supplementation, and pharmacological intervention, and, if available, a portable hyperbaric chamber...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Kasper Fjellhaugen Hjuler, Bjørn Bay
Tourism to high-altitude areas is increasingly popular even from low-lying regions such as Denmark. Mountain sports include skiing, mountaineering, and ski touring. The young, elderly and at-risk individuals with pre-existing illnesses engage in recreational mountain activities. Thus, risk assessment and counselling regarding altitude exposure is increasingly relevant to all healthcare providers. In this first article of two in a review series, we summarize the state of the art of altitude physiology, alpine dangers and avalanches, and medical aspects of the increased UV-exposure at altitude...
October 31, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Shreeyukta Bhattarai, William Elson, Rashila Pradhan, Prativa Pandey
While altitude illness is common in the Himalayas, conditions unrelated to altitude illness also occur. High altitude cerebral oedema HACE is a global phenomenon of gradual onset affecting both cerebral hemispheres. We outline two cases of cervical artery dissection presenting with sudden onset of focal neurological symptoms at high altitude.
July 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
Joe X Zhang, Jacob R Berry, Devin P Beckstrand
BACKGROUND: Arterial gas embolism (AGE) is a rare condition in the flying community most often only ever seen in flight while operating at high altitude or incidents involving hypobaric chambers. This article describes a severe case of AGE that occurred in a pilot of a fourth generation fighter aircraft at ground level. The environmental control system (ECS) malfunctioned, causing an overpressurized cockpit and a subsequent explosive decompression when the pilot opened the canopy to egress...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Andrew M Luks, Colin Grissom, Luanne Freer, Peter Hackett
Luks, Andrew M., Colin Grissom, Luanne Freer, and Peter Hackett. Medication use among mount Everest climbers: practice and attitudes. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2016.-The lay public, media, and medical experts have expressed concern about the ethics of climbers using medications to improve performance and increase the odds of summit success while climbing at high altitude, but the true incidence of this practice remains unclear. We conducted an anonymous survey of climbers who have attempted to climb Mt...
October 20, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Aleš Chrdle, Vaclav Chmelik, Daniel Ruzek
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an acute febrile illness with neurological manifestations that is prevalent in forested areas of moderate climate in Europe and Asia. TBE virus is transmitted by ticks and rarely by unpasteurized milk and dairy products. The disease burden is attributed mainly to resulting long-term disability, especially in individuals over 50 years of age. Currently, there is no causative treatment, but a very effective vaccination is available with a good safety profile. The vaccination requires three basic doses to be fully effective and regular boosters afterwards...
August 15, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Tom Robinson, Jose S Evangelista, Emi Latham, Samir T Mukherjee, Andrew Pilmanis
INTRODUCTION: Supersonic, high altitude aviation places its pilots and aircrew in complex environments, which may lead to injury that is not easily diagnosed or simply treated. Decompression illness (either venous or arterial) and environmental conditions (e.g., abnormal gases and pressure) are the most likely adverse effects aircrew often face. Though symptomatic aircrew personnel may occasionally require hyperbaric oxygen treatment, it is rare to require more than one treatment before returning to baseline function...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Ross Hofmeyr, Walther Meyer, Mike James, Rik De Decker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Philip E Bickler, John R Feiner, Michael S Lipnick, Paul Batchelder, David B MacLeod, John W Severinghaus
Extended periods of oxygen deprivation can produce acidosis, inflammation, energy failure, cell stress, or cell death. However, brief profound hypoxia (here defined as SaO2 50%-70% for approximately 10 minutes) is not associated with cardiovascular compromise and is tolerated by healthy humans without apparent ill effects. In contrast, chronic hypoxia induces a suite of adaptations and stresses that can result in either increased tolerance of hypoxia or disease, as in adaptation to altitude or in the syndrome of chronic mountain sickness...
August 12, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
William Selde, Will Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: JEMS: a Journal of Emergency Medical Services
Martin J MacInnis, Michael S Koehle
MacInnis, Martin J., and Michael S. Koehle. Evidence for and against genetic predispositions to acute and chronic altitude illnesses. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2016.-Humans exhibit marked variation in their responses to hypoxia, with susceptibility to acute and chronic altitude illnesses being a prominent and medically important example. Many have hypothesized that genetic differences are the cause of these variable responses to hypoxia; however, until recently, these hypotheses were based primarily on small (and sometimes anecdotal) reports pertaining to apparent differences in altitude illness susceptibility between populations, the notion that a history of altitude illness is indicative of subsequent risk, the heritability of hypoxia-related traits, and candidate gene association studies...
August 8, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Matthias Peter Hilty, Stefanie Zügel, Michele Schoeb, Katja Auinger, Christoph Dehnert, Marco Maggiorini
Introduction. Acute exposure to high altitude induces inflammation. However, the relationship between inflammation and high altitude related illness such as high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and acute mountain sickness (AMS) is poorly understood. We tested if soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) plasma concentration, a prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease and marker for low grade activation of leukocytes, will predict susceptibility to HAPE and AMS. Methods. 41 healthy mountaineers were examined at sea level (SL, 446 m) and 24 h after rapid ascent to 4559 m (HA)...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Ill-Min Chung, Jae-Kwang Kim, Yong-Ik Jin, Yong-Taek Oh, Mayakrishnan Prabakaran, Kyoung-Jin Youn, Seung-Hyun Kim
Compared to other foods, the use of common bio-elements to identify the geographical origin of potato remains limited. Thus, this study aimed to verify whether the cultivation regions of raw potato tubers could be determined by the stable isotope composition analysis of bio-elements. δ(13)CVPDB and δ(15)NAIR in potato were influenced by region and cultivar, whereas δ(18)OVSMOW and δ(34)SVCDT were only influenced by region (p<0.0001). A two-dimensional plot of δ(18)OVSMOW and δ(34)SVCDT effectively distinguished between high and low altitude regions, and also reliably discriminated Wanju, Haenam, and Boseong cultivars in low altitude regions...
December 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Michael P W Grocott, D Z H Levett, D S Martin, M H Wilson, A Mackenney, S Dhillon, H E Montgomery, M G Mythen, K Mitchell
The Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) expedition in the spring of 2007 systematically studied 222 healthy volunteers as they ascended from sea level to Everest Base Camp (5300 m). A subgroup of climbing investigators ascended higher on Everest and obtained physiological measurements up to an altitude of 8400 m. The aim of the study was to explore inter-individual variation in response to environmental hypobaric hypoxia in order to understand better the pathophysiology of critically ill patients and other patients in whom hypoxaemia and cellular hypoxia are prevalent...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Erik R Swenson
Hypoxia, depending upon its magnitude and circumstances, evokes a spectrum of mild to severe acid-base changes ranging from alkalosis to acidosis, which can alter many responses to hypoxia at both non-genomic and genomic levels, in part via altered hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) metabolism. Healthy people at high altitude and persons hyperventilating to non-hypoxic stimuli can become alkalotic and alkalemic with arterial pH acutely rising as high as 7.7. Hypoxia-mediated respiratory alkalosis reduces sympathetic tone, blunts hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and hypoxic cerebral vasodilation, and increases hemoglobin oxygen affinity...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Andrew M Luks
Luks, M. Andrew. Clinician's corner: travel to high altitude following solid organ transplantation. High Alt Med Biol. 16:000-000, 2016.-As they regain active lifestyles following successful organ transplantation, transplant recipients may travel to high altitude for a variety of activities, including skiing, climbing, and trekking. This review is intended to provide information for medical providers who may encounter transplant patients seeking advice before planned high altitude travel or care for medical issues that develop during the actual sojourn...
June 23, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Olivier Salamin, Sara De Angelis, Jean-Daniel Tissot, Martial Saugy, Nicolas Leuenberger
Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency, blood doping through erythropoietin injection or blood transfusion is frequently used by athletes to increase oxygen delivery to muscles and enhance performance. In contrast with allogeneic blood transfusion and erythropoietic stimulants, there is presently no direct method of detection for autologous blood transfusion (ABT) doping. Blood reinfusion is currently monitored with individual follow-up of hematological variables via the athlete biological passport, which requires further improvement...
July 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Paul Robach, Gilles Trebes, Françoise Lasne, Corinne Buisson, Nathalie Méchin, Monica Mazzarino, Xavier de la Torre, Matthieu Roustit, Patricia Kérivel, Francesco Botré, Pierre Bouzat
Mont Blanc, the summit of Western Europe, is a popular but demanding high-altitude ascent. Drug use is thought to be widespread among climbers attempting this summit, not only to prevent altitude illnesses, but also to boost physical and/or psychological capacities. This practice may be unsafe in this remote alpine environment. However, robust data on medication during the ascent of Mont Blanc are lacking. Individual urine samples from male climbers using urinals in mountain refuges on access routes to Mont Blanc (Goûter and Cosmiques mountain huts) were blindly and anonymously collected using a hidden automatic sampler...
2016: PloS One
Raffaele Brustia, Giulia Enrione, Bruna Catuzzo, Luca Cavoretto, Massimo Pesenti Campagnoni, Enrico Visetti, Emmanuel Cauchy, Stefanie Ziegler, Guido Giardini
UNLABELLED: Brustia, Raffaele, Giulia Enrione, Bruna Catuzzo, Luca Cavoretto, Massimo Pesenti Compagnoni, Enrico Visetti, Emmanuel Cauchy, Stefanie Ziegler, and Guido Giardini. Results of a prospective observational study on mountaineering emergencies in Western Alps: mind your head. High Alt Med Biol. 17:116-121, 2016.- BACKGROUND: In the northern Italian district Valle d'Aosta district during winter and summer season the population can increase up to 170% of the resident population...
June 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Marc Coudel, Pierre-Marie Aubert, Mohammed Aderghal, Christelle Hély
Human activities are historical ecological drivers, and we need to better understand their effects on ecosystems. In particular, they have been very important in the shaping of the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. Researchers and managers nonetheless lack knowledge concerning the impacts of their combinations and their current intensity on the structure of forest ecosystems of the southern part of the Mediterranean basin. In this study, we have develped a new methodology in order to understand the impacts of combined pastoral and woodcutting activities on the forest structure of the still ill-described but ecologically and economically important Moroccan Middle Atlas cedar forests...
March 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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