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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925101/the-difference-between-white-and-red-ginseng-variations-in-ginsenosides-and-immunomodulation
#1
Min He, Xin Huang, Shuying Liu, Chunsheng Guo, Yufei Xie, Annemarie H Meijer, Mei Wang
Ginseng Radix ( Panax ginseng ) is one of the most commonly used herbs worldwide for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases among others, supported by ancient historical records. Throughout this long history, the large-scale cultivation of ginseng created an increasing demand for long-term storage of the harvested plant material, accelerating the development of post-harvesting procedures. Dried white ginseng and processed (steamed) red ginseng are the products of the two most common traditional post-harvest processes...
June 20, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925070/osmoregulation-in-polycystic-kidney-disease-relationship-with-cystogenesis-and-hypertension
#2
Conor F Underwood, Jacqueline K Phillips, Cara M Hildreth
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a group of monogenetic conditions characterised by the progressive accumulation of multiple renal cysts and hypertension. One of the earliest features of PKD is a reduction in urinary concentrating capacity that impairs extracellular fluid conservation. Urinary concentrating impairment predisposes PKD patients to periods of hypohydration when fluid loss is not adequately compensated by fluid intake. The hypohydrated state provides a blood hyperosmotic stimulus for vasopressin release to minimise further water loss...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925062/spleen-tyrosine-kinase-as-a-target-therapy-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#3
REVIEW
Alaa Alhazmi
Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase which associates directly with extracellular receptors, and is critically involved in signal transduction pathways in a variety of cell types for the regulation of cellular responses. SYK is expressed ubiquitously in immune and nonimmune cells, and has a much wider biological role than previously recognized. Several studies have highlighted SYK as a key player in the pathogenesis of a multitude of diseases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic gram-negative pathogen, which is responsible for systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals, accounting for a major cause of severe chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients and subsequently resulting in a progressive deterioration of lung function...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925057/pollution-characteristics-and-health-risk-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-the-vegetable-bases-of-northwest-china
#4
Rukeya Sawut, Nijat Kasim, Balati Maihemuti, Li Hu, Abdugheni Abliz, Abdusalam Abdujappar, Miradil Kurban
The objective of this study was to investigate heavy metal contamination in four major vegetable bases and determine the health risks of residents in the vicinity of the highly urbanized city Urumqi in Xinjiang, China. In this paper, we determined the contents of six heavy metals (i.e., As, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb) in surface soil and groundwater to evaluate the levels of heavy metal pollution and human health risks using the pollution index (PI), the Nemerow integrated pollution index (NIPI), the ecological risk factor (Ei r ), risk index (RI) and the health risk assessment model...
June 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925056/tissue-specific-bioaccumulation-depuration-and-metabolism-of-4-4-dichlorodiphenyl-sulfide-in-the-freshwater-mussel-anodonta-woodiana
#5
Xuesheng Zhang, Bingxin Fang, Tantan Wang, Hui Liu, Mingbao Feng, Li Qin, Rui Zhang
Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are considered as a class of sulfur-containing dioxin-like pollutants with ubiquitous occurrence in natural waters and potential ecotoxicity to aquatic organisms. However, to date, no information is available regarding the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of PCDPSs in aquatic species. In this study, the uptake and depuration kinetics of 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl sulfide (4,4'-di-CDPS) in the freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana were investigated through semi-static exposure...
June 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925036/converting-lignin-derived-phenolic-aldehydes-into-microbial-lipid-by-trichosporon-cutaneum
#6
Mingshan Hu, Juan Wang, Qiuqiang Gao, Jie Bao
Lignin is one of the major components of lignocellulose biomass and chemically degrades into phenolic aldehydes including 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, and syringaldehyde. No lipid accumulation from the phenolic aldehydes by oleaginous microbes had been succeeded. Compared with vanillin and syringaldehyde, T. cutaneum ACCC 20271 have better tolerance to 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was found to be able as the substrate for lipid accumulation, while vanillin and syringaldehyde were only converted to less toxic phenolic alcohols and acids without observable lipid accumulation, perhaps due to the space shelling of methoxyl group(s) in the structures...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925034/minimal-network-topologies-for-signal-processing-during-collective-cell-chemotaxis
#7
Haicen Yue, Brian A Camley, Wouter-Jan Rappel
Cell-cell communication plays an important role in collective cell migration. However, it remains unclear how cells in a group cooperatively process external signals to determine the group's direction of motion. Although the topology of signaling pathways is vitally important in single-cell chemotaxis, the signaling topology for collective chemotaxis has not been systematically studied. Here, we combine mathematical analysis and simulations to find minimal network topologies for multicellular signal processing in collective chemotaxis...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924988/aberrant-striatal-activity-in-parkinsonism-and-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia
#8
Michael B Ryan, Chloe Bair-Marshall, Alexandra B Nelson
Action selection relies on the coordinated activity of striatal direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (dMSNs and iMSNs, respectively). Loss of dopamine in Parkinson's disease is thought to disrupt this balance. While dopamine replacement with levodopa may restore normal function, the development of involuntary movements (levodopa-induced dyskinesia [LID]) limits therapy. How chronic dopamine loss and replacement with levodopa modulate the firing of identified MSNs in behaving animals is unknown. Using optogenetically labeled striatal single-unit recordings, we assess circuit dysfunction in parkinsonism and LID...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924958/overexpression-of-mir-361-5p-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-tnbc-inhibits-migration-and-invasion-by-targeting-rqcd1-and-inhibiting-the-egfr-pi3k-akt-pathway
#9
Jianjun Han, Jingjing Yu, Yuna Dai, Jumei Li, Meiyan Guo, Jingzhen Song, Xuefeng Zhou
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Previous studies indicated that miR-361-5p was downregulated in breast cancer, however, the exact effect of miR-361-5p on TNBC requires further investigation. In the present study, we investigated whether miR-361-5p can act as a tumor suppressor by targeting required for cell differentiation 1 homolog (RQCD1) and inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway in TNBC...
June 20, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924917/experiences-of-postpartum-women-after-mindfulness-childbirth-classes-a-qualitative-study
#10
Ira Kantrowitz-Gordon, Shannon Abbott, Rachel Hoehn
INTRODUCTION: The postpartum period can be a challenging experience for many women as they adjust to the physical and social changes after childbirth. Mindfulness-based interventions have been developed for stress reduction in a variety of health contexts, including pregnancy. These interventions provide strategies that may help new mothers handle the physical, emotional, and relationship challenges of the postpartum period and increase acceptance of postpartum physical changes and body image...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924908/heterocyclic-analogs-of-sulforaphane-trigger-dna-damage-and-impede-dna-repair-in-colon-cancer-cells-interplay-of-hats-and-hdacs
#11
Adaobi Okonkwo, Joy Mitra, Gavin S Johnson, Li Li, Wan Mohaiza Dashwood, Muralidhar Hegde, Chen Yue, Roderick H Dashwood, Praveen Rajendran
SCOPE: DNA repair inhibitors have broad clinical applications in tumor types with DNA repair defects, including colorectal cancer. Structural analogs of the anticancer agent sulforaphane (SFN) were investigated as modifiers of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, and for effects on DNA damage/repair pertinent to human colorectal cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the polyposis in rat colon (Pirc) model, single oral administration of SFN and structurally-related long-chain isothiocyanates (ITCs) decreased HDAC3 expression and increased pH2AX levels markedly in adenomatous colon polyps, extending our prior observations on HDAC3 inhibition/turnover in cell-based assays...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924905/a-long-non-coding-rna-expression-profile-can-predict-early-recurrence-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-curative-resection
#12
Yufeng Lv, Wenhao Wei, Zhong Huang, Zhichao Chen, Yuan Fang, Lili Pan, Xueqiong Han, Zihai Xu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop a novel long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression signature to accurately predict early recurrence for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using expression profiles downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, we identified multiple lncRNAs with differential expression between early recurrence (ER) group and non-early recurrence (non-ER) group of HCC. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) for logistic regression models were used to develop a lncRNA-based classifier for predicting ER in the training set...
June 20, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924867/arq-197-a-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-c-met-reduces-tumour-burden-and-prevents-myeloma-induced-bone-disease-in-vivo
#13
Darren L Lath, Clive H Buckle, Holly R Evans, Matthew Fisher, Jenny M Down, Michelle A Lawson, Andrew D Chantry
The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met, its ligand HGF, and components of the downstream signalling pathway, have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of myeloma, both as modulators of plasma cell proliferation and as agents driving osteoclast differentiation and osteoblast inhibition thus, all these contribute substantially to the bone destruction typically caused by myeloma. Patients with elevated levels of HGF have a poor prognosis, therefore, targeting these entities in such patients may be of substantial benefit...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924862/identification-of-hepatic-protein-protein-interaction-targets-for-betaine-homocysteine-s-methyltransferase
#14
Francisco Garrido, María Pacheco, Rocío Vargas-Martínez, Roberto Velasco-García, Inmaculada Jorge, Horacio Serrano, Francisco Portillo, Jesús Vázquez, María Ángeles Pajares
Protein-protein interactions are an important mechanism for the regulation of enzyme function allowing metabolite channeling, crosstalk between pathways or the introduction of post-translational modifications. Therefore, a number of high-throughput studies have been carried out to shed light on the protein networks established under different pathophysiological settings. Surprisingly, this type of information is quite limited for enzymes of intermediary metabolism such as betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase, despite its high hepatic abundancy and its role in homocysteine metabolism...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924852/exposure-to-elevated-glucose-concentrations-alters-the-metabolomic-profile-of-bovine-blastocysts
#15
Karen Uhde, Helena T A van Tol, Tom A E Stout, Bernard A J Roelen
Chronically high blood glucose concentrations are a characteristic of diabetes mellitus. Maternal diabetes affects the metabolism of early embryos and can cause a delay in development. To mimic maternal diabetes, bovine in vitro fertilization and embryo culture were performed in fertilization medium and culture medium containing 0.5, 2, 3, and 5 mM, glucose whereas under control conditions, the medium was glucose free (0 mM). Compared to control conditions (0 mM, 31%), blastocyst development was decreased to 23% with 0...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924834/the-fucose-salvage-pathway-inhibits-invadopodia-formation-and-extracellular-matrix-degradation-in-melanoma-cells
#16
Tyler Keeley, Shengchen Lin, Daniel K Lester, Eric K Lau, Shengyu Yang
The fucose salvage pathway is a two-step process in which mammalian cells transform L-fucose into GDP-L-fucose, a universal fucose donor used by fucosyltransferases to modify glycans. Emerging evidence indicates the fucose salvage pathway and the fucosylation of proteins are altered during melanoma progression and metastasis. However the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we report that the fucose salvage pathway inhibits invadopodia formation and extracellular matrix degradation by promoting α-1,2 fucosylation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924794/colorectal-cancer-mutational-profiles-correlate-with-defined-microbial-communities-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#17
Michael B Burns, Emmanuel Montassier, Juan Abrahante, Sambhawa Priya, David E Niccum, Alexander Khoruts, Timothy K Starr, Dan Knights, Ran Blekhman
Variation in the gut microbiome has been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC), as well as to host genetic variation. However, we do not know whether, in addition to baseline host genetics, somatic mutational profiles in CRC tumors interact with the surrounding tumor microbiome, and if so, whether these changes can be used to understand microbe-host interactions with potential functional biological relevance. Here, we characterized the association between CRC microbial communities and tumor mutations using microbiome profiling and whole-exome sequencing in 44 pairs of tumors and matched normal tissues...
June 20, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924731/il-37-affects-the-occurrence-and-development-of-endometriosis-by-regulating-the-biological-behavior-of-endometrial-stromal-cells-through-multiple-signaling-pathways
#18
Jianfa Jiang, Kenan Yu, Zhaoying Jiang, Min Xue
Endometriosis (EMs) is a chronic inflammatory condition. Interleukin (IL)-37 is a member of the IL-1 family and an anti-inflammatory cytokine. This study aimed to evaluate the possible role of IL-37 in the EMs pathogenesis. We investigated the in vivo effect of IL-37 on EMs by injection with recombinant human IL-37 (rhIL-37) into EMs mice. Furthermore, we evaluated the in-vitro effects of IL-37 on proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasiveness of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and explored whether Wnt/β-catenin and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were involved in this process...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924729/involvement-of-mitophagy-in-cisplatin-induced-cell-death-regulation
#19
Alibek Abdrakhmanov, Andrey V Kulikov, Ekaterina A Luchkina, Boris Zhivotovsky, Vladimir Gogvadze
Mitophagy, the selective degradation of mitochondria via the autophagic pathway, is a vital mechanism of mitochondrial quality control in cells. The removal of malfunctioning or damaged mitochondria is essential for normal cellular physiology and tissue development. Stimulation of mitochondrial permeabilization and release of proapoptotic factors from the intermembrane space is an essential step in triggering the mitochondrial pathway of cell death. In this study, we analyzed the extent to which mitophagy interferes with cell death, attenuating the efficiency of cancer therapy...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924727/the-role-of-acid-sphingomyelinase-and-modulation-of-sphingolipid-metabolism-in-bacterial-infection
#20
Alexander Simonis, Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir
Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism that converts sphingomyelin to ceramide, thereby modulating membrane structures and signal transduction. Bacterial pathogens can manipulate ASM activity and function, and use host sphingolipids during multiple steps of their infection process. An increase in ceramides upon infection results in the formation of ceramide-enriched membrane platforms that serve to cluster receptor molecules and organize intracellular signaling molecules, thus facilitating bacterial uptake...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
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