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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668111/efficient-in-planta-gene-targeting-in-tomato-using-geminiviral-replicons-and-the-crispr-cas9-system
#1
Tal Dahan-Meir, Shdema Filler-Hayut, Cathy Melamed-Bessudo, Samuel Bocobza, Henryk Czosnek, Asaph Aharoni, Avraham A Levy
Current breeding relies mostly on random mutagenesis and recombination to generate novel genetic variation. However, targeted genome editing is becoming an increasingly important tool for precise plant breeding. Using the CRISPR-Cas system combined with the bean yellow dwarf virus rolling circle replicon we optimized a method for targeted mutagenesis and gene replacement in tomato. The carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO) and phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) genes from the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway were chosen as targets due to their easily detectable change of phenotype...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668080/control-of-the-ethylene-signaling-pathway-prevents-plant-defenses-during-intracellular-accommodation-of-the-rhizobia
#2
Fathi Berrabah, Thierry Balliau, El Hosseyn Aït-Salem, Jeoffrey George, Michel Zivy, Pascal Ratet, Benjamin Gourion
Massive intracellular populations of symbiotic bacteria, referred to as rhizobia, are housed in legume root nodules. Little is known about the mechanisms preventing the development of defense in these organs although genes such as symCRK and DNF2 of the model legume Medicago truncatula are required for this control after rhizobial internalization in host nodule cells. Here we investigated the molecular basis of the symbiotic control of immunity. Proteomic analysis was performed to compare functional (wild-type) and defending nodules (symCRK)...
April 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668065/insight-on-the-regulation-of-chemokine-activities
#3
REVIEW
Valentina Cecchinato, Mariagrazia Uguccioni
The activity of chemokines is regulated by several mechanisms that control the final cellular response. The present review discusses the complexity of the regulation of the chemokine system, and the novel findings describing how in persistent infections, the expression of chemokine receptors on the surface of T cells does not correlate with their homing potential. Thanks to the latest advances in our comprehension of the chemokine system, novel approaches targeting chemokines, chemokine receptors, or protein of their signaling pathway should be considered in order to achieve a personalized therapy...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668032/presence-of-meniscus-tear-alters-gene-expression-profile-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-tears
#4
Robert H Brophy, Marcus A Rothermich, Eric D Tycksen, Lei Cai, Muhammad Farooq Rai
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears occur in isolation or in tandem with other intra-articular injuries such as meniscus tears. The impact of injury pattern on the molecular biology of the injured ACL is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the biological response of the ACL to injury varies based on the presence or absence of concomitant meniscus tear. We performed RNA-seq on 28 ACL tears remnants (12 isolated, 16 combined). In total, 16,654 transcripts were differentially-expressed between isolated and combined injury groups at false-discovery-rate of 0...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668012/evolution-of-dnmt2-in-drosophilids-evidence-for-positive-and-purifying-selection-and-insights-into-new-protein-pathways-interactions
#5
Gilberto Cavalheiro Vieira, Marícia Fantinel D'Ávila, Rebeca Zanini, Maríndia Deprá, Vera Lúcia da Silva Valente
The DNA methyltransferase 2 (DNMT2) protein is the most conserved member of the DNA methyltransferase family. Nevertheless, its substrate specificity is still controversial and elusive. The genomic role and determinants of DNA methylation are poorly understood in invertebrates, and several mechanisms and associations are suggested. In Drosophila, the only known DNMT gene is Dnmt2. Here we present our findings from a wide search for Dnmt2 homologs in 68 species of Drosophilidae. We investigated its molecular evolution, and in our phylogenetic analyses the main clades of Drosophilidae species were recovered...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668002/a-sharp-edge-based-acoustofluidic-chemical-signal-generator
#6
Po-Hsun Huang, Chung Yu Chan, Peng Li, Yuqi Wang, Nitesh Nama, Hunter Bachman, Tony Jun Huang
Resolving the temporal dynamics of cell signaling pathways is essential for regulating numerous downstream functions, from gene expression to cellular responses. Mapping these signaling pathways requires the exposure of cells to time-varying chemical signals; these are difficult to generate and control over a wide temporal range. Herein, we present an acoustofluidic chemical signal generator based on a sharp-edge-based micromixing strategy. The device, simply by modulating the driving signals of an acoustic transducer including the ON/OFF switching frequency, actuation time and duty cycle, is capable of generating both single-pulse and periodic chemical signals that are temporally controllable in terms of stimulation period, stimulation duration and duty cycle...
April 18, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667908/the-macula-densa-prorenin-receptor-is-essential-in-renin-release-and-blood-pressure-control
#7
Anne D M Riquier-Brison, Arnold Sipos, Ágnes Prókai, Sarah L Vargas, Ildiko Toma, Elliott J Meer, Karie G Villanueva, Jennifer C M Chen, Georgina Gyarmati, Christopher Yih, Elaine Tang, Bahram Nadim, Sujith Pendekanti, Ingrid M Garrelds, Genevieve Nguyen, A H Jan Danser, Janos Peti-Peterdi
The prorenin receptor (PRR) was originally proposed to be a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), however recent work questioned their association. The present paper describes a functional link between the PRR and RAS in the renal juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA), a classic anatomical site of the RAS. PRR expression was found in the sensory cells of the JGA, the macula densa (MD), and immunohistochemistry localized PRR to the MD basolateral cell membrane in mouse, rat, and human kidneys. MD cell PRR activation led to MAP kinase ERK1/2 signaling and stimulation of PGE2 release, the classic pathway of MD-mediated renin release...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667835/oxygen-release-induced-chemomechanical-breakdown-of-layered-cathode-materials
#8
Linqin Mu, Ruoqian Lin, Rong Xu, Lili Han, Sihao Xia, Dimosthenis Sokaras, James Steiner, Tsu-Chien Weng, Dennis Nordlund, Marca M Doeff, Yijin Liu, Kejie Zhao, Huolin L Xin, Feng Lin
Chemical and mechanical properties interplay on the nanometric scale and collectively govern the functionalities of battery materials. Understanding the relationship between the two can inform the design of battery materials with optimal chemomechanical properties for long-life lithium batteries. Herein, we report a mechanism of nanoscale mechanical breakdown in layered oxide cathode materials, originating from oxygen release at high states of charge under thermal abuse conditions. We observe that the mechanical breakdown of charged Li1-xNi0...
April 18, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667812/turning-on-off-the-anti-tumor-effect-of-au-cluster-via-atomically-controlling-its-molecular-size
#9
Jiao Zhai, Yanwei Jia, Lina Zhao, Qing Yuan, Fuping Gao, Xiangchun Zhang, Pengju Cai, Liang Gao, Juanjuan Guo, Shuhong Yi, Zhifang Chai, Yuliang Zhao, Xueyun Gao
We reported two Au clusters with precisely controlled molecular size (Au5Peptide3 and Au22Peptide10) showing different anti-tumor effects. In vitro, both Au5Peptide3 and Au22Peptide10 were well taken up by human nasopharyngeal cancer cells (CNE1 cells). However, only Au5Peptide3 significantly induced CNE1 cell apoptosis. Further studies showed that CNE1 cells took up Au5Peptide3 (1.98*10-15 mol/cell) and 9% of them entered mitochondria (0.186*10-15 mol/cell). As a comparison, the uptake of Au22Peptide10 was only half the amount of Au5Peptide3 (1...
April 18, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667783/phap1-promotes-glioma-cell-proliferation-by-regulating-the-akt-p27-stathmin-pathway
#10
Manyi Xie, Zhe Ji, Yaxing Bao, Yufu Zhu, Yang Xu, Lei Wang, Shangfeng Gao, Zhiyi Liu, Zilu Tian, Qingming Meng, Hengliang Shi, Rutong Yu
PHAP1 (Putative HLA-DR-associated protein 1), also termed acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32A (ANP32A), Phosphoprotein 32 (pp32) or protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor (I1PP2A), is a multifunctional protein aberrantly expressed in multiple types of human cancers. However, its expression pattern and clinical relevance in human glioma remain unknown. In this study, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated PHAP1 protein was highly expressed in glioma patients, especially in those with high-grade disease...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667777/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-conditional-medium-promotes-leydig-cell-anti-apoptosis-and-proliferation-via-autophagy-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#11
Xiaoling Guo, Yong Chen, Tingting Hong, Xianwu Chen, Yue Duan, Chao Li, Renshan Ge
Leydig cell transplantation is a better alternative in the treatment of androgen-deficient males. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived conditioned medium (iPS-CM) on the anti-apoptosis, proliferation and function of immature Leydig cells (ILCs), and illuminate the underlying mechanisms. ILCs were exposed to 200 μmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for 24 hours with or without iPS-CM treatments. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometric analysis...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667771/long-non-coding-rna-snhg14-contributes-to-gastric-cancer-development-through-targeting-mir-145-sox9-axis
#12
Zhao Liu, Yan Yan, Sizhe Cao, Yi Chen
This study aimed to elucidate the roles of long non-coding RNA SNHG14 in gastric cancer development. LncRNA SNHG14 was markedly up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and cells. Knockdown of SNHG14 significantly inhibited SGC-7901 cell viability, migration, invasion, and promoted cell apoptosis. In addition, miR-145 was negatively regulated by SNHG14 and the effects of SNHG14 knockdown on cell viability, apoptosis, migration, invasion, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and EMT-markers were reversed by inhibition of miR-145 at the same time...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667769/targeting-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway-in-b-lineage-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Carolina Simioni, Alberto M Martelli, Giorgio Zauli, Marco Vitale, James A McCubrey, Silvano Capitani, Luca M Neri
Despite considerable progress in treatment protocols, B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) displays a poor prognosis in about 15-20% of pediatric cases and about 60% of adult patients. In addition, life-long irreversible late effects from chemo- and radiation therapy, including secondary malignancies, are a growing problem for leukemia survivors. Targeted therapy holds promising perspectives for cancer treatment as it may be more effective and have fewer side effects than conventional therapies. The phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a key regulatory cascade which controls proliferation, survival and drug-resistance of cancer cells, and it is frequently upregulated in the different subtypes of B-ALL, where it plays important roles in the pathophysiology, maintenance and progression of the disease...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667627/propofol-inhibits-hela-cells-by-impairing-autophagic-flux-via-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-activation-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-regulated-by-calcium
#14
Xi Chen, Kai Li, Guoqing Zhao
BACKGROUND Propofol has antitumor effects against various cancers. However, the mechanism of action of propofol in HeLa human cervical cancer cells has not been elucidated. MATERIAL AND METHODS We treated HeLa human cervical cancer cells with different concentrations of propofol. Cell viability was evaluated with Cell Counting Kit-8 and apoptosis was analyzed by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Autophagosome formation was evaluated based on microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC)3 conversion and light chain 3 puncta formation...
April 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667573/molecular-epidemiology-of-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#15
James R Johnson, Thomas A Russo
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are important pathogens in humans and certain animals. Molecular epidemiological analyses of ExPEC are based on structured observations of E. coli strains as they occur in the wild. By assessing real-world phenomena as they occur in authentic contexts and hosts, they provide an important complement to experimental assessment. Fundamental to the success of molecular epidemiological studies are the careful selection of subjects and the use of appropriate typing methods and statistical analysis...
April 2018: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667566/us-emergency-medical-services-fellows
#16
Brian Clemency, Christian Martin-Gill, Nicole Rall, Dipesh Patel, Jeffery Myers
IntroductionThe 2015-2016 academic year was the fourth year since the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME; Chicago, Illinois USA) accredited Emergency Medical Services (EMS) fellowships, and the first year an in-training examination was given. Soon, ACGME-accredited fellowship education will be the sole path to EMS board certification when the practice pathway closes after 2019. This project aimed to describe the current class of EMS fellows at ACGME-accredited programs and their current educational opportunities to better understand current and future needs in EMS fellowship education...
April 18, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667529/emerging-therapeutic-targets-for-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#17
James A Walker, Meena Upadhyaya
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumor predisposition syndrome with an incidence of one in 3000-4000 individuals with no currently effective therapies. The NF1 gene on chromosome 17 encodes neurofibromin, which functions as a negative regulator of RAS. NF1 is a chronic multi-system disorder affecting many different tissues. Due to cell-specific complexities of RAS signaling, therapeutic approaches for NF1 will likely have to focus on a particular tissue and manifestation of the disease...
April 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667502/toxicoproteomic-assessment-of-liver-responses-to-acute-pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-intoxication-in-rats
#18
Yan-Hong Li, William Chi-Shing Tai, Imran Khan, Cheng Lu, Yao Lu, Wing-Yan Wong, Wood-Yee Chan, Wen-Luan Wendy Hsiao, Ge Lin
A toxicoproteomic study was performed on liver of rats treated with retrorsine (RTS), a representative hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid at a toxic dose (140 mg/kg) known to cause severe acute hepatotoxicity. By comparing current data with our previous findings in mild liver lesions of rats treated with a lower dose of RTS, seven proteins and three toxicity pathways of vascular endothelial cell death, which was further verified by observed sinusoidal endothelial cell losses, were found uniquely associated with retrorsine-induced hepatotoxicity...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667445/the-mechanism-of-lauric-acid-modified-protein-nanocapsules-escape-from-intercellular-trafficking-vesicles-and-its-implication-for-drug-delivery
#19
Lijuan Jiang, Xin Liang, Gan Liu, Yun Zhou, Xinyu Ye, Xiuli Chen, Qianwei Miao, Li Gao, Xudong Zhang, Lin Mei
Protein nanocapsules have exhibited promising potential applications in the field of protein drug delivery. A major issue with various promising nano-sized biotherapeutics including protein nanocapsules is that owing to their particle size they are subject to cellular uptake via endocytosis, and become entrapped and then degraded within endolysosomes, which can significantly impair their therapeutic efficacy. In addition, many nano-sized biotherapeutics could be also sequestered by autophagosomes and degraded through the autolysosomal pathway...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667441/long-term-consumption-of-western-diet-contributes-to-endothelial-dysfunction-and-aortic-remodeling-in-rats-implication-of-rho-kinase-signaling
#20
Rania A Elrashidy, Jing Zhang, Guiming Liu
Western diet (WD), rich in saturated fat and sugars, has become a risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndrome, however, its effect on endothelial function and vascular remodeling is not fully elucidated. Recent evidence suggests cross-talk between Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway and cardiovascular system. We aimed to investigate the effect of WD on aortic remodeling and the contribution of ROCK signaling. Eight week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either standard chow diet (SD) or high fructose/ high-fat diet, typically as in WD...
April 18, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
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