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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783175/hiv-viral-suppression-in-oman-encouraging-progress-toward-achieving-the-united-nations-third-90
#1
Ali Elgalib, Samir Shah, Zeyana Al-Habsi, Maha Al-Fouri, Halima Al-Sawafi, Jalila Al-Noumani, Adil Al-Baloushi, Saad Al-Alawi, Salma Al-Badi, Zainab Mohammed, Jokha Al-Ghafri, Asma Suleimani, Huda Al-Mashani, Jyothish Raju, Saada Al-Riyami, Muna Al-Shukri, Abdul Wahab, Bilal Hussain, Khalifa Al-Naabi, Anantha Narayan, Noreen Oliveros, George Prasad, Ahmed Hussein, Rajeev Kashyp, Khalid Al-Shardi, Ahmed Nada, Shakil Akhwand, Bina Kamble, Kawthar Al-Aamri, Suad Al-Mukhaini, Hanan Al-Kindi, Faryal Khamis, Amal Al-Maani, Idris Al-Abaidani, Seif Al-Abri
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of capacity-building interventions introduced by the Oman National AIDS Programme on the quality of HIV care in the country. METHODS: HIV viral load (VL) suppression and loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates were calculated for the period before (in December 2015; n=1098) and after (in June 2017; n=1185) the introduction of the interventions: training, support, and care pathway development. Three HIV VL cuts-offs at last measurement in the year of interest were used to define VL suppression...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781349/recent-advances-in-targeting-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-enzymes-in-cancer-therapy
#2
Emily Smith, Wei Zhou, Polina Shindiapina, Said Sif, Chenglong Li, Robert A Baiocchi
Exploration in the field of epigenetics has revealed the diverse roles of the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of proteins in multiple disease states. These findings have led to the development of specific inhibitors and discovery of several new classes of drugs with potential to treat both benign and malignant conditions. Areas covered: We provide an overview on the role of PRMT enzymes in healthy and malignant cells, highlighting the role of arginine methylation in specific pathways relevant to cancer pathogenesis...
May 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781323/targeting-the-b-cell-receptor-pathway-a-review-of-current-and-future-therapies-for-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#3
Thomas D Rodgers, Patrick M Reagan
The B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway is a crucial aspect of mature lymphocytes and is maintained in B-cell neoplasms. Many small module inhibitors targeting kinases within the BCR pathway are approved, with others in development, offering alternative treatment options to standard chemoimmunotherapy. Areas Covered: This review covers both approved inhibitors and investigational inhibitors of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) in the treatment of B-cell lymphomas...
May 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780495/examining-the-chemical-and-structural-properties-that-influence-the-sensitivity-of-energetic-nitrate-esters
#4
Virginia W Manner, Marc J Cawkwell, Edward M Kober, Thomas W Myers, Geoff W Brown, Hongzhao Tian, Christopher J Snyder, Romain Perriot, Daniel N Preston
The sensitivity of explosives is controlled by factors that span from intrinsic chemical reactivity and chemical intramolecular effects to mesoscale structure and defects, and has been a topic of extensive study for over 50 years. Due to these complex competing chemical and physical elements, a unifying relationship between molecular framework, crystal structure, and sensitivity has yet to be developed. In order to move towards this goal, ideally experimental studies should be performed on systems with small, systematic structural modifications, with modeling utilized to interpret experimental results...
April 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764353/non-motor-parkinson-disease-new-concepts-and-personalised-management
#5
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Most patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have non-motor symptoms (NMS), and on average these can range from four to 19 different symptoms. NMS dominate the prodromal phase of PD and some may serve as clinical biomarkers of PD. NMS can be dopaminergic, non-dopaminergic, of genetic origin or drug induced. Clinical assessment of NMS should include the NMS Questionnaire (completed by patients) for screening, as recommended by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society and other international societies...
May 21, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755497/lycopene-is-enriched-in-tomato-fruit-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-multiplex-genome-editing
#6
Xindi Li, Yanning Wang, Sha Chen, Huiqin Tian, Daqi Fu, Benzhong Zhu, Yunbo Luo, Hongliang Zhu
Numerous studies have been focusing on breeding tomato plants with enhanced lycopene accumulation, considering its positive effects of fruits on the visual and functional properties. In this study, we used a bidirectional strategy: promoting the biosynthesis of lycopene, while inhibiting the conversion from lycopene to β- and α-carotene. The accumulation of lycopene was promoted by knocking down some genes associated with the carotenoid metabolic pathway. Finally, five genes were selected to be edited in genome by CRISPR/Cas9 system using Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751581/insights-into-the-origin-of-distinct-medin-fibril-morphologies-induced-by-incubation-conditions-and-seeding
#7
Hannah A Davies, Chiu Fan Lee, Leanne Miller, Lu-Ning Liu, Jillian Madine
Incubation conditions are an important factor to consider when studying protein aggregation in vitro. Here, we employed biophysical methods and atomic force microscopy to show that agitation dramatically alters the morphology of medin, an amyloid protein deposited in the aorta. Agitation reduces the lag time for fibrillation by ~18-fold, suggesting that the rate of fibril formation plays a key role in directing the protein packing arrangement within fibrils. Utilising preformed sonicated fibrils as seeds, we probed the role of seeding on medin fibrillation and revealed three distinct fibril morphologies, with biophysical modelling explaining the salient features of experimental observations...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749649/transgelin-2-in-immunity-its-implication-in-cell-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Suin Jo, Hye-Ran Kim, YeVin Mun, Chang-Duk Jun
Transgelin-2 is a small 22-kDa actin-binding protein implicated in actin dynamics, which stabilizes actin structures and participates in actin-associated signaling pathways. Much curiosity regarding transgelin-2 has centered around its dysregulation in tumor development and associated diseases. However, recent studies have shed new light on the functions of transgelin-2, the only transgelin family member present in leukocytes, in the context of various immune responses. In this review, we outlined the biochemical properties of transgelin-2 and its physiological functions in T cells, B cells, and macrophages...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748611/light-driven-transformable-optical-agent-with-adaptive-functions-for-boosting-cancer-surgery-outcomes
#9
Ji Qi, Chao Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xianglong Hu, Shenglu Ji, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Dan Ding, Ben Zhong Tang
Fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging have different advantages in cancer diagnosis; however, combining effects in one agent normally requires a trade-off as the mechanisms interfere. Here, based on rational molecular design, we introduce a smart organic nanoparticle whose absorbed excitation energy can be photo-switched to the pathway of thermal deactivation for photoacoustic imaging, or to allow opposed routes for fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy. The molecule is made of a dithienylethene (DTE) core with two surrounding 2-(1-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)ethylidene)malononitrile (TPECM) units (DTE-TPECM)...
May 10, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746690/retrospective-analysis-reproducibility-of-interblastomere-differences-of-mrna-expression-in-2-cell-stage-mouse-embryos-is-remarkably-poor-due-to-combinatorial-mechanisms-of-blastomere-diversification
#10
E Casser, S Israel, S Schlatt, V Nordhoff, M Boiani
STUDY QUESTION: What is the prevalence, reproducibility and biological significance of transcriptomic differences between sister blastomeres of the mouse 2-cell embryo? SUMMARY ANSWER: Sister 2-cell stage blastomeres are distinguishable from each other by mRNA analysis, attesting to the fact that differentiation starts mostly early in the mouse embryo; however, the interblastomere differences are poorly reproducible and invoke the combinatorial effects of known and new mechanisms of blastomere diversification...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742901/transition-state-ensembles-navigate-the-pathways-of-enzyme-catalysis
#11
Matthias Jürgen Mickert, Hans H Gorris
Transition state theory (TST) provides an important framework for analyzing and explaining the reaction rates of enzymes. TST, however, needs to account for protein dynamic effects and heterogeneities in enzyme catalysis. We have analyzed the reaction rates of β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase at the single molecule level by using large arrays of femtoliter-sized chambers. Heterogeneities in individual reaction rates yield information on the intrinsic distribution of the free energy of activation (ΔG‡ ) in an enzyme ensemble...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741780/membrane-transport-at-an-organelle-interface-in-the-early-secretory-pathway-take-your-coat-off-and-stay-a-while-evolution-of-the-metazoan-early-secretory-pathway
#12
REVIEW
Michael G Hanna, Jennifer L Peotter, E B Frankel, Anjon Audhya
Most metazoan organisms have evolved a mildly acidified and calcium diminished sorting hub in the early secretory pathway commonly referred to as the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). These membranous vesicular-tubular clusters are found tightly juxtaposed to ER subdomains that are competent for the production of COPII-coated transport carriers. In contrast to many unicellular systems, metazoan COPII carriers largely transit just a few hundred nanometers to the ERGIC, prior to COPI-dependent transport on to the cis-Golgi...
May 9, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740351/pain-therapy-guided-by-purpose-and-perspective-in-light-of-the-opioid-epidemic
#13
REVIEW
Amie L Severino, Arash Shadfar, Joshua K Hakimian, Oliver Crane, Ganeev Singh, Keith Heinzerling, Wendy M Walwyn
Prescription opioid misuse is an ongoing and escalating epidemic. Although these pharmacological agents are highly effective analgesics prescribed for different types of pain, opioids also induce euphoria, leading to increasing diversion and misuse. Opioid use and related mortalities have developed in spite of initial claims that OxyContin, one of the first opioids prescribed in the USA, was not addictive in the presence of pain. These claims allayed the fears of clinicians and contributed to an increase in the number of prescriptions, quantity of drugs manufactured, and the unforeseen diversion of these drugs for non-medical uses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739923/formation-and-radiative-forcing-of-contrail-cirrus
#14
REVIEW
Bernd Kärcher
Aircraft-produced contrail cirrus clouds contribute to anthropogenic climate change. Observational data sets and modelling approaches have become available that clarify formation pathways close to the source aircraft and lead to estimates of the global distribution of their microphysical and optical properties. While contrail cirrus enhance the impact of natural clouds on climate, uncertainties remain regarding their properties and lifecycle. Progress in representing aircraft emissions, contrail cirrus and natural cirrus in global climate models together with tighter constraints on the sensitivity of the climate system will help judge efficiencies of and trade-offs between mitigation options...
May 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739870/pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-aa-pappaa-regulates-photoreceptor-synaptic-development-to-mediate-visually-guided-behavior
#15
Andrew H Miller, Hollis B Howe, Bryan M Krause, Scott A Friedle, Matthew I Banks, Brian D Perkins, Marc A Wolman
To guide behavior, sensory systems detect the onset and offset of stimuli and process these distinct inputs via parallel pathways. In the retina, this strategy is implemented by splitting neural signals for light onset and offset via synapses connecting photoreceptors to ON and OFF bipolar cells, respectively. It remains poorly understood which molecular cues establish the architecture of this synaptic configuration to split light onset and offset signals. A mutant with reduced synapses between photoreceptors and one bipolar cell type, but not the other, could reveal a critical cue...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739620/a-threshold-model-for-polydactyly
#16
Axel Lange, Hans L Nemeschkal, Gerd B Müller
We present a cellular automaton-based model for threshold behaviors in vertebrate digit patterning and polydactyly formation. The rules of the model follow classical reactor-diffusion algorithms. Yet it is not physical diffusion that is taken as the required natural agent but the propagation of cellular states, which can be represented by the same differential equations. The bistable cellular states in the model correspond to mesenchymal limb bud cells that can be either "on" or "off" for the cartilage differentiation pathway...
April 25, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738369/cardioprotective-effects-of-metformin
#17
Christine Driver, Kayode Dominion Samuel Bamitale, Aniessa Kazi, Mehnaaz Olla, Annah Ntsoaki Nyane, Peter Mark Oroma Owira
Metformin, routinely used as first-line drug in the treatment of type 2 diabetes has been shown to have cardioprotective effects beyond its glycemic control. These have been attributed to increases in Akt concentrations and activation of protein kinases in the RISK pathways. which prevent the mitochondrial mPTP from opening and rupturing it and therefore protects myocyte viability. In myocardial infarction and subsequent reperfusion, metformin activation of AMPK promotes glycolysis and keeps the mPTP closed...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736336/from-chilean-patagonia-to-galapagos-ecuador-novel-insights-on-blue-whale-migratory-pathways-along-the-eastern-south-pacific
#18
Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete, Luis Bedriñana-Romano, Francisco A Viddi, Jorge E Ruiz, Juan Pablo Torres-Florez, Alexandre N Zerbini
Background: The most traditional scheme for migration among baleen whales comprises yearly migrations between productive waters at high latitude summer feeding grounds and warmer waters at lower latitudes where whales calve and mate, but rarely feed. Evidence indicates, however, that large departures from this scheme exist among populations and individuals. Furthermore, for some populations there is virtually no information on migratory pathways and destinations. Such is the case of Chilean blue whales throughout the Eastern South Pacific; hence, the goal of this study was to assess its migratory behavior...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734830/impact-of-postoperative-haemoglobin-on-length-of-stay-post-fractured-hip-repair-in-patients-with-standardised-perioperative-management
#19
Siu-Wai Choi, Frankie K L Leung, Tak-Wing Lau, Gordon T C Wong
INTRODUCTION: Perioperative blood transfusion is not without risk and effort should be made to limit patients' exposure to allogeneic blood. However, there is conflicting data regarding the impact of anaemia on postoperative recovery in patients with repaired hip fractures. It is hypothesised that for a given baseline functional status and fracture type, lower postoperative haemoglobin will increase rehabilitation time and prolong total length of hospital stay. METHODS: This is a retrospective study on data collected prospectively on patients entered into the Clinical Pathway aged >65 years admitted to Queen Mary Hospital (QMH) with a fractured neck of femur during 2011-2013...
May 1, 2018: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732062/pathway-complexity-in-the-self-assembly-of-a-zinc-chlorin-model-system-of-natural-bacteriochlorophyll-j-aggregates
#20
Soichiro Ogi, Charlotte Grzeszkiewicz, Frank Würthner
Whilst bacteriochlorophyll c , d , and e dyes self-assemble into the most efficient light harvesting J-aggregate systems found in nature, their supramolecular packing arrangements are still a matter of debate and a significant number of models have been suggested for their local and long-range ordering. Here we reveal for a synthetic model system based on a zinc chlorin (ZnChl) dye an intriguing interplay of two competing aggregation pathways by kinetic and thermodynamic studies in MeOH/water solvent mixtures: the formation of kinetically controlled off-pathway nanoparticles consisting of excitonically coupled J-dimers versus the formation of thermodynamically more stable one-dimensional helical fibers consisting of J-coupled extended aggregates...
March 14, 2018: Chemical Science
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