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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245089/metabolic-analysis-of-panax-notoginseng-saponins-with-gut-microbiota-mediated-biotransformation-by-hplc-dad-q-tof-ms-ms
#1
Man-Yun Chen, Li Shao, Wei Zhang, Chong-Zhi Wang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Wei-Hua Huang, Chun-Su Yuan
Saponins such as notoginsenosides and ginsenosides from Panax notoginseng are responsible for the herb's clinical applications. Unfortunately, there is poor oral bioavailability of saponins. However, gut microbiota can transform saponins to yield the metabolites that are potential bioactive substances. In this study, we aimed to characterize the metabolic profiles of P. notoginseng saponins (PNS) by incubating them with human gut microbiota. The notoginsenosides, ginsenosides and related metabolites were separated and identified using a highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection/quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244504/mode-selective-laser-control-of-palladium-catalyst-decomposition
#2
Patrick J J Carr, Michael J Lecours, Michael Burt, Rick A Marta, Vincent Steinmetz, Eric Fillion, W Scott Hopkins
It is generally assumed that molecules behave ergodically during chemical reactions, that is, reactivities depend only on the total energy content, and not on the initial state of the molecule. While there are a few examples of non-ergodic behavior in small (usually electronically excited) species, to date there have been no reports of such behavior in larger covalently-bound species composed of several 10s of atoms. Here, we demonstrate vibrational mode-selective behavior in a series of palladium catalysts...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244066/electrocardiographic-and-electrophysiologic-differentiation-between-atriofascicular-long-atrioventricular-and-short-atrioventricular-decrementally-conducting-accessory-pathways
#3
Jian-Du Yang, Gong-Bu Zhou, Qi Sun, Xiao-Gang Guo, Xu Liu, Bin Luo, Hui-Qiang Wei, Jackson J Liang, Shuanglun Xie, Fei-Fan Ouyang, Jian Ma
Aims: We aimed to examine the electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic characteristics of anterograde-conducting decremental accessory pathways (DAP) and to identify surrogate criteria to distinguish short atrioventricular (SAV) DAP from atriofascicular (AF) AP and long atrioventricular (LAV) DAP. Methods and results: We identified all patients with DAPs and analysed electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic characteristics. Distal insertion sites were examined using existing criteria, including V-H interval, ventricular activation at the right ventricular apex, and around tricuspid annulus during antidromic atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia (A-AVRT) or complete pre-excitation and evaluated the AV node-like properties according to the response to adenosine and radiofrequency ablation...
December 13, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242902/effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-the-visual-system-of-monkeys-measured-at-different-stages-of-development
#4
Vanessa Harrar, Laurent Elkrief, Joseph Bouskila, Ryan Kucera, Anders Fink-Jensen, Jean-François Bouchard, Roberta Palmour, Maurice Ptito
Purpose: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a developmental disease characterized by behavioral problems and physical defects including malformations of the eye and associated optical defects. How these malformations affect retinal functioning is not well known, although animal models have suggested that scotopic vision is particularly deficient. Age is also known to affect scotopic vision. Here, we determined the combined effects of age and fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) on retinal function using full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) in monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus)...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239025/fine-structure-of-conformational-ensembles-in-adenylate-kinase
#5
Yujing Wang, Lee Makowski
Adenylate kinase (ADK) catalyzes the reversible Mg2+ -dependent phosphoryl transfer reaction Mg2+ +2ADP ↔Mg2+ +ATP + AMP in essential cellular systems. This reaction is a major player in cellular energy homeostasis and the isoform network of ADK plays an important role in AMP metabolic signaling circuits. ADK has three domains, the LID, NMP and CORE domains, that undergo large conformational rearrangements during ADK's catalytic cycle. In spite of extensive experimental and computational studies, details of the conformational pathway from open to closed forms remain uncertain...
December 14, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236755/genomic-features-of-candidatus-venteria-ishoeyi-a-new-sulfur-oxidizing-macrobacterium-from-the-humboldt-sulfuretum-off-chile
#6
Alexis Fonseca, Thomas Ishoey, Carola Espinoza, Danilo Pérez-Pantoja, Antonio Manghisi, Marina Morabito, Alexis Salas-Burgos, Víctor A Gallardo
The Humboldt Sulfuretum (HS), in the productive Humboldt Eastern Boundary Current Upwelling Ecosystem, extends under the hypoxic waters of the Peru-Chile Undercurrent (ca. 6°S and ca. 36°S). Studies show that primeval sulfuretums held diverse prokaryotic life, and, while rare today, still sustain species-rich giant sulfur-oxidizing bacterial communities. We here present the genomic features of a new bacteria of the HS, "Candidatus Venteria ishoeyi" ("Ca. V. ishoeyi") in the family Thiotrichaceae.Three identical filaments were micro-manipulated from reduced sediments collected off central Chile; their DNA was extracted, amplified, and sequenced by a Roche 454 GS FLX platform...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236258/using-tet-off-cells-and-rnai-knockdown-to-assay-mrna-decay
#7
Thomas D Baird, J Robert Hogg
Cellular mRNA levels are determined by the competing forces of transcription and decay. A wide array of cellular mRNA decay pathways carry out RNA turnover either on a constitutive basis or in response to changing cellular conditions. Here, we outline a method to investigate mRNA decay that employs RNAi knockdown of known or putative decay factors in commercially available Tet-off cell systems. Reporter mRNAs of interest are expressed under the control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter, allowing pulse-chase mRNA decay assays to be conducted...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235867/nfgail-amyloid-oligomers-the-onset-of-beta-sheet-formation-and-the-mechanism-for-fibril-formation
#8
Waldemar Hoffmann, Kristin Folmert, Johann Moschner, Xing Huang, Hans von Berlepsch, Beate Koksch, Michael T Bowers, Gert von Helden, Kevin Pagel
The hexapeptide NFGAIL is a highly amyloidogenic peptide, derived from the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). Recent investigations indicate that presumably soluble hIAPP oligomers are one of the cytotoxic species in type II diabe-tes. Here we use Thioflavin T staining, transmission electron microscopy as well as ion mobility-mass spectrometry coupled to infrared (IR) spectroscopy to study the amyloid formation mechanism and the quaternary- and secondary-structure of soluble NFGAIL oligomers. Our data reveal that at neutral pH NFGAIL follows a nucleation-dependent mechanism to form amyloid fibrils...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235553/pro-inflammatory-gene-expression-profile-in-obese-adults-with-high-plasma-gip-levels
#9
J Góralska, U Raźny, A Polus, J Stancel-Możwiłło, M Chojnacka, A Gruca, A Zdzienicka, A Dembińska-Kieć, B Kieć-Wilk, B Solnica, M Malczewska-Malec
BACKGROUND: GIP provides a novel link between the immune system and the gut, although results from different experimental and observational studies are contradictory, ranging from anti-inflammatory, through neutral to pro-inflammatory action of GIP. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze inflammatory pathways on the level of gene expression and circulating inflammatory markers in relation to plasma GIP level. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 128 obese adults...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235476/breast-cancer-metastasis-suppressor-otud1-deubiquitinates-smad7
#10
Zhengkui Zhang, Yao Fan, Feng Xie, Hang Zhou, Ke Jin, Li Shao, Wenhao Shi, Pengfei Fang, Bing Yang, Hans van Dam, Peter Ten Dijke, Xiaofeng Zheng, Xiaohua Yan, Junling Jia, Min Zheng, Jin Jin, Chen Ding, Sheng Ye, Fangfang Zhou, Long Zhang
Metastasis is the main cause of death in cancer patients. TGF-β is pro-metastatic for malignant cancer cells. Here we report a loss-of-function screen in mice with metastasis as readout and identify OTUD1 as a metastasis-repressing factor. OTUD1-silenced cancer cells show mesenchymal and stem-cell-like characteristics. Further investigation reveals that OTUD1 directly deubiquitinates the TGF-β pathway inhibitor SMAD7 and prevents its degradation. Moreover, OTUD1 cleaves Lysine 33-linked poly-ubiquitin chains of SMAD7 Lysine 220, which exposes the SMAD7 PY motif, enabling SMURF2 binding and subsequent TβRI turnover at the cell surface...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235115/the-mechanistic-basis-of-demographic-allee-effects-the-search-for-mates
#11
Anna Kuparinen
In Focus: Berec, L., Kremer, A.M., Bernhauverova, V., & Drake, J.M. (2017). Density-dependent selection on mate-finding Allee effects. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 24-35. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12662 In Focus: Shaw, A.K., Kokko, H., & Neubert, M.G. (2017). Details of mate finding drive dynamics of sex structured invasions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 36-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12658 Lowered population growth ability at low abundances is called the demographic Allee effect. The difficulty of finding mates in a sparse population is the best documented pathway through which a demographic Allee effect might arise...
January 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230815/topographies-of-care-pathways-and-healthscapes-reconsidering-the-multiple-journeys-of-people-with-a-brain-tumour
#12
Henry Llewellyn, Paul Higgs, Elizabeth L Sampson, Louise Jones, Lewis Thorne
People diagnosed with brain tumours enter new and unfamiliar worlds in which they must make complex and previously unimaginable decisions about care, treatment and how to live their lives. While decisions are increasingly based around care pathways, these are embedded in values that often fail to accord with those of patients. In this article, we examine the cases of people with a brain tumour and how they, their families and healthcare professionals navigate and intervene in the course of life-threatening disease...
December 12, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225493/a%C3%A2-post-gurney-quantum-mechanical-perspective-on-the-electrolysis-of-water-ion-neutralization-in-solution
#13
Enyi Guo, David R McKenzie
Electron fluxes crossing the interface between a metallic conductor and an aqueous environment are important in many fields; hydrogen production, environmental scanning tunnelling microscopy, scanning electrochemical microscopy being some of them. Gurney (Gurney 1931 Proc. R. Soc. Lond.134, 137 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1931.0187)) provided in 1931 a scheme for tunnelling during electrolysis and outlined conditions for it to occur. We measure the low-voltage current flows between gold electrodes in pure water and use the time-dependent behaviour at voltage switch-on and switch-off to evaluate the relative contribution to the steady current arising from tunnelling of electrons between the electrodes and ions in solution and from the neutralization of ions adsorbed onto the electrode surface...
November 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225228/zinc-ion-immobilized-magnetic-microspheres-for-enrichment-and-identification-of-multi-phosphorylated-peptides-by-mass-spectrometry
#14
Se Won Bae, Jae Il Kim, Inseong Choi, Jiha Sung, Jong-In Hong, Woon-Seok Yeo
The selective isolation of phosphorylated peptides and subsequent analysis using mass spectrometry is important for understanding how protein kinase and phosphatase signals can precisely modulate the on/off states of signal transduction pathways. However, the isolation and detection of multi-phosphorylated peptides is still limited due to their distinct affinity to various materials and their poor ionization efficiency. Here, we report a highly efficient and selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides using binuclear Zn2+-dipicolylamine complex-coated magnetic microspheres (ZnMMs)...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225069/stimulation-of-b-raf-increases-c-jun-and-c-fos-expression-and-upregulates-ap-1-regulated-gene-transcription-in-insulinoma-cells
#15
Daniel S Langfermann, Oliver G Rössler, Gerald Thiel
Stimulation of pancreatic β-cells with glucose activates the protein kinases B-Raf and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase that participate in glucose sensing. Inhibition of both kinases results in impairment of glucose-regulated gene transcription. To analyze the signaling pathway controlled by B-Raf, we expressed a conditionally active form of B-Raf in INS-1 insulinoma cells. Here, we show that stimulation of B-Raf strongly activated the transcription factor AP-1 which is accompanied by increased c-Jun and c-Fos promoter activities, an upregulation of c-Jun and c-Fos biosynthesis, and elevated transcriptional activation potentials of c-Jun and c-Fos...
December 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223402/genetic-regulation-mechanism-of-the-yjdf-riboswitch
#16
Sha Gong, Yanli Wang, Zhen Wang, Yujie Wang, Wenbing Zhang
The yjdF riboswitch resides in potential 5' UTRs of homologues of protein-coding gene yjdF in Firmicutes. Unlike other 30 riboswitch classes previously validated, this riboswitch class, can sense and bind to a broad collection of azaaromatic ligands. Among these compounds, some do activate production of yjdF protein driven by the riboswitch, while others are out of riboswitch-mediated modulation possibly because of the toxicity at high ligand concentrations. By incorporating the structures with pseudoknots and ligand binding kinetics into the co-transcriptional folding theory, we theoretically studied the co-transcriptional folding behaviors of the yjdF riboswitch from Bacillus subtilis at different transcription conditions...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222817/diverse-inhibitory-and-excitatory-mechanisms-shape-temporal-tuning-in-transient-off-alpha-ganglion-cells-in-the-rabbit-retina
#17
Benjamin L Murphy-Baum, W Rowland Taylor
The twenty to thirty types of ganglion cell in the mammalian retina represent parallel signalling pathways that convey different information to the brain. Alpha ganglion cells are selective for high temporal frequencies in visual inputs, which makes them particularly sensitive to rapid motion. Although alpha ganglion cells have been studied in several species, the synaptic basis for their selective temporal tuning remains unclear. Here, we analyse excitatory synaptic inputs to transient OFF alpha ganglion cells (t-OFF α GCs) in the rabbit retina...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217260/ontogenesis-of-the-pinealo-retinal-neuronal-connection-in-albino-rats
#18
Ágnes Csáki, Viktória Vereczki, Ákos Lukáts, Zsolt Boldogkői, Anna Sebestyén, Zita Puskár, Katalin Köves
It was accepted for a long time that in mammals there is only retinofugal neuronal connection between the eye and the pineal body (PB). In our previous paper we described that nerve cells were present in hamster PB and these neurons could establish a reverse connection with the retina through a transsynaptic pathway. In adult albino rats neuronal perikarya were not found. In this present experiment it was examined whether the lack of these nerve cells in the PB of adult rats is the result of an apoptotic phenomenon or the lack of migration during the fetal period...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216625/missing-links-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-long-non-coding-rnas-enter-the-arena
#19
Lei Wang, Fan Yang, Lin-Tao Jia, An-Gang Yang
Cancer metastasis occurs through a series of sequential steps, which involves dissemination of tumor cells from a primary site and colonization in distant tissues. To promote the invasion-metastasis cascade, carcinoma cells usually initiate a cell-biological program called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is orchestrated by a set of master regulators, including TGF-β, Snail, ZEB and Twist families. The biological activities of these molecules are tightly regulated by a variety of cell-intrinsic pathways as well as extracellular cues...
December 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216595/optimizing-prescribed-fire-allocation-for-managing-fire-risk-in-central-catalonia
#20
Fermín J Alcasena, Alan A Ager, Michele Salis, Michelle A Day, Cristina Vega-Garcia
We used spatial optimization to allocate and prioritize prescribed fire treatments in the fire-prone Bages County, central Catalonia (northeastern Spain). The goal of this study was to identify suitable strategic locations on forest lands for fuel treatments in order to: 1) disrupt major fire movements, 2) reduce ember emissions, and 3) reduce the likelihood of large fires burning into residential communities. We first modeled fire spread, hazard and exposure metrics under historical extreme fire weather conditions, including node influence grid for surface fire pathways, crown fraction burned and fire transmission to residential structures...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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