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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205528/reversed-thermo-switchable-molecular-sieving-membranes-composed-of-two-dimensional-metal-organic-nanosheets-for-gas-separation
#1
Xuerui Wang, Chenglong Chi, Kang Zhang, Yuhong Qian, Krishna M Gupta, Zixi Kang, Jianwen Jiang, Dan Zhao
It is highly desirable to reduce the membrane thickness in order to maximize the throughput and break the trade-off limitation for membrane-based gas separation. Two-dimensional membranes composed of atomic-thick graphene or graphene oxide nanosheets have gas transport pathways that are at least three orders of magnitude higher than the membrane thickness, leading to reduced gas permeation flux and impaired separation throughput. Here we present nm-thick molecular sieving membranes composed of porous two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199309/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-%C3%AE-blockade-increases-genomic-instability-in-b-cells
#2
Mara Compagno, Qi Wang, Chiara Pighi, Taek-Chin Cheong, Fei-Long Meng, Teresa Poggio, Leng-Siew Yeap, Elif Karaca, Rafael B Blasco, Fernanda Langellotto, Chiara Ambrogio, Claudia Voena, Adrian Wiestner, Siddha N Kasar, Jennifer R Brown, Jing Sun, Catherine J Wu, Monica Gostissa, Frederick W Alt, Roberto Chiarle
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a B-cell-specific enzyme that targets immunoglobulin genes to initiate class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. In addition, through off-target activity, AID has a much broader effect on genomic instability by initiating oncogenic chromosomal translocations and mutations involved in the development and progression of lymphoma. AID expression is tightly regulated in B cells and its overexpression leads to enhanced genomic instability and lymphoma formation...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199155/taking-it-off-new-insights-into-the-role-of-tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent-pathways-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#3
Gregory P Downey, Yael Aschner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198798/patterned-transparent-electrode-with-a-continuous-distribution-of-silver-nanowires-produced-by-an-etching-free-patterning-method
#4
Kwonwoo Shin, Ji Sun Park, Jong Hun Han, Yunsu Choi, Dae Sung Chung, Se Hyun Kim
The outstanding electrical, optical, and mechanical properties of silver nanowire transparent electrodes are attractive for use in many optoelectronic devices, and the recent developments related to these electrodes have led to their commercialization. To more fully utilize the advantages of this technology, developing new process technologies in addition to performance improvements is important. In this report, we propose a novel ultra-simple patterning technology to generate a silver nanowire transparent layer and a unique patterned structure with continuously distributed silver nanowires without any etched areas...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197921/sumoylation-in-craniofacial-disorders
#5
Erwin Pauws, Philip Stanier
Craniofacial development requires a complex series of coordinated and finely tuned events to take place, during a relatively short time frame. These events are set in motion by switching on and off transcriptional cascades that involve the use of numerous signalling pathways and a multitude of factors that act at the site of gene transcription. It is now well known that amidst the subtlety of this process lies the intricate world of protein modification, and the posttranslational addition of the small ubiquitin -like modifier, SUMO, is an example that has been implicated in this process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196882/trade-offs-between-enzyme-fitness-and-solubility-illuminated-by-deep-mutational-scanning
#6
Justin R Klesmith, John-Paul Bacik, Emily E Wrenbeck, Ryszard Michalczyk, Timothy A Whitehead
Proteins are marginally stable, and an understanding of the sequence determinants for improved protein solubility is highly desired. For enzymes, it is well known that many mutations that increase protein solubility decrease catalytic activity. These competing effects frustrate efforts to design and engineer stable, active enzymes without laborious high-throughput activity screens. To address the trade-off between enzyme solubility and activity, we performed deep mutational scanning using two different screens/selections that purport to gauge protein solubility for two full-length enzymes...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193902/high-thermal-conductivity-in-soft-elastomers-with-elongated-liquid-metal-inclusions
#7
Michael D Bartlett, Navid Kazem, Matthew J Powell-Palm, Xiaonan Huang, Wenhuan Sun, Jonathan A Malen, Carmel Majidi
Soft dielectric materials typically exhibit poor heat transfer properties due to the dynamics of phonon transport, which constrain thermal conductivity (k) to decrease monotonically with decreasing elastic modulus (E). This thermal-mechanical trade-off is limiting for wearable computing, soft robotics, and other emerging applications that require materials with both high thermal conductivity and low mechanical stiffness. Here, we overcome this constraint with an electrically insulating composite that exhibits an unprecedented combination of metal-like thermal conductivity, an elastic compliance similar to soft biological tissue (Young's modulus < 100 kPa), and the capability to undergo extreme deformations (>600% strain)...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193818/processing-of-single-photon-responses-in-the-mammalian-on-and-off-retinal-pathways-at-the-sensitivity-limit-of-vision
#8
Daisuke Takeshita, Lina Smeds, Petri Ala-Laurila
Visually guided behaviour at its sensitivity limit relies on single-photon responses originating in a small number of rod photoreceptors. For decades, researchers have debated the neural mechanisms and noise sources that underlie this striking sensitivity. To address this question, we need to understand the constraints arising from the retinal output signals provided by distinct retinal ganglion cell types. It has recently been shown in the primate retina that On and Off parasol ganglion cells, the cell types likely to underlie light detection at the absolute visual threshold, differ fundamentally not only in response polarity, but also in the way they handle single-photon responses originating in rods...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191938/constrained-multistate-sequence-design-for-nucleic-acid-reaction-pathway-engineering
#9
Brian R Wolfe, Nicholas J Porubsky, Joseph N Zadeh, Robert M Dirks, Niles A Pierce
We describe a framework for designing the sequences of multiple nucleic acid strands intended to hybridize in solution via a prescribed reaction pathway. Sequence design is formulated as a multistate optimization problem using a set of target test tubes to represent reactant, intermediate, and product states of the system, as well as to model crosstalk between components. Each target test tube contains a set of desired "on-target" complexes, each with a target secondary structure and target concentration, and a set of undesired "off-target" complexes, each with vanishing target concentration...
February 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191281/switching-off-malignant-mesothelioma-exploiting-the-hypoxic-microenvironment
#10
REVIEW
Noushin Nabavi, Kevin L Bennewith, Andrew Churg, Yuzhuo Wang, Colin C Collins, Luciano Mutti
Malignant mesotheliomas are aggressive, asbestos-related cancers with poor patient prognosis, typically arising in the mesothelial surfaces of tissues in pleural and peritoneal cavity. The relative unspecific symptoms of mesotheliomas, misdiagnoses, and lack of precise targeted therapies call for a more critical assessment of this disease. In the present review, we categorize commonly identified genomic aberrations of mesotheliomas into their canonical pathways and discuss targeting these pathways in the context of tumor hypoxia, a hallmark of cancer known to render solid tumors more resistant to radiation and most chemo-therapy...
November 2016: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188228/time-resolved-phosphoproteome-analysis-of-paradoxical-raf-activation-reveals-novel-targets-of-erk
#11
Peter Kubiniok, Hugo Lavoie, Marc Therrien, Pierre Thibault
Small molecules targeting aberrant RAF activity, like Vemurafenib (PLX4032), are highly effective against cancers harboring the V600E BRAF mutation, and are now approved for clinical use against metastatic melanoma. However, in tissues showing elevated RAS activity and in RAS-mutant tumors, these inhibitors stimulate RAF dimerization, resulting in inhibitor resistance and downstream paradoxical ERK activation. To understand the global signaling response of cancer cells to RAF inhibitors, we profiled the temporal changes of the phosphoproteome of two colon cancer cell lines (Colo205 and HCT116) that respond differently to Vemurafenib...
February 10, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187984/construction-of-a-viral-t2a-peptide-based-knock-in-mouse-model-for-enhanced-cre-recombinase-activity-and-fluorescent-labeling-of-podocytes
#12
Sybille Koehler, Sebastian Brähler, Fabian Braun, Henning Hagmann, Markus M Rinschen, Martin R Späth, Martin Höhne, F Thomas Wunderlich, Bernhard Schermer, Thomas Benzing, Paul T Brinkkoetter
Podocyte injury is a key event in glomerular disease leading to proteinuria and opening the path toward glomerular scarring. As a consequence, glomerular research strives to discover molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways affecting podocyte health. The hNphs2.Cre mouse model has been a valuable tool to manipulate podocyte-specific genes and to label podocytes for lineage tracing and purification. Here we designed a novel podocyte-specific tricistronic Cre mouse model combining codon improved Cre expression and fluorescent cell labeling with mTomato under the control of the endogenous Nphs2 promoter using viral T2A-peptides...
February 7, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187707/transcriptome-analysis-of-coding-and-long-non-coding-rnas-highlights-the-regulatory-network-of-cascade-initiation-of-permanent-molars-in-miniature-pigs
#13
Fu Wang, Yang Li, Xiaoshan Wu, Min Yang, Wei Cong, Zhipeng Fan, Jinsong Wang, Chunmei Zhang, Jie Du, Songlin Wang
BACKGROUND: In diphyodont mammals, the additional molars (permanent molars) bud off from the posterior-free end of the primary dental lamina compared with successional teeth (replacement teeth) budding off from the secondary dental lamina. The diphyodont miniature pig has proved to be a valuable model for studying human molar morphogenesis. The additional molars show a sequential initiation pattern related to the specific tooth development stage of additional molars in miniature pigs during the morphogenesis of additional molars...
February 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186774/quantitative-map-of-%C3%AE-lactone-induced-virulence-regulation
#14
Joanna Krysiak, Matthias Stahl, Jan Vomacka, Christian Fetzer, Markus Lakemeyer, Anja Fux, Stephan A Sieber
β-Lactones have recently been introduced as the first selective ClpP inhibitors that attenuate virulence of both sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant strains (MRSA). Although previous knockout studies showed that ClpP is essential for S. aureus alpha-toxin production, a link between β-lactone inhibition and molecular virulence mechanisms has been lacking so far. We here perform a chemical-proteomic approach to elucidate antivirulence pathways. First, we demonstrate by gel-free activity-based protein profiling that ClpP is the predominant target of β-lactones...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183259/targeting-melatonin-mt2-receptors-a-novel-pharmacological-avenue-for-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain
#15
Luca Posa, Danilo De Gregorio, Gabriella Gobbi, Stefano Comai
Melatonin (MLT) has been implicated in several pathophysiological states, including pain. MLT mostly activates two G-protein coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2. In this review, we present the analgesic properties of MLT in preclinical and clinical studies, giving particular emphasis to the effects mediated by MT2 receptors and to recent investigations demonstrating the analgesic effects of MT2 receptor partial agonists in chronic and acute/inflammatory pain conditions. MT2 receptors are localized in specific brain areas, including the reticular and the ventromedial nuclei of the thalamus (part of the ascending nociceptive pathway) and the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey matter (vlPAG) (part of the descending antinociceptive pathway)...
February 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179977/programmable-genome-editing-tools-and-their-regulation-for-efficient-genome-engineering
#16
REVIEW
Tuhin Kumar Guha, Alvan Wai, Georg Hausner
Targeted genome editing has become a powerful genetic tool for studying gene function or for modifying genomes by correcting defective genes or introducing genes. A variety of reagents have been developed in recent years that can generate targeted double-stranded DNA cuts which can be repaired by the error-prone, non-homologous end joining repair system or via the homologous recombination-based double-strand break repair pathway provided a suitable template is available. These genome editing reagents require components for recognizing a specific DNA target site and for DNA-cleavage that generates the double-stranded break...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177220/mechanistic-investigation-into-the-effect-of-sulfuration-on-the-few-catalysts-for-the-selective-catalytic-reduction-of-nox-with-nh3
#17
Hui Wang, Zhenping Qu, Shicheng Dong, Chen Tang
Iron tungsten (FeW) catalyst is a potential candidate for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia because of its excellent performance in a wide operating window. Sulfur poisoning effects in SCR catalysts have long been recognized as a challenge in development of efficient catalysts for applications. In this paper, the impact of sulfuration on catalyst structure, NH3-SCR reaction performance and mechanism was systematically investigated through spectroscopic and temperature-programmed approaches...
February 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166907/practice-makes-perfect-performance-optimisation-in-arboreal-parkour-athletes-illuminates-the-evolutionary-ecology-of-great-ape-anatomy
#18
Lewis G Halsey, Samuel R L Coward, Robin H Crompton, Susannah K S Thorpe
An animal's size is central to its ecology, yet remarkably little is known about the selective pressures that drive this trait. A particularly compelling example is how ancestral apes evolved large body mass in such a physically and energetically challenging environment as the forest canopy, where weight-bearing branches and lianas are flexible, irregular and discontinuous, and the majority of preferred foods are situated on the most flexible branches at the periphery of tree crowns. To date the issue has been intractable due to a lack of relevant fossil material, the limited capacity of the fossil record to reconstruct an animal's behavioural ecology and the inability to measure energy consumption in freely moving apes...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164334/ethylene-response-factor-74-erf74-plays-an-essential-role-in-controlling-a-respiratory-burst-oxidase-homolog-d-rbohd-dependent-mechanism-in-response-to-different-stresses-in-arabidopsis
#19
Yuan Yao, Run Jun He, Qiao Li Xie, Xian Hai Zhao, Xiao Mei Deng, Jun Bo He, Lili Song, Jun He, Alan Marchant, Xiao-Yang Chen, Ai-Min Wu
Recent studies indicate that the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR VII (ERF-VII) transcription factor is an important regulator of osmotic and hypoxic stress responses in plants. However, the molecular mechanism of ERF-VII-mediated transcriptional regulation remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of ERF74 (a member of the ERF-VII protein family) by examining the abiotic stress tolerance of an ERF74 overexpression line and a T-DNA insertion mutant using flow cytometry, transactivation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays...
March 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163785/efficient-estimation-of-the-maximum-metabolic-productivity-of-batch-systems
#20
Peter C St John, Michael F Crowley, Yannick J Bomble
BACKGROUND: Production of chemicals from engineered organisms in a batch culture involves an inherent trade-off between productivity, yield, and titer. Existing strategies for strain design typically focus on designing mutations that achieve the highest yield possible while maintaining growth viability. While these methods are computationally tractable, an optimum productivity could be achieved by a dynamic strategy in which the intracellular division of resources is permitted to change with time...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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