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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910862/methylphenidate-enhances-early-stage-sensory-processing-and-rodent-performance-of-a-visual-signal-detection-task
#1
Rachel L Navarra, Brian D Clark, Andrew T Gargiulo, Barry D Waterhouse
Methylphenidate (MPH) is used clinically to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and off-label as a performance enhancing agent in healthy individuals. MPH enhances catecholamine transmission via blockade of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake transporters. However, it is not clear how this action impacts neural circuits performing cognitive and sensorimotor functions driving performance enhancement. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the primary thalamic relay for visual information from the retina to the cortex and is densely innervated by NE-containing fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC), a pathway known to modulate state-dependent sensory processing...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909749/diversity-of-total-bacterial-communities-and-chemoautotrophic-populations-in-sulfur-rich-sediments-of-shallow-water-hydrothermal-vents-off-kueishan-island-taiwan
#2
Li Wang, Man Kit Cheung, Rulong Liu, Chong Kim Wong, Hoi Shan Kwan, Jiang-Shiou Hwang
Shallow-water hydrothermal vents (HTVs) are an ecologically important habitat with a geographic origin similar to that of deep-sea HTVs. Studies on shallow-water HTVs have not only facilitated understanding of the influences of vents on local ecosystems but also helped to extend the knowledge on deep-sea vents. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities in the sediments of shallow-water HTVs off Kueishan Island, Taiwan, was investigated by examining the 16S ribosomal RNA gene as well as key functional genes involved in chemoautotrophic carbon fixation (aclB, cbbL and cbbM)...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906953/what-s-tramadol-got-to-do-with-it-a-case-report-of-rebound-hypoglycemia-a-reappraisal-and-review-of-potential-mechanisms
#3
Charles A Odonkor, Akhil Chhatre
BACKGROUND: Tramadol has gained traction as an analgesic of choice among pain practicing physicians. However some concerns regarding a previously unlabeled adverse reaction - hypoglycemia - have cast it in a dim light. Prior reports have noted an associated risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia after tramadol use, but whether tramadol is the main causal agent is poorly understood and the underlying mechanisms are not well delineated. We present a unique case of rebound hypoglycemia as a variation of the theme of tramadol's adverse effect profile in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and reappraise potential mechanisms underlying this underappreciated phenomenon...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906490/exhaled-nitric-oxide-in-the-diagnosis-of-asthma-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#4
Sue E Harnan, Munira Essat, Tim Gomersall, Paul Tappenden, Ian Pavord, Mark Everard, Rod Lawson
OBJECTIVES: To identify and synthesise evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of FE NO for asthma in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic searches (nine key biomedical databases and trial registers) were carried out to November 2014. Records were included if they: recruited patients with the symptoms of asthma; used a single set of inclusion criteria; measured FE NO50 in accordance with American Thoracic Society guidelines, 2005 (off-line excluded); reported/allowed calculation of true positive, true negative, false positive and false negative patients as classified against any reference standard...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902847/food-deprivation-facilitates-reinstatement-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-role-of-intra-accumbal-dopamine-d2-like-receptors-in-associating-reinstatement-of-morphine-cpp-with-stress
#5
Fatemeh Sadeghzadeh, Vahab Babapour, Abbas Haghparast
The high rate of relapse to drug use is one of the main problems in the treatment of addiction. Stress plays the essential role in drug abuse and relapse; nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms underlying stress and relapse. Accordingly, the effects of intra-accumbal administration of Sulpiride, as a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, on an ineffective morphine dose+food deprivation(FD)- and morphine priming-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP). 104 adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 200-280g were bilaterally implanted by cannula into the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
November 30, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901087/polymorphism-of-fibrillar-structures-depending-on-the-size-of-assembled-a%C3%AE-17-42-peptides
#6
Mookyung Cheon, Mooseok Kang, Iksoo Chang
The size of assembled Aβ17-42 peptides can determine polymorphism during oligomerization and fibrillization, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. Starting from separate random monomers, various fibrillar oligomers with distinct structural characteristics were identified using discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations based on a coarse-grained protein model. From the structures observed in the simulations, two characteristic oligomer sizes emerged, trimer and paranuclei, which generated distinct structural patterns during fibrillization...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897367/bifunctionality-of-activ-as-a-cyclase-thioesterase-revealed-by-in-vitro-reconstitution-of-actinorhodin-biosynthesis-in-streptomyces-coelicolor-a3-2
#7
Takaaki Taguchi, Takayoshi Awakawa, Yukitaka Nishihara, Michiho Kawamura, Yasuo Ohnishi, Koji Ichinose
Type II polyketide synthase (PKS) iteratively generates a nascent polyketide thioester of acyl carrier protein (ACP), which is structurally modified to produce an ACP-free intermediate towards its final metabolite. However, the timing of ACP off-loading is not well defined due to the lack of an apparent thioesterase (TE) among relevant biosynthetic enzymes. Here, ActIV, which had been assigned as a second ring cyclase (CYC) in actinorhodin (ACT) biosynthesis, was shown to possess a TE activity in vitro with a model substrate, anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid-N-acetylcysteamine...
November 29, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896830/vagal-nerve-endings-in-visceral-pleura-and-triangular-ligaments-of-the-rat-lung
#8
Feng-Bin Wang, Yi-Han Liao, Yao-Chen Wang
The inner thoracic cavity is lined by the parietal pleura, and the lung lobes are covered by the visceral pleura. The parietal and visceral plurae form the pleural cavity that has negative pressure within to enable normal respiration. The lung tissues are bilaterally innervated by vagal and spinal nerves, including sensory and motor components. This complicated innervation pattern has made it difficult to discern the vagal vs. spinal processes in the pulmonary visceral pleura. With and without vagotomy, we identified vagal nerve fibres and endings distributed extensively in the visceral pleura ('P'-type nerve endings) and triangular ligaments ('L'-type nerve endings) by injecting wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase as a tracer into the nucleus of solitary tract or nodose ganglion of male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895640/%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-immunomodulators-in-colorectal-cancer-new-potential-role-in-adjuvant-therapies
#9
REVIEW
Stefania Miccadei, Roberta Masella, Anna Maria Mileo, Sandra Gessani
Diet composition may affect the onset and progression of chronic degenerative diseases, including cancer, whose pathogenesis relies on inflammatory processes. Growing evidence indicates that diet and its components critically contribute to human health, affecting the immune system, secretion of adipokines, and metabolic pathways. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Antineoplastic drugs are widely used for CRC treatment, but drug resistance and/or off-target toxicity limit their efficacy...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891665/spectral-summation-and-facilitation-in-on-and-off-responses-for-optimized-representation-of-communication-calls-in-mouse-inferior-colliculus
#10
Alexander G Akimov, Marina A Egorova, Günter Ehret
Selectivity for processing of species-specific vocalizations and communication sounds has often been associated with the auditory cortex. The midbrain inferior colliculus, however, is the first center in the auditory pathways of mammals integrating acoustic information processed in separate nuclei and channels in the brainstem and, therefore, could significantly contribute to enhance the perception of species' communication sounds. Here, we used natural wriggling calls of mouse pups, which communicate need for maternal care to adult females, and further 15 synthesized sounds to test the hypothesis that neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of adult females optimize their response rates for reproduction of the three main harmonics (formants) of wriggling calls...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891197/the-oscillation-like-activity-in-bullfrog-on-off-retinal-ganglion-cell
#11
Xiao-Wei Qiu, Hai-Qing Gong, Pu-Ming Zhang, Pei-Ji Liang
Oscillatory activity of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) has been observed in various species. It was reported such oscillatory activity is raised within large neural network and involved in retinal information coding. In the present research, we found an oscillation-like activity in ON-OFF RGC of bullfrog retina, and studied the mechanisms underlying the ON and OFF activities respectively. Pharmacological experiments revealed that the oscillation-like activity patterns in both ON and OFF pathways were abolished by GABA receptor antagonists, indicating GABAergic inhibition is essential for generating them...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889482/the-red-light-receptor-phytochrome-b-directly-enhances-substrate-e3-ligase-interactions-to-attenuate-ethylene-responses
#12
Hui Shi, Xing Shen, Renlu Liu, Chang Xue, Ning Wei, Xing Wang Deng, Shangwei Zhong
Plants germinating under subterranean darkness assume skotomorphogenesis, a developmental program strengthened by ethylene in response to mechanical pressure of soil. Upon reaching the surface, light triggers a dramatic developmental transition termed de-etiolation that requires immediate termination of ethylene responses. Here, we report that light activation of photoreceptor phyB results in rapid degradation of EIN3, the master transcription factor in the ethylene signaling pathway. As a result, light rapidly and efficiently represses ethylene actions...
November 16, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887601/protocol-for-a-prospective-randomized-study-on-neurophysiological-assessment-of-lower-urinary-tract-function-in-a-healthy-cohort
#13
Stéphanie van der Lely, Martina Stefanovic, Melanie R Schmidhalter, Marta Pittavino, Reinhard Furrer, Martina D Liechti, Martin Schubert, Thomas M Kessler, Ulrich Mehnert
BACKGROUND: Lower urinary tract symptoms are highly prevalent and a large proportion of these symptoms are known to be associated with a dysfunction of the afferent pathways. Diagnostic tools for an objective and reproducible assessment of afferent nerve function of the lower urinary tract are missing. Previous studies showed first feasibility results of sensory evoked potential recordings following electrical stimulation of the lower urinary tract in healthy subjects and patients. Nevertheless, a refinement of the methodology is necessary...
November 25, 2016: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886822/ticagrelor-effects-beyond-the-p2y12-receptor
#14
REVIEW
Wael Sumaya, Robert F Storey
Platelet P2Y12 receptor inhibitors are crucial in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Ticagrelor is a reversibly binding, potent oral P2Y12 inhibitor that also is a weak inhibitor of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 pathway for cellular adenosine uptake. It is hypothesized that ticagrelor has clinically relevant "off-target" effects, independent of its effect on platelet aggregation and thrombosis. This review considers the pleiotropic effects of ticagrelor and some of the possible mechanisms related to these effects...
January 2017: Interventional cardiology clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885985/connectivity-map-of-bipolar-cells-and-photoreceptors-in-the-mouse-retina
#15
Christian Behrens, Timm Schubert, Silke Haverkamp, Thomas Euler, Philipp Berens
In the mouse retina, three different types of photoreceptors provide input to 14 bipolar cell (BC) types. Classically, most BC types are thought to contact all cones within their dendritic field; ON-BCs would contact cones exclusively via so-called invaginating synapses, while OFF-BCs would form basal synapses. By mining publically available electron microscopy data, we discovered interesting violations of these rules of outer retinal connectivity: ON-BC type X contacted only ~20% of the cones in its dendritic field and made mostly atypical non-invaginating contacts...
November 25, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885764/development-of-rubber-enriched-dandelion-varieties-by-metabolic-engineering-of-the-inulin-pathway
#16
Anna Stolze, Alan Wanke, Nicole van Deenen, Roland Geyer, Dirk Prüfer, Christian Schulze Gronover
Natural rubber (NR) is an important raw material for a large number of industrial products. The primary source of NR is the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, but increased worldwide demand means that alternative sustainable sources are urgently required. The Russian dandelion (Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin) is such an alternative because large amounts of NR are produced in its root system. However, rubber biosynthesis must be improved in order to develop T. koksaghyz into a commercially feasible crop. In addition to NR, T...
November 25, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878364/-av-reentrant-tachycardia-and-wolff-parkinson-white-syndrome-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
Frederik Voss, Lars Eckardt, Sonia Busch, Heidi L Estner, Daniel Steven, Philipp Sommer, Christian von Bary, Hans-Ruprecht Neuberger
The AV-reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) is a supraventricular tachycardia with an incidence of 1-3/1000. The pathophysiological basis is an accessory atrioventricular pathway (AP). Patients with AVRT typically present with palpitations, an on-off characteristic, anxiety, dyspnea, and polyuria. This type of tachycardia may often be terminated by vagal maneuvers. Although the clinical presentation of AVRT is quite similar to AV-nodal reentrant tachycardias, the correct diagnosis is often facilitated by analyzing a standard 12-lead ECG at normal heart rate showing ventricular preexcitation...
November 22, 2016: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876225/glyphosate-and-ampa-distribution-in-wind-eroded-sediment-derived-from-loess-soil
#18
Célia P M Bento, Dirk Goossens, Mahrooz Rezaei, Michel Riksen, Hans G J Mol, Coen J Ritsema, Violette Geissen
Glyphosate is one of the most used herbicides in agricultural lands worldwide. Wind-eroded sediment and dust, as an environmental transport pathway of glyphosate and of its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), can result in environmental- and human exposure far beyond the agricultural areas where it has been applied. Therefore, special attention is required to the airborne transport of glyphosate and AMPA. In this study, we investigated the behavior of glyphosate and AMPA in wind-eroded sediment by measuring their content in different size fractions (median diameters between 715 and 8 μm) of a loess soil, during a period of 28 days after glyphosate application...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875952/in-vitro-sensitivity-profiling-of-neuroblastoma-cells-against-a-comprehensive-small-molecule-kinase-inhibitor-library-to-identify-agents-for-future-therapeutic-studies
#19
Anjali Singh, Vanessa Meier-Stephenson, Aarthi Jayanthan, Aru Narendran
Solid tumors represent one of the most widespread causes of death in children across the world. Neuroblastoma (NB) constitutes about 8% of all childhood tumors, yet accounts for more than 15% of death, with an unacceptable overall survival rate. Despite the current multimodal therapeutic approaches involving surgery, radiation, chemotherapy with myeloablative therapy and hematopoietic stem cell rescue, there is growing realization of the limitations of conventional agents to improve the outcome in high risk metastatic disease...
November 22, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875900/effects-of-necrostatin-1-an-inhibitor-of-necroptosis-and-its-inactive-analogue-nec-1i-on-basal-cardiovascular-function
#20
A Szobi, T Rajtik, A Adameova
Inhibition of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIP1) by necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) alleviates cardiac injury due to prevention of necroptotic cell death. Its inactive analogue necrostatin-1i (Nec-1i), lacking RIP1 activity, serves as a suitable control. It is unknown if these agents influence the heart function in the absence of damaging stimuli. For this purpose, we measured intraarterial blood pressure (systolic - sBP and diastolic - dBP) and ECG parameters after a bolus administration of Nec-1 and Nec-1i in rats during 30 min...
November 23, 2016: Physiological Research
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