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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924805/water-striders-adjust-leg-movement-speed-to-optimize-takeoff-velocity-for-their-morphology
#1
Eunjin Yang, Jae Hak Son, Sang-Im Lee, Piotr G Jablonski, Ho-Young Kim
Water striders are water-walking insects that can jump upwards from the water surface. Quick jumps allow striders to avoid sudden dangers such as predators' attacks, and therefore their jumping is expected to be shaped by natural selection for optimal performance. Related species with different morphological constraints could require different jumping mechanics to successfully avoid predation. Here we show that jumping striders tune their leg rotation speed to reach the maximum jumping speed that water surface allows...
December 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918704/comparison-of-3d-joint-angles-measured-with-the-kinect-2-0-skeletal-tracker-versus-a-marker-based-motion-capture-system
#2
Trent M Guess, Swithin Razu, Amirhossein Jahandar, Marjorie Skubic, Zhiyu Huo
The Microsoft Kinect is becoming a widely used tool for inexpensive, portable measurement of human motion with the potential to support clinical assessments of performance and function. In this study, the relative osteokinematic Cardan joint angles of the hip and knee were calculated using the Kinect 2.0 skeletal tracker. The pelvis segments of the default skeletal model were reoriented and three-dimensional joint angles were compared to a marker-based system during a drop vertical jump and a hip abduction motion...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918689/vertical-jump-biomechanics-altered-with-virtual-overhead-goal
#3
Kevin R Ford, Anh-Dung Nguyen, Eric J Hegedus, Jeffrey B Taylor
Virtual environments with real-time feedback can simulate extrinsic goals that mimic real life conditions. The purpose was to compare jump performance and biomechanics with a physical overhead goal (POG) and with a virtual overhead goal (VOG). Fourteen female subjects participated (age: 18.8±1.1 years, height: 163.2±8.1 cm, weight 63.0±7.9 kg). Sagittal plane trunk, hip, and knee biomechanics were calculated during the landing and take-off phases of DVJ with different goal conditions. Repeated measures ANOVAs determined differences between goal conditions...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918677/a-comparison-of-isometric-mid-thigh-pull-strength-vertical-jump-sprint-speed-and-change-of-direction-speed-in-academy-netball-players
#4
Christopher Thomas, Paul Comfort, Paul A Jones, Thomas Dos'Santos
PURPOSE: To investigate (a) the relationships between maximal isometric strength, vertical jump (VJ), sprint speed, and change of direction speed (CODS) in academy netball players, and (b) determine whether players who have high performance in isometric strength testing would demonstrate superior performance in VJ, sprint speed, and CODS measures. METHODS: Twenty-six young female netball players (age = 16.1 ± 1.2 years; height = 173.9 ± 5.7 cm; body mass = 66...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918240/circadian-rhythm-effect-on-physical-tennis-performance-in-trained-male-players
#5
Álvaro López-Samanes, Diego Moreno-Pérez, José L Maté-Muñoz, Raúl Domínguez, Jesús G Pallarés, Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez, Juan F Ortega
To determine the effect of circadian rhythm on neuromuscular responses and kinematics related to physical tennis performance, after a standardised warm-up, 13 highly competitive male tennis players were tested twice for serve velocity/accuracy (SVA), countermovement vertical jump (CMJ), isometric handgrip strength (IS), agility T-test (AGIL) and a 10-m sprint (10-m RUN). In a randomised, counter-balance order, tennis players underwent the test battery twice, either in the morning (i.e., AM; 9:00 h) and in the afternoon (i...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914305/effectiveness-of-a-cross-circuit-exercise-training-program-in-improving-the-fitness-of-overweight-or-obese-adolescents-with-intellectual-disability-enrolled-in-special-education-schools
#6
Wen-Lan Wu, Yu-Fen Yang, I-Hua Chu, Hsiu-Tao Hsu, Feng-Hua Tsai, Jing-Min Liang
This study assessed the effects of a cross-circuit training intervention program on the body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, and muscular strength endurance of overweight or obese students with intellectual disability. A total of 43 students with intellectual disability (aged 13-19 years) were enrolled in this program; 28 overweight/obese students were assigned to either an obesity-control group (n=14) or obesity-exercise group (n=14), and those with normal weight were assigned to a normal weight group (n=15)...
November 30, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904954/the-mathematics-of-xenology-di-cographs-symbolic-ultrametrics-2-structures-and-tree-representable-systems-of-binary-relations
#7
Marc Hellmuth, Peter F Stadler, Nicolas Wieseke
The concepts of orthology, paralogy, and xenology play a key role in molecular evolution. Orthology and paralogy distinguish whether a pair of genes originated by speciation or duplication. The corresponding binary relations on a set of genes form complementary cographs. Allowing more than two types of ancestral event types leads to symmetric symbolic ultrametrics. Horizontal gene transfer, which leads to xenologous gene pairs, however, is inherent asymmetric since one offspring copy "jumps" into another genome, while the other continues to be inherited vertically...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899276/a-comparison-of-the-physical-and-anthropometric-qualities-explanatory-of-talent-in-the-elite-junior-australian-football-development-pathway
#8
Carl T Woods, Ashley Cripps, Luke Hopper, Christopher Joyce
OBJECTIVES: To compare the physical and anthropometric qualities explanatory of talent at two developmental levels in junior Australian football (AF). DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational. METHODS: From a total of 134 juniors, two developmental levels were categorised; U16 (n=50; 15.6±0.3 y), U18 (n=84; 17.4±0.5 y). Within these levels, two groups were a priori defined; talent identified (U16; n=25; 15.7±0.2 y; U18 n=42; 17.5±0.4 y), non-talent identified (U16; n=25; 15...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895923/concurrent-validity-of-the-gyko-inertial-sensor-system-for-the-assessment-of-vertical-jump-height-in-female-sub-elite-youth-soccer-players
#9
Melanie Lesinski, Thomas Muehlbauer, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to verify concurrent validity of the Gyko inertial sensor system for the assessment of vertical jump height. METHODS: Nineteen female sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age: 14.7 ± 0.6 years) performed three trials of countermovement (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ), respectively. Maximal vertical jump height was simultaneously quantified with the Gyko system, a Kistler force-plate (i.e., gold standard), and another criterion device that is frequently used in the field, the Optojump system...
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893474/hypertrophy-and-explosive-reactive-functioning-in-sedentary-men-following-10-weeks-of-whole-body-vibration
#10
Jens Ebing, Ulf Gast, Christoph Hauptmann, Dieter Felsenberg, Daniel L Belavý
The objective of this study was to determine the impact of vertical (Power-plate; POW) and side-alternating (Galileo; GAL) whole-body vibration exercise on muscle mass and lower-limb neuromuscular function. Forty-three sedentary male subjects (18-30yr) randomized into three groups underwent two upper-body exercise sessions per week for 10 weeks. Two groups of subjects underwent additional squat exercises on the GAL (N=15) or POW (N=14) devices. The third group was control. On magnetic resonance imaging, volume of the thigh muscles was measured...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881766/bridging-the-gap-parkour-athletes-provide-new-insights-into-locomotion-energetics-of-arboreal-apes
#11
Lewis G Halsey, Samuel R L Coward, Susannah K S Thorpe
The tree canopy is an energetically challenging environment to traverse. Along with compliant vegetation, gaps in the canopy can prove energetically costly if they force a route-extending detour. Arboreal apes exhibit diverse locomotion strategies, including for gap crossing. Which one they employ in any given scenario may be influenced by the energy costs to do so, which are affected by the details of the immediate environment in combination with their body size. Measuring energetics of arboreal apes is not tractable; thus our knowledge in this area is limited...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874298/volitional-spine-stabilization-during-a-drop-vertical-jump-from-different-landing-heights-implications-for-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury
#12
Ram Haddas, Troy Hooper, C Roger James, Phillip S Sizer
CONTEXT:  Volitional spine stabilization (VSS) during dynamic activities may alter trunk motion, but the role of the core musculature in positioning the trunk during landing tasks is unclear. OBJECTIVE:  To determine whether volitional core-muscle activation incorporated during a drop vertical jump alters lower extremity kinematics and kinetics, as well as trunk and lower extremity muscle activity at different landing heights. DESIGN:  Controlled laboratory study...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870698/risk-factors-for-injury-among-japanese-collegiate-players-of-american-football-based-on-performance-test-results
#13
Junta Iguchi, Yuya Watanabe, Misaka Kimura, Yoshihiko Fujisawa, Tatsuya Hojo, Yasuhiro Yuasa, Shinsuke Higashi, Kenji Kuzuhara
Iguchi, J, Watanabe, Y, Kimura, M, Fujisawa, Y, Hojo, T, Yuasa, Y, Higashi, S, and Kuzuhara, K. Risk factors for injury among Japanese collegiate players of American football based on performance test results. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3405-3411, 2016-The purpose of this study was to identify how risk factors for injury during American football are related to players' physical strength as determined using typical performance tests. One hundred 53 Japanese collegiate players of American football were recruited for this study...
December 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869529/low-fundamental-movement-skill-proficiency-is-associated-with-high-bmi-and-body-fatness-in-girls-but-not-boys-aged-6-11-years-old
#14
Michael J Duncan, Elizabeth Bryant, David Stodden
This study examined differences in children's body mass index (BMI) and body fatness (BF%) as a function of gender and fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency. Following ethics approval and parental consent, 248, 6-11 year-old children (112 boys, 136 girls) underwent assessment of 7 FMS: sprint run, side gallop, hop, kick, catch, throw and vertical jump. FMS tertiles ("high", "medium" or "low" FMS) were created based on the summed components of the FMS. Skinfold measures were used to calculate BF%. Physical activity (PA) was assessed using pedometry and maturation predicted using anthropometry...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864504/youth-baseball-pitching-stride-length-normal-values-and-correlation-with-field-testing
#15
Karl E Fry, Andrew Pipkin, Kelcie Wittman, Scott Hetzel, Marc Sherry
BACKGROUND: Pitching biomechanical analysis has been recommended as an important component of performance, injury prevention, and rehabilitation. Normal values for youth pitching stride length have not been established, leading to application of normative values found among professional pitchers to youth pitchers. HYPOTHESES: The average youth pitching stride length will be significantly less than that of college and professional pitchers. There will be a positive correlation between stride length, lower extremity power, balance, and pitching experience...
November 18, 2016: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863188/the-use-of-2-conditioning-programs-and-the-fitness-characteristics-of-police-academy-cadets
#16
Charles Cocke, Jay Dawes, Robin Marc Orr
CONTEXT:  Police academy training must physically prepare cadets for the rigors of their occupational tasks to prevent injury and allow them to adequately perform their duties. OBJECTIVE:  To compare the effects of 2 physical training programs on multiple fitness measures in police cadets. DESIGN:  Cohort study. SETTING:  Police training academy. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:  We collected data from 70 male (age = 27...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844453/explosive-movement-in-the-older-men-analysis-and-comparative-study-of-vertical-jump
#17
Sébastien Argaud, Benoit Pairot de Fontenay, Yoann Blache, Karine Monteil
BACKGROUND: Loss of power has been demonstrated to have severe functional consequences to perform physical daily living tasks in old age. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess how moment and velocity were affected for each joint of the lower limbs during squat jumping for older men in comparison with young adults. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy older men (74.5 ± 4.6 years) and 22 young men (21.8 ± 2.8 years) performed maximal squat jumps...
November 14, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837043/reliability-of-sargent-jump-test-in-4-to-5-year-old-children
#18
Carlos AyánPérez, José M CancelaCarral, Joaquín Lago-Ballesteros, Iván Martínez-Lemos
We assessed the test-retest reliability of the Sargent jump (VJ) for vertical jumping performed by 4 and 5 years old pre-schoolers. The VJ was administered three times (familiarization, test, and retest) to 163 children (mean age: 4.48 ± 0.5 years; 55.8% girls). The results were compared with those obtained in the standing long jump (SLJ) and in the 25 -m dash test to identify how its performance correlated with other measures of leg power. Systematic change in the mean and retest correlations with these other measures were used to help analyze VJ test-retest reliability...
November 11, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820725/training-strategies-to-improve-muscle-power-is-olympic-style-weightlifting-relevant
#19
Christian Helland, Eirik Hole, Erik Iversen, Monica Charlotte Olsson, Olivier Seynnes, Paul Andre Solberg, Gøran Paulsen
INTRODUCTION: This efficacy study investigated the effects of (1) Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), (2) motorized strength and power training (MSPT), and (3) free weight strength and power training (FSPT) on muscle power. METHODS: Thirty-nine young athletes (20±3 yr.; ice hockey, volleyball and badminton) were randomized into the three training groups. All groups participated in 2-3 sessions/week for 8 weeks. The MSPT and FSPT groups trained using squats (two legs and single leg) with high force and high power, while the OWL group trained using clean and snatch exercises...
November 3, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813392/physical-and-physiological-differences-of-backs-and-forwards-from-the-brazilian-national-rugby-union-team
#20
Fábio Y Nakamura, Lucas A Pereira, José E Moraes, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Cesar C Cal Abad, Luís M Teixeira Vaz, Irineu Loturco
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare backs and forwards rugby union players recruited to a National team in the following physical and physiological indicators: anthropometrics, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 10- and 30-m sprint, resting heart rate variability (HRV), Yo-Yo test and heart rate (HR) at 2-min of test. METHODS: The measurements were performed on the first day of a training camp planned to finely select the players who would participate in the 2016 America's Rugby Championship...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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