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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911778/enhanced-stochastic-fluctuations-to-measure-steep-adhesive-energy-landscapes
#1
Ahmad Haider, Daniel Potter, Todd A Sulchek
Free-energy landscapes govern the behavior of all interactions in the presence of thermal fluctuations in the fields of physical chemistry, materials sciences, and the biological sciences. From the energy landscape, critical information about an interaction, such as the reaction kinetic rates, bond lifetimes, and the presence of intermediate states, can be determined. Despite the importance of energy landscapes to understanding reaction mechanisms, most experiments do not directly measure energy landscapes, particularly for interactions with steep force gradients that lead to premature jump to contact of the probe and insufficient sampling of transition regions...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816210/interrater-reliability-in-the-clinical-evaluation-of-myofascial-trigger-points-in-three-ankle-muscles
#2
David Rodríguez Sanz, César Calvo Lobo, Daniel López López, Carlos Romero Morales, Carlos Sosa Marín, Irene Sanz Corbalán
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate interrater reliability in the diagnosis of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the tibialis anterior, peroneus brevis, and extensor digitorum longus muscles. METHODS: A reliability research study was performed. Three physical therapists with clinical experience in myofascial pain functioned as raters and randomly and bilaterally evaluated the ankles of 40 subjects in the Madrid public health care system. The absence or presence of MTrPs, nodules in taut bands, patterns of referred pain, local twitch response (LTR), and jump-sign were evaluated...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806012/acute-effects-of-plyometric-and-resistance-training-on-running-economy-in-trained-runners
#3
Richard T Marcello, Beau Kjerulf Greer, Anna E Greer
Results regarding the acute effects of plyometric and resistance training (PRT) on running economy (RE) are conflicting. Eight male collegiate distance runners (21 ± 1 years, 62.5 ± 7.8 ml/kg/min V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak) completed V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) testing. Seven days later, subjects completed a 12 minute RE test at 60% and 80% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak, followed by a PRT protocol or a rested condition of equal duration (CON). The PRT protocol consisted of 3 sets of 5 repetitions at 85% 1RM for barbell squats, Romanian deadlifts, and barbell lunges; the same volume was utilized for resisted lateral lunges, box jumps, and depth jumps...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786160/jumping-into-a-trap-high-prevalence-of-chytrid-fungus-in-the-preferred-microhabitats-of-a-bromeliad-specialist-frog
#4
Gustavo Ruano-Fajardo, Luís Felipe Toledo, Tamí Mott
The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been identified as a major threat to several amphibian populations in tropical forests. Amphibians that inhabit the phytotelmata (water tanks) of bromeliads may be especially at risk of Bd infection since the humid, environmentally buffered microhabitat that they prefer might also be favorable for Bd persistence on the host. To test this hypothesis, we sampled adults and tadpoles of the bromeligenous anuran Phyllodytes edelmoi (endemic to the northern Brazilian Atlantic Forest) from the bromeliad Portea leptantha for Bd, using qPCR...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762049/testing-genotyping-strategies-for-ultra-deep-sequencing-of-a-co-amplifying-gene-family-mhc-class-i-in-a-passerine-bird
#5
Aleksandra Biedrzycka, Alvaro Sebastian, Magdalena Migalska, Helena Westerdahl, Jacek Radwan
Characterisation of highly duplicated genes, such as genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), where multiple loci often co-amplify, has until recently been hindered by insufficient read depths per amplicon. Here we used ultra-deep Illumina sequencing to resolve genotypes at exon 3 of MHC class I genes in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus). We sequenced 24 individuals in two replicates and used this data, as well as a simulated dataset, to test the effect of amplicon coverage (range: 500-20 000 reads per amplicon) on the repeatability of genotyping using four different genotyping approaches...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630574/faster-movement-speed-results-in-greater-tendon-strain-during-the-loaded-squat-exercise
#6
Jacob E Earp, Robert U Newton, Prue Cormie, Anthony J Blazevich
INTRODUCTION: Tendon dynamics influence movement performance and provide the stimulus for long-term tendon adaptation. As tendon strain increases with load magnitude and decreases with loading rate, changes in movement speed during exercise should influence tendon strain. METHODS: Ten resistance-trained men [squat one repetition maximum (1RM) to body mass ratio: 1.65 ± 0.12] performed parallel-depth back squat lifts with 60% of 1RM load at three different speeds: slow fixed-tempo (TS: 2-s eccentric, 1-s pause, 2-s concentric), volitional-speed without a pause (VS) and maximum-speed jump (JS)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630434/influence-of-repeated-bouts-of-eccentric-exercise-on-high-intensity-aerobic-performance
#7
Wonder Passoni Higino, Renato Aparecido de Souza, Fabio de Sousa Cavalcanti, Anderlei Dos Santos Cardoso, Murilo Victor Vasconcelos, Fabiano Fernandes da Silva, José Alexandre C A Leme
[Purpose] It is believed that eccentric high-intensity exercise can decrease performance in subsequent exercise. However, with repetition, the deleterious effects can be minimized. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy and sedentary male volunteers were recruited. a) Visit 1: determination of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and speed associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max) in incremental treadmill testing; b) Visit 2: run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim control); c) Visit 3: 10 sets of 10 depth jumps, followed by a run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim 1); d) Visit 4: after 6 weeks without any physical training, the volunteers carried out the same procedures as on the third visit (Tlim 2)...
August 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528680/reconstructing-the-last-interglacial-at-summit-greenland-insights-from-gisp2
#8
Audrey M Yau, Michael L Bender, Alexander Robinson, Edward J Brook
The Eemian (last interglacial, 130-115 ka) was likely the warmest of all interglacials of the last 800 ka, with summer Arctic temperatures 3-5 °C above present. Here, we present improved Eemian climate records from central Greenland, reconstructed from the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core. Our record comes from clean, stratigraphically disturbed, and isotopically warm ice from 2,750 to 3,040 m depth. The age of this ice is constrained by measuring CH4 and δ(18)O of O2, and comparing with the historical record of these properties from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) and North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice cores...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447844/focal-plane-shift-imaging-for-the-analysis-of-dynamic-wetting-processes
#9
Hyeongyun Cha, Jae Min Chun, Jesus Sotelo, Nenad Miljkovic
Droplet-surface interactions are common to a plethora of natural and industrial processes due to their ability to rapidly exchange energy, mass, and momentum. Droplets are particularly of interest due to their large surface-to-volume ratios and hence enhanced transport properties. For example, coalescence-induced droplet jumping on superhydrophobic surfaces has recently received much attention for its potential to enhance heat transfer, anti-icing, and self-cleaning performance by passively shedding microscale water droplets...
September 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411947/reaction-rate-of-a-composite-core-shell-nanoreactor-with-multiple-nanocatalysts
#10
Marta Galanti, Duccio Fanelli, Stefano Angioletti-Uberti, Matthias Ballauff, Joachim Dzubiella, Francesco Piazza
We present a detailed theory for the total reaction rate constant of a composite core-shell nanoreactor, consisting of a central solid core surrounded by a hydrogel layer of variable thickness, where a given number of small catalytic nanoparticles are embedded at prescribed positions and are endowed with a prescribed surface reaction rate constant. Besides the precise geometry of the assembly, our theory accounts explicitly for the diffusion coefficients of the reactants in the hydrogel and in the bulk as well as for their transfer free energy jump upon entering the hydrogel shell...
July 27, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379959/the-inter-day-reliability-of-reactive-strength-index-and-optimal-drop-height
#11
Damien J Byrne, Declan T Browne, Paul J Byrne, Noel Richardson
The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-day reliability of the reactive strength index (RSI) and optimal drop height (ODH) identification from multiple drop heights. Nineteen male trained hurling players (23.1±2.9 years, 83.1±15.5kg, and 182.5±54.89cm) completed 2 maximal depth jumps from 4 incremental drop heights (30, 40, 50, 60cm), over two separate testing sessions 48 hours apart. The RSI and ODH were analysed for reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV)...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350903/numerical-modeling-of-rapidly-varying-flows-using-hec-ras-and-wspg-models
#12
Prasada Rao, Theodore V Hromadka
The performance of two popular hydraulic models (HEC-RAS and WSPG) for modeling hydraulic jump in an open channel is investigated. The numerical solutions are compared with a new experimental data set obtained for varying channel bottom slopes and flow rates. Both the models satisfactorily predict the flow depths and location of the jump. The end results indicate that the numerical models output is sensitive to the value of chosen roughness coefficient. For this application, WSPG model is easier to implement with few input variables...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125295/mechanical-parameters-and-flight-phase-characteristics-in-aquatic-plyometric-jumping
#13
Talin J Louder, Cade J Searle, Eadric Bressel
Plyometric jumping is a commonly prescribed method of training focused on the development of reactive strength and high-velocity concentric power. Literature suggests that aquatic plyometric training may be a low-impact, effective supplement to land-based training. The purpose of the present study was to quantify acute, biomechanical characteristics of the take-off and flight phase for plyometric movements performed in the water. Kinetic force platform data from 12 young, male adults were collected for counter-movement jumps performed on land and in water at two different immersion depths...
September 2016: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27115148/experimental-assessment-of-the-effects-of-temperature-and-food-availability-on-particle-mixing-by-the-bivalve-abra-alba-using-new-image-analysis-techniques
#14
Guillaume Bernard, Jean-Claude Duchêne, Alicia Romero-Ramirez, Pascal Lecroart, Olivier Maire, Aurélie Ciutat, Bruno Deflandre, Antoine Grémare
The effects of temperature and food addition on particle mixing in the deposit-feeding bivalve Abra alba were assessed using an experimental approach allowing for the tracking of individual fluorescent particle (luminophore) displacements. This allowed for the computations of vertical profiles of a set of parameters describing particle mixing. The frequency of luminophore displacements (jumps) was assessed through the measurement of both waiting times (i.e., the time lapses between two consecutive jumps of the same luminophore) and normalized numbers of jumps (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100706/moderate-to-high-throughput-in-vitro-binding-kinetics-for-drug-discovery
#15
Rumin Zhang, Christopher M Barbieri, Margarita Garcia-Calvo, Robert W Myers, David McLaren, Michael Kavana
This review provides a concise summary for state of the art, moderate to high throughput in vitro technologies being employed to study drug-target binding kinetics. These technologies cover a wide kinetic timescale spanning up to nine orders of magnitude from milliseconds to days. Automated stopped flow measures transient and (pre)steady state kinetics from milliseconds to seconds. For seconds to hours timescale kinetics we discuss surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor, global progress curve analysis for high throughput kinetic profiling of enzyme inhibitors and activators, and filtration plate-based radioligand or fluorescent binding assays for receptor binding kinetics...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950350/regional-surface-electromyography-of-the-vastus-lateralis-during-strength-and-power-exercises
#16
Jacob E Earp, Diana T Stucchi, Julie K DeMartini, Melissa W Roti
Earp, JE, Stucchi, DT, DeMartini, JK, and Roti, MW. Regional surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis during strength and power exercises. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1585-1591, 2016-Neuromuscular activation during and chronic adaptation from exercise are innately linked and both can vary along a muscle's length. During high-force and high-speed exercise, intramuscular hypertrophy follows set patterns that provide the greatest biomechanical advantages. However, it is unknown if muscle activity as recorded by surface electromyography (sEMG) will follow these patterns...
June 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26930422/net-joint-moments-and-muscle-activation-in-barbell-squats-without-and-with-restricted-anterior-leg-rotation
#17
Loren Z F Chiu, Gabriella L vonGaza, Liane M Y Jean
Muscle utilisation in squat exercise depends on technique. The purpose of this study was to compare net joint moments (NJMs) and muscle activation during squats without and with restricted leg dorsiflexion. Experienced men (n = 5) and women (n = 4) performed full squats at 80% one repetition maximum. 3D motion analysis, force platform and (EMG) data were collected. Restricting anterior leg rotation reduced anterior leg (P = 0.001) and posterior thigh (P < 0.001) rotations, resulting in a smaller knee flexion range of motion (P < 0...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26910997/-development-of-sediment-micro-interface-under-physical-and-chironomus-plumosus-combination-disturbance
#18
Ren Wang, Da-peng Li, Yong Huang, Yan-jian Liu, Jun Chen
Synergistic effect of physical and Chironomus plumosus combination disturbance on the characteristics of the micro-environment and micro-interface was investigated by the Rhizon samplers and Unisense micro sensor system. The results showed that the oxygen penetration depth (OPD), total oxygen exchange (TOE), water content and total microbial activity increased under the combination disturbance and bioturbation and were kept at the higher level, compared with the control. These parameters increased with the physical intensity under combination disturbance...
November 2015: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26890972/comparing-the-effectiveness-of-a-short-term-vertical-jump-vs-weightlifting-program-on-athletic-power-development
#19
Shaun Y M Teo, Michael J Newton, Robert U Newton, Alasdair R Dempsey, Timothy J Fairchild
Teo, SYM, Newton, MJ, Newton, RU, Dempsey, AR, and Fairchild, TJ. Comparing the effectiveness of a short-term vertical jump vs. weightlifting program on athletic power development. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2741-2748, 2016-Efficient training of neuromuscular power and the translation of this power to sport-specific tasks is a key objective in the preparation of athletes involved in team-based sports. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in center of mass (COM) neuromuscular power and performance of sport-specific tasks after short-term (6-week) training adopting either Olympic-style weightlifting (WL) exercises or vertical jump (VJ) exercises...
October 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26839620/the-kinetic-specificity-of-plyometric-training-verbal-cues-revisited
#20
Talin Louder, Megan Bressel, Eadric Bressel
Plyometric training is a popular method utilized by strength and conditioning professionals to improve aspects of functional strength. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of extrinsic verbal cueing on the specificity of jumping movements. Thirteen participants (age: 23.4 ± 1.9 yr, body height: 170.3 ± 15.1 cm, body mass: 70.3 ± 23.8 kg,) performed four types of jumps: a depth jump "as quickly as possible" (DJT), a depth jump "as high as possible" (DJH), a countermovement jump (CMJ), and a squat jump (SJ)...
December 22, 2015: Journal of Human Kinetics
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