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Old age

Marco Cossio-Bolaños, Miguel de Arruda, Cynthia Lee Andruske, Cristian Luarte-Rocha, Rossana Gómez-Campos
OBJECTIVE: Identify changes in physical growth and abdominal adiposity at an interval of 14 years in children and adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data comes from two cross-sectional studies carried out in the city of Arequipa, Peru, located at a moderate altitude of 2,320 meters. In 2001, 473 males and 482 females were assessed, and in 2015, 432 males and 403 females between 6.0 and 12.9 years old were evaluated. Data were collected in public state schools and measured using the anthropometric variables for weight, height, and waist circumference...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Nikolaos Charalampakis, Lianchun Xiao, Quan Lin, Elena Elimova, Yusuke Shimodaira, Kazuto Harada, Jane E Rogers, Jeannette Mares, Fatemeh G Amlashi, Bruce D Minsky, Prajnan Das, Wayne L Hofstetter, Aurelio Matamoros, Tara L Sagebiel, Mariela A Blum-Murphy, Jeffrey H Lee, Brian Weston, Manoop S Bhutani, Paul F Mansfield, Jeannelyn S Estrella, Brian D Badgwell, Jaffer A Ajani
BACKGROUND: Older patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma (LGAC) have substantial postoperative morbidity and mortality; however, postoperative outcomes of the patients who receive preoperative chemotherapy and/or chemoradiation have not been reported. We examined the impact of age at baseline on potential predictors of postoperative outcomes. METHODS: Patients with LGAC who were treated with chemotherapy and/or chemoradiation followed by surgery (n = 203) formed two groups: (1) ≥65 years old (n = 70) and (2) <65 years old (n = 133)...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
F Y Kwok, S Venugobal
BACKGROUND: Induction of anaesthesia with propofol is often associated with a significant decrease in arterial pressure, especially in the older population. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of phenylephrine in two different doses i.e. 100mcg and 200mcg, given during induction to counteract the anticipated hypotensive effect of propofol in older patients aged over 55 years. METHODS: Seventy-two ASA physical status I - II patients aged 55 years or older were randomly allocated to group 1 (received propofol mixed with normal saline), group 2 (propofol mixed with 100mcg of phenylephrine) or group 3 (propofol mixed with 200mcg of pheynylphrine)...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
David W Schopfer, Daniel E Forman
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a comprehensive lifestyle program that can have particular benefit for older patients with heart failure (HF). Prevalence of HF is increasingly common among older adults. Mounting effects of cardiovascular risk factors in older age as well as the added effects of geriatric syndromes such as multimorbidity, frailty, and sedentariness contribute to the high incidence of HF as well as to management difficulty. Cardiac rehabilitation can play a decisive role in improving function, quality of life, symptoms, morbidity, and mortality, and also address the idiosyncratic complexities of care that often arise in old age...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Manisha Balwani, Preeti Singh, Anju Seth, Ekta Malik Debnath, Hetanshi Naik, Dana Doheny, Brenden Chen, Makiko Yasuda, Robert J Desnick
Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant inborn error of heme metabolism, typically presents in adulthood, most often in women in the reproductive age group. There are limited reports on the clinical presentation in children, and in contrast to the adults, most of the reported pediatric cases are male. While acute abdominal pain is the most common presenting symptom in children, seizures are commonly seen and may precede the diagnosis of AIP. As an example, we report a 9year old developmentally normal pre-pubertal boy who presented with acute abdominal pain, vomiting and constipation followed by hyponatremia, seizures, weakness and neuropathy...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Abby R Rosenberg, Kira Bona, Tyler Ketterl, Claire M Wharton, Joanne Wolfe, K Scott Baker
PURPOSE: The prevalence of intimacy and substance use among adolescents and young adults during cancer therapy has not been well described. METHODS: The "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer" study was a prospective, multicenter, mixed-methods cohort study. English-speaking patients 14-25 years old with newly diagnosed cancer were invited to complete a comprehensive survey at the time of enrollment (T1) and 3-6 months later (T2). Intimate relationships and health behaviors were assessed with questions adapted from the Guidelines for Adolescent Preventative Services assessment...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
C H M Cheung, R Bedford, M H Johnson, T Charman, T Gliga
An enhanced ability to detect visual targets amongst distractors, known as visual search (VS), has often been documented in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Yet, it is unclear when this behaviour emerges in development and if it is specific to ASD. We followed up infants at high and low familial risk for ASD to investigate how early VS abilities links to later ASD diagnosis, the potential underlying mechanisms of this association and the specificity of superior VS to ASD. Clinical diagnosis of ASD as well as dimensional measures of ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms were ascertained at 3 years...
September 30, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Hanna R Goldberg, Lisa Allen, Sari Kives
BACKGROUND: Fetiform teratoma, a highly differentiated mature cystic teratoma resembling a fetus, is rare and typically found in the ovaries of women of reproductive age. This report describes the youngest case of ovarian fetiform teratoma. CASE: A 7-year-old female presented with acute abdominal pain. Radiological examinations revealed a 5.2 cm ovarian complex cystic mass with fetal-like components in favour of fetus-in-fetu (FIF) and teratoma. Following surgical removal, the mass resembled a fetus consisting of a head, two eye slits, two small upper limb projections, and hair...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Christopher Eric McCoy, Angelica Loza-Gomez, James Lee Puckett, Samantha Costantini, Patrick Penalosa, Craig Anderson, Carl Schultz
BACKGROUND: The association between ambulation at the scene of a motor vehicle collision (MVC) and spinal injury has never been quantified. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between ambulation and spinal injury in patients involved in a MVC. METHODS: Prospective analytical-observational cohort study. Inclusion: patients sustaining traumatic injury in a MVC. Exclusion: < 18 years old, pregnancy. PRIMARY OUTCOME: spinal injury defined as injury to the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spinal cord, bones, or ligaments...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Gabriela Albuquerque, Milton Severo, Andreia Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To assess early life characteristics associated with appetite-related eating behaviors in 7-year-old children. STUDY DESIGN: The participants are children from the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI. Data on sociodemographics, health, and lifestyles and anthropometrics were collected at birth, and 4- and 7-year-old evaluations. A Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire was completed by mothers (n = 3562 children) with children aged 7 years old...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Camilla T Damsgaard, Lotte Lauritzen, Hanne Hauger, Stine Vuholm, Marie N Teisen, Christian Ritz, Max Hansen, Janni Niclasen, Christian Mølgaard
BACKGROUND: Most children in Western populations do not meet recommendations for fish consumption. Oily fish is an important source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), which reduce blood pressure and plasma triacylglycerol in adults and may affect cognitive development and behavior. However, to our knowledge, the potential effects of oily fish on cardiometabolic health, cognitive function, and behavior in children have not been investigated. The aim of the FiSK Junior study is to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive function, and behavior in healthy children...
October 21, 2016: Trials
Mahnaz Ashoorkhani, Ali Bozorgi, Reza Majdzadeh, Hamed Hosseini, Ali Yoonessi, Ali Ramezankhani, Hassan Eftekhar
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most important and well-known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, in spite of effective treatments, adherence to the regular use of drugs and other nondrug treatments, such as lifestyle improvement, is often poor. This study evaluates the effectiveness of an educational, supportive intervention - in the form of a Blood Pressure Management Application (BPMAP) - on self-management in patients with primary hypertension on controlling the determinant factors of hypertension, and on adherence to treatment...
October 21, 2016: Trials
Chia-Yu Liu, Jui-Ying Chu, Jen-Huai Chiang, Hung-Rong Yen, Chung-Hua Hsu
BACKGROUND: To characterize the utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) among patients with hepatitis C (HC). METHODS: This study examined datasets from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. One cohort, including one million patients randomly sampled from the beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Programme from January 1 to December 31 in 2010, was chosen for this analysis. People who had at least three outpatient or inpatient records and had been diagnosed with hepatitis C virus infection from 2000 to 2010 were defined as patients with HC...
October 21, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Melkamu Adeb, Daichi Hayashi, Yogesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Kirner's deformity is a rare bony deformity that is characterized by radial and volar curvature of the distal phalanx of the fifth finger. Affected patients usually present after the age of 5 years, with girls more affected than boys and bilateral involvement more common than unilateral. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of an eight-year-old girl who presented with progressive deformity of the right little finger. Radiographic evaluation revealed volar and radial curvature of the distal phalanx of the right fifth digit...
October 21, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Tessa Strain, Claire Fitzsimons, Paul Kelly, Nanette Mutrie
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the UK physical activity guidelines were updated to include recommendations for muscle strengthening and balance & coordination (at least two sessions of relevant activities per week). However, monitoring and policy efforts remain focussed on aerobic activity. This study aimed to assess differences by gender and age in the a) prevalence of muscle strengthening and balance & co-ordination guidelines, and b) participation in guideline-specific activities. METHODS: The sample for the muscle strengthening analyses was 10,488 adult (16-64 years) and 3857 older adult (≥65 years) 2012-2014 Scottish Health Survey respondents...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Katsiaryna Holl, Christophe Sauboin, Emanuele Amodio, Paolo Bonanni, Giovanni Gabutti
BACKGROUND: Varicella is a highly infectious disease with a significant public health and economic burden, which can be prevented with childhood routine varicella vaccination. Vaccination strategies differ by country. Some factors are known to play an important role (number of doses, coverage, dosing interval, efficacy and catch-up programmes), however, their relative impact on the reduction of varicella in the population remains unclear. This paper aims to help policy makers prioritise the critical factors to achieve the most successful vaccination programme with the available budget...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Miguel Couselo, Vicente Ibáñez, Javier Lluna, Juan José Vila
Introduction Low values of esophageal impedance baseline (EIB) have been related to esophagitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of EIB for erosive esophagitis (ErE) and histological esophagitis (HiE) in children studied for gastroesophageal reflux. Material and Methods Children who underwent esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH) and upper-endoscopy with esophageal biopsies were studied retrospectively. EIB values were obtained by MII-pH. ErE was assessed by endoscopy following the Hetzel-Dent classification; HiE was defined by basal zone hyperplasia, papillary lengthening, or inflammatory infiltration...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Malik Nassan, Qingqin Li, Paul E Croarkin, Wenan Chen, Colin L Colby, Marin Veldic, Susan L McElroy, Gregory D Jenkins, Euijung Ryu, Julie M Cunningham, Marion Leboyer, Mark A Frye, Joanna M Biernacka
BACKGROUND: Although multiple genes have been implicated in bipolar disorder (BD), they explain only a small proportion of its heritability. Identifying additional BD risk variants may be impaired by phenotypic heterogeneity, which is usually not taken into account in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). BD with early age at onset is a more homogeneous familial form of the disorder associated with greater symptom severity. METHODS: We conducted a GWAS of early-onset BD (onset of mania/hypomania ≤19 years old) in a discovery sample of 419 cases and 1034 controls and a replication sample of 181 cases and 777 controls...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Cremildo João Baptista, Ines Dourado, Sandra Brignol, Tarcísio de Matos Andrade, Francisco Inácio Bastos
BACKGROUND: The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, is higher in low-income countries, with serious consequences and profound impact on sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread. Syphilis prevalence tend to be higher among people who misuse drugs than in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To assess syphilis and associated factors among polydrug users (PDU) in the city of Salvador, Northeast Brazil...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Haibo Wang, Xiaokun Han, Eric Kunz, M Elizabeth Hartnett
Purpose: This study addresses the hypothesis that age-related stresses upregulate Thy-1 in choroidal endothelial cells (CECs) and contribute to CEC activation and migration, processes important in choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods: Measurements were made of Thy-1 protein (Western blot) in CECs and Thy-1 mRNA (real time quantitative PCR) in CECs treated with VEGF, CCL11, or PBS or in RPE/choroids from young or old donors or lasered or nonlasered mice. Immunolabeled Thy-1 in ocular sections was compared from young versus old human donor eyes or those with or without neovascular AMD or from lasered versus nonlasered mice...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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