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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724283/lung-cancer-screening-with-low-dose-ct-in-female-never-smokers-retrospective-cohort-study-with-long-term-national-data-follow-up
#1
Hyae Young Kim, Kyu-Won Jung, Kun Young Lim, Soo-Hyun Lee, Jae Kwan Jun, Jeongseon Kim, Bin Hwangbo, Jin Soo Lee
Purpose: Because of growing concerns about lung cancer in female never smokers, low-dose chest CT (LDCT) screening is often performed although it has never shown clinical benefits. We examine whether or not female never smokers really need annual LDCT screening when the initial LDCT showed negative findings. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 4,365 female never smokers aged 40 to 79 years who performed initial LDCT from Aug 2002 to Dec 2007...
July 17, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724046/breast-cancer-screening-in-brazil-barriers-related-to-the-health-system
#2
René Aloisio da Costa Vieira, Alessandro Formenton, Silvia Regina Bertolini
Objective: Identify factors related to the health system that lead to a late diagnosis of breast cancer in Brazil. Method: We performed a systematic review in the PubMed and LILACS databases using as keywords "Breast cancer," "system of health" and "Brazil or Brasil." We evaluated the content of the articles using the PRISMA methodology based on PICTOS. The final date was 12/16/2015. We were able to identify 94 publications in PubMed and 43 publications in LILACS...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723950/high-affinity-anti-tim-3-and-anti-kir-monoclonal-antibodies-cloned-from-healthy-human-individuals
#3
Stefan Ryser, Angeles Estellés, Edgar Tenorio, Lawrence M Kauvar, Mikhail L Gishizky
We report here the cloning of native high affinity anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy human donors. The cells that express these mAbs are rare, present at a frequency of less than one per 105 memory B-cells. Using our proprietary multiplexed screening and cloning technology CellSpot™ we assessed the presence of memory B-cells reactive to foreign and endogenous disease-associated antigens within the same individual. When comparing the frequencies of antigen-specific memory B-cells analyzed in over 20 screening campaigns, we found a strong correlation of the presence of anti-TIM-3 memory B-cells with memory B-cells expressing mAbs against three disease-associated antigens: (i) bacterial DNABII proteins that are a marker for Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial infections, (ii) hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus and (iii) the extracellular domain of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723893/in-vivo-crispr-screening-identifies-ptpn2-as-a-cancer-immunotherapy-target
#4
Robert T Manguso, Hans W Pope, Margaret D Zimmer, Flavian D Brown, Kathleen B Yates, Brian C Miller, Natalie B Collins, Kevin Bi, Martin W LaFleur, Vikram R Juneja, Sarah A Weiss, Jennifer Lo, David E Fisher, Diana Miao, Eliezer Van Allen, David E Root, Arlene H Sharpe, John G Doench, W Nicholas Haining
Immunotherapy with PD-1 checkpoint blockade is effective in only a minority of patients with cancer, suggesting that additional treatment strategies are needed. Here we use a pooled in vivo genetic screening approach using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing in transplantable tumours in mice treated with immunotherapy to discover previously undescribed immunotherapy targets. We tested 2,368 genes expressed by melanoma cells to identify those that synergize with or cause resistance to checkpoint blockade. We recovered the known immune evasion molecules PD-L1 and CD47, and confirmed that defects in interferon-γ signalling caused resistance to immunotherapy...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723868/screening-of-medicinal-plant-phytochemicals-as-natural-antagonists-of-p53-mdm2-interaction-to-reactivate-p53-functioning
#5
Muhammad Riaz, Usman A Ashfaq, Muhammad Qasim, Erum Yasmeen, Muhammad T Ul Qamar, Farooq Anwar
In most types of cancer, overexpression of murine double minute 2 (MDM2) often leads to inactivation of p53. The crystal structure of MDM2, with a 109-residue amino-terminal domain, reveals that MDM2 has a core hydrophobic region to which p53 binds as an amphipathic α helix. The interface depends on the steric complementarity between MDM2 and the hydrophobic region of p53. Especially, on p53's triad, amino acids Phe19, Trp23 and Leu26 bind to the MDM2 core. Results from studies suggest that the structural motif of both p53 and MDM2 can be attributed to similarities in the amphipathic α helix...
July 18, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723861/medicaid-and-uninsured-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-have-more-advanced-tumor-stage-and-are-less-likely-to-receive-treatment
#6
Jennifer Wang, John Ha, Aristeo Lopez, Taft Bhuket, Benny Liu, Robert J Wong
GOALS: To evaluate the impact of insurance status on tumor stage at diagnosis, treatment received, and overall survival among adults with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). BACKGROUND: Insurance status affects access to care, which impacts timely access to cancer screening for early detection and treatment. STUDY: Using the 2007 to 2012 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we retrospectively evaluated US adults with HCC...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723854/use-of-colorectal-cancer-screening-among-people-with-mobility-disability
#7
Miriam Gofine, Thelma J Mielenz, Sowmya Vasan, Benjamin Lebwohl
GOALS: We aimed to assess use of colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) as per United States Preventive Task Force guidelines among people with mobility disability using a nationally representative data set. BACKGROUND: Individuals with mobility disability have decreased access to health care services, but the impact of mobility disability on CRCS has not been investigated. STUDY: Data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey were used to estimate sociodemographic characteristics of adults with mobility disability, prevalence of CRCS, and odds of CRCS given mobility disability among Americans aged 50 to 75...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723806/the-serum-pepsinogen-levels-for-risk-assessment-of-gastric-neoplasms-new-proposal-from-a-case-control-study-in-korea
#8
Jun-Hyung Cho, Seong Ran Jeon, Hyun Gun Kim, So-Young Jin, Suyeon Park
To decrease the gastric cancer related mortality rate, endoscopic screening is widely performed in Korea. However, a precise method for identifying those at a high risk of gastric neoplasms has not been established. This study aims to evaluate serum pepsinogen (PG) levels for risk assessment of gastric neoplasms. Between August 2014 and March 2016, a total of 398 subjects, including 87 with gastric neoplasms, were enrolled in this study. On the basis of the serum PG I/II ratio, the enrolled subjects were classified into 4 groups: group A, PG I/II ratio >4; group B, >3 and ≤4; group C, >2 and ≤3; group D, ≤2...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723760/bioinformatics-analysis-to-identify-the-critical-genes-micrornas-and-long-noncoding-rnas-in-melanoma
#9
Qian Zhang, Yang Wang, Jiulong Liang, Yaguang Tian, Yu Zhang, Kai Tao
Melanoma, which is usually induced by ultraviolet light exposure and the following DNA damage, is the most dangerous skin cancer. The purpose of the present study was to screen key molecules involved in melanoma.Microarray data of E-MTAB-1862 were downloaded from the ArrayExpress database, which included 21 primary melanoma samples and 11 benign nevus samples. In addition, the RNASeq version 2 and microRNA (miRNA) sequencing data of cutaneous melanoma were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. After identifying the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using Limma package, enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis were performed separately for them using DAVID software and Cytoscape software...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723743/analysis-of-hpv-distribution-in-patients-with-cervical-precancerous-lesions-in-western-china
#10
Kemin Li, Rutie Yin, Qingli Li, Danqing Wang
Cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a dangerous disease, whose subtypes exhibit different distribution patterns in particular countries, regions, and races. In this study, the HPV distribution in patients with cervical precancerous lesions in Western China was investigated to assess a probability for prevention of cervical cancer and the clinical application of an HPV vaccine in China. The retrospective study of patients with different HPV subtypes and cervical precancerous lesions, who have undergone loop eelectrosurgical excision procedure, cold knife conization, or a total hysterectomy in our hospital from January 2016 to August 2016, was performed...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723723/sociodemographic-predictors-of-anal-cancer-screening-and-follow-up-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals
#11
Jessica S Wells, Marcia M Holstad, Deborah Watkins Bruner
BACKGROUND: Anal cancer in the United States is generally rare; however, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are 28 times more likely to be given a diagnosis of anal cancer than the general population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the rates and sociodemographic predictors of anal cancer screening and follow-up anoscopy in a sample of HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: Data for this study (n = 200) were derived from a retrospective chart review of randomly selected HIV-infected individuals...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723721/instrument-adaptation-modification-and-validation-for-cultural-beliefs-about-colorectal-cancer-screening-among-korean-americans
#12
Shin-Young Lee, Eunice E Lee, Frances Aranda
BACKGROUND: Studies on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among Korean Americans (KAs) lack culturally sensitive, reliable, and validated belief scales. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to adapt, modify, and validate instruments measuring cultural beliefs (physical space, health temporal orientation, personal control, colon cancer fatalism, and health fatalism) about CRC screening in KAs. METHODS: In phase I, instrument adaptation and modification (translation from English into Korean, individual interviews using cognitive interviewing, and expert reviews) were used to make existing cultural beliefs instruments culturally appropriate for KAs...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723715/novel-weight-based-dose-threshold-for-18f-naf-pet-ct-imaging-using-advanced-pet-ct-systems-a-potential-tool-for-reducing-radiation-burden
#13
Fahad Marafi, Abdulreda Esmail, Rashid Rasheed, Fareeda Alkandari, Sharjeel Usmani
BACKGROUND: Fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) PET/CT is an important tool for detecting and evaluating metastatic bone cancer. Besides traditional dose metrics, recent methods such as real-time dose mapping, dose calculation from DICOM information, and their relevance to entrance skin exposure are currently in use to reduce the radiation burden. In this study, we have analyzed the data of 1062 patients retrospectively to evaluate patterns of absorbed dose for institutional weight-based dose protocol as compared with fixed dose method guidelines of Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI)...
July 18, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723685/downregulation-of-macrophage-derived-t-ucr-uc-306-associates-with-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Hong-Lin Luo, Jie Chen, Tao Luo, Fei-Xiang Wu, Jun-Jie Liu, Hui-Feng Wang, Miao Chen, Le-Qun Li, Hang Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increasing evidence suggests that T-UCRs are involved in the development of cancer. In this study, we evaluated the role of a macrophage-derived T-UCR, uc.306, in the prognosis of hepatitis B (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The uc.306 was obtained by screening microassay data obtained during the polarization of U937 cells from the M2 to M1 phenotype. Uc.306 and macrophage molecule markers were detected by qPCR. Immunohistochemical (IHC) assays were used to examine the M1/M2 status of 90 paired HCC tissues...
July 19, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723467/human-papillomavirus-infection-and-vaccination-in-males
#15
REVIEW
Eugenio Ventimiglia, Simon Horenblas, Asif Muneer, Andrea Salonia
CONTEXT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest sexually transmitted pathogen in humans and is linked to the aetiopathogenesis for both benign and malignant disease in men. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and summarise the evidence for HPV infection and vaccination in men. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A search of Medline, PubMed, and Scopus was performed to identify articles published in English within the last 10 yr addressing HPV epidemiology, the natural history of HPV infection and its long-term consequences, and vaccination in men...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723151/fusion-of-structure-and-ligand-based-methods-for-identification-of-novel-cdk2-inhibitors
#16
Priya Mahajan, Gousia Chashoo, Monika Gupta, Amit Kumar, Parvinder Pal Singh, Amit Nargotra
Cyclin dependent kinases plays a central role in cell cycle regulation which makes them a promising target with multifarious therapeutic potential. CDK2 regulates various events of the eukaryotic cell division cycle and the pharmacological evidences indicated that over expression of CDK2 causes abnormal cell-cycle regulation, which was directly associated with hyper proliferation of cancer cells. Therefore, CDK2 is regarded as a potential target molecule for anti-cancer medication. Thus to decline CDK2 activity by potential lead compounds has proved to be an effective treatment for cancer...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722827/being-diagnosed-with-cancer-the-experiences-of-patients-with-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#17
Daren Chircop, Josianne Scerri
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of patients on receiving a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. BACKGROUND: Persons with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are often diagnosed with cancer when at an advanced stage. This may arise due to a lack of screening programs and delays in help seeking as the symptoms experienced are fairly non-specific in nature. Consequently, receiving an unexpected diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma may pose a psychosocial challenge to the individual...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722470/novel-potent-inhibitors-of-the-histone-demethylase-kdm1a-lsd1-orally-active-in-a-murine-promyelocitic-leukemia-model
#18
Paolo Trifirò, Anna Cappa, Silvia Brambillasca, Oronza A Botrugno, Maria Rosaria Cera, Roberto Dal Zuffo, Paola Dessanti, Giuseppe Meroni, Florian Thaler, Manuela Villa, Saverio Minucci, Ciro Mercurio, Mario Varasi, Paola Vianello
BACKGROUND: Histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) are well-recognized targets in oncology drug discovery. They function at the post-translation level controlling chromatin conformation and gene transcription. KDM1A is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent amine oxidase, overexpressed in several tumor types, including acute myeloid leukemia, neuroblastoma and non-small-cell lung cancer. Among the many known monoamine oxidase inhibitors screened for KDM1A inhibition, tranylcypromine emerged as a moderately active hit, which irreversibly binds to the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor...
July 19, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722466/assessing-the-generalizability-of-the-national-lung-screening-trial-comparison-of-stage-1-patients
#19
Nichole T Tanner, Lin Dai, Brett C Bade, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Gerard A Silvestri
RATIONALE: The findings of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) is the basis for screening high risk individuals based on age and smoking history. While screening is covered for eligible Medicare beneficiaries, the generalizability of the NLST in the elderly population has been questioned. OBJECTIVE: Compare outcomes of patients diagnosed with stage 1 non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) in the NLST to a nationally representative cohort of elderly patients Methods: Analysis of SEER-Medicare and NLST datasets for stage 1 patients ages 65-74 Measurements and Main Results: Lung cancer-specific mortality, all-cause mortality, and 30-60-90 day treatment mortality were measured...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722137/precise-and-arbitrary-deposition-of-biomolecules-onto-biomimetic-fibrous-matrices-for-spatially-controlled-cell-distribution-and-functions
#20
Chao Jia, Bowen Luo, Haoyu Wang, Yongqian Bian, Xueyong Li, Shaohua Li, Hongjun Wang
Advances in nano-/microfabrication allow the fabrication of biomimetic substrates for various biomedical applications. In particular, it would be beneficial to control the distribution of cells and relevant biomolecules on an extracellular matrix (ECM)-like substrate with arbitrary micropatterns. In this regard, the possibilities of patterning biomolecules and cells on nanofibrous matrices are explored here by combining inkjet printing and electrospinning. Upon investigation of key parameters for patterning accuracy and reproducibility, three independent studies are performed to demonstrate the potential of this platform for: i) transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced spatial differentiation of fibroblasts, ii) spatiotemporal interactions between breast cancer cells and stromal cells, and iii) cancer-regulated angiogenesis...
July 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
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