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V Z Nezametdinova, D A Mavletova, M G Alekseeva, M S Chekalina, N V Zakharevich, V N Danilenko
The objective of this study was to determine for phosphorylated substrates of the species-specific serine-threonine protein kinase (STPK) Pkb2 from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum GT15. Two approaches were employed: analyses of phosphorylated membrane vesicles protein spectra following kinase reactions and analyses of the genes surrounding pkb2. A bioinformatics analysis of the genes surrounding pkb2 found a species-specific gene cluster PFNA in the genomes of 34 different bifidobacterial species. The identified cluster consisted of 5-8 genes depending on the species...
March 10, 2018: Anaerobe
B Lan, S Chai, P Wang, K Wang
VCP/p97/Cdc48, a member of the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA) family, is necessary for the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway to maintain protein homeostasis. Overwhelming proteotoxic stress drove cancer cells to enhance VCP/p97/Cdc48-associated ERAD to maintain protein homeostasis for survival, demonstrating that VCP/p97/Cdc48 expression was positively correlated with cancer prognosis. More studies revealed that targeting VCP/p97/Cdc48 could be a potential target in cancer therapy...
March 7, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
Wei Sun, Xiabin Lan, Hao Zhang, Zhihong Wang, Wenwu Dong, Liang He, Ting Zhang, Ping Zhang, Jinhao Liu, Yuan Qin
Nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1), a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), is a core structural component of paraspeckles and is essential for paraspeckle formation. NEAT1 comprises two different isoforms: NEAT1_1 (3.7 kb) and NEAT1_2 (23 kb). Recently, NEAT1 has been shown to have oncogenic roles and to facilitate tumorigenesis in various human cancers. However, the function of NEAT1 in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is not well understood. The relative expression levels of NEAT1_2, ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 2 (ATAD2), and microRNA-106b-5p (miR-106b-5p) were assessed via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Edmond Y Huang, Milton To, Erica Tran, Lorraine T Ador Dionisio, Hyejin J Cho, Katherine L M Baney, Camille I Pataki, James A Olzmann
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) mediates the proteasomal clearance of proteins from the early secretory pathway. In this process, ubiquitinated substrates are extracted from membrane-embedded dislocation complexes by the AAA ATPase VCP and targeted to the cytosolic 26S proteasome. In addition to its well-established role in the degradation of misfolded proteins, ERAD also regulates the abundance of key proteins such as enzymes involved in cholesterol synthesis. However, due to the lack of generalizable methods, our understanding of the scope of proteins targeted by ERAD remains limited...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Gautam Pareek, Ruth E Thomas, Leo J Pallanck
The progressive accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria is implicated in aging and in common diseases of the elderly. To oppose this occurrence, organisms employ a variety of strategies, including the selective degradation of oxidatively damaged and misfolded mitochondrial proteins. Genetic studies in yeast indicate that the ATPase Associated with diverse cellular Activities (AAA+ ) family of mitochondrial proteases account for a substantial fraction of this protein degradation, but their metazoan counterparts have been little studied, despite the fact that mutations in the genes encoding these proteases cause a variety of human diseases...
February 21, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Carolyn Ott, Dikla Nachmias, Shai Adar, Michal Jarnik, Shachar Sherman, Ramon Y Birnbaum, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Natalie Elia
The hexameric AAA ATPase VPS4 facilitates ESCRT III filament disassembly on diverse intracellular membranes. ESCRT III components and VPS4 have been localized to the ciliary transition zone and spindle poles and reported to affect centrosome duplication and spindle pole stability. How the canonical ESCRT pathway could mediate these events is unclear. We studied the association of VPS4 with centrosomes and found that GFP-VPS4 was a dynamic component of both mother and daughter centrioles. A mutant, VPS4EQ , which can't hydrolyze ATP, was less dynamic and accumulated at centrosomes...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yogitha Thattikota, Sylvain Tollis, Roger Palou, Justine Vinet, Mike Tyers, Damien D'Amours
The morphological transformation of amorphous chromatin into distinct chromosomes is a hallmark of mitosis. To achieve this, chromatin must be compacted and remodeled by a ring-shaped enzyme complex known as condensin. However, the mechanistic basis underpinning condensin's role in chromosome remodeling has remained elusive. Here we show that condensin has a strong tendency to trap itself in its own reaction product during chromatin compaction and yet is capable of interacting with chromatin in a highly dynamic manner in vivo...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
Simon Staubach, Andrea Wenzel, Bodo B Beck, Markus M Rinschen, Stefan Müller, Franz-Georg Hanisch
Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease associated to the MUC1 gene (ADTKD-MUC1; formerly MCKD1) belongs to a heterogenous group of rare hereditary kidney diseases that is prototypically caused by frameshift mutations in the MUC1 repeat domain. The mutant MUC1(insC) lacks the transmembrane domaine, exhibits aberant cellular topology and hence might gain a function during the pathological process. To get insight into potential pathomechanisms we performed differential proteomics of extracellular vesicles shed by renal epithelia into the urine of patients...
February 13, 2018: Proteomics
Hoi Tang Ma, Randy Y C Poon
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) prevents premature segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. This process requires structural remodeling of MAD2 from O-MAD2 to C-MAD2 conformation. After the checkpoint is satisfied, C-MAD2 is reverted to O-MAD2 to allow anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) to trigger anaphase. Recently, the AAA+-ATPase TRIP13 was shown to act in concert with p31comet to catalyze C- to O-MAD2. Paradoxically, although C-MAD2 is present in TRIP13-deficient cells, the SAC cannot be activated...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Juliette Piard, George K Essien Umanah, Frederike L Harms, Leire Abalde-Atristain, Daniel Amram, Melissa Chang, Rong Chen, Malik Alawi, Vincenzo Salpietro, Mark I Rees, Seo-Kyung Chung, Henry Houlden, Alain Verloes, Ted M Dawson, Valina L Dawson, Lionel Van Maldergem, Kerstin Kutsche
Members of the AAA+ superfamily of ATPases are involved in the unfolding of proteins and disassembly of protein complexes and aggregates. ATAD1 encoding the ATPase family, AAA+ domain containing 1-protein Thorase plays an important role in the function and integrity of mitochondria and peroxisomes. Postsynaptically, Thorase controls the internalization of excitatory, glutamatergic AMPA receptors by disassembling complexes between the AMPA receptor-binding protein, GRIP1, and the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2...
January 30, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Xingya Xu, Li Wang, Mitsuhiro Yanagida
Suppressor screening is a powerful method to identify genes that when mutated, rescue the temperature sensitivity of the original mutation. Previously, however, identification of suppressor mutations has been technically difficult. Due to the small genome size of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we developed a spontaneous suppressor screening technique, followed by a cost-effective sequencing method. Genomic DNAs of 10 revertants which survived at the restrictive temperature of the original temperature sensitive (ts) mutant were mixed together as one sample before constructing a library for sequencing...
January 19, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Sonya Neal, Philipp A Jaeger, Sascha H Duttke, Christopher K Benner, Christopher Glass, Trey Ideker, Randolph Hampton
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) removes misfolded proteins from the ER membrane and lumen by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Retrotranslocation of ubiquitinated substrates to the cytosol is a universal feature of ERAD that requires the Cdc48 AAA-ATPase. Despite intense efforts, the mechanism of ER exit, particularly for integral membrane (ERAD-M) substrates, has remained unclear. Using a self-ubiquitinating substrate (SUS), which undergoes normal retrotranslocation independently of known ERAD factors, and the new SPOCK (single plate orf compendium kit) micro-library to query all yeast genes, we found the rhomboid derlin Dfm1 was required for retrotranslocation of both HRD and DOA ERAD pathway integral membrane substrates...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Cell
Brooke M Gardner, Dominic T Castanzo, Saikat Chowdhury, Goran Stjepanovic, Matthew S Stefely, James H Hurley, Gabriel C Lander, Andreas Martin
Pex1 and Pex6 form a heterohexameric motor essential for peroxisome biogenesis and function, and mutations in these AAA-ATPases cause most peroxisome-biogenesis disorders in humans. The tail-anchored protein Pex15 recruits Pex1/Pex6 to the peroxisomal membrane, where it performs an unknown function required for matrix-protein import. Here we determine that Pex1/Pex6 from S. cerevisiae is a protein translocase that unfolds Pex15 in a pore-loop-dependent and ATP-hydrolysis-dependent manner. Our structural studies of Pex15 in isolation and in complex with Pex1/Pex6 illustrate that Pex15 binds the N-terminal domains of Pex6, before its C-terminal disordered region engages with the pore loops of the motor, which then processively threads Pex15 through the central pore...
January 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Xuewen Xu, Jing Ji, Qiang Xu, Xiaohua Qi, Yiqun Weng, Xuehao Chen
In plants, the formation of hypocotyl-derived adventitious roots (AR) is an important morphological acclimation to waterlogging stress; however, its genetic basis remains fragmentary. Here, through combined use of bulked segregant analysis-based whole genome sequencing, SNP haplotyping and fine genetic mapping, we identified a candidate gene for a major-effect QTL ARN6.1 that was responsible for waterlogging tolerance due to increased AR formation in the cucumber line Zaoer-N. Through multiple lines of evidence, we show that the CsARN6...
January 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Evi Goulielmaki, Sofia Kaforou, Kannan Venugopal, Thanasis G Loukeris, Inga Siden-Kiamos, Konstantinos Koussis
In an effort to eradicate malaria, new interventions are proposed to include compound/vaccine development against pre-erythrocytic, erythrocytic and mosquito stages of Plasmodium. Drug repurposing might be an alternative approach to new antimalarials reducing the cost and the time required for drug development. Previous in vitro studies have examined the effects of protease inhibitors on different stages of the Plasmodium parasite, although the clinical relevance of this remains unclear. In this study we tested the putative effect of three HIV protease inhibitors, two general aspartyl protease inhibitors and three AAA-p97 ATPase inhibitors on the zygote to ookinete transition of the Plasmodium parasite...
January 3, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Dongying Chen, Xiaohan Yuan, Lijie Liu, Minghui Zhang, Bo Qu, Zhen Zhen, Xuejun Gao
ATPase family AAA-domain containing protein 3A (ATAD3A) is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial membrane protein, which is essential for cell growth and metabolism. The mechanism by which ATAD3A acts is still not fully understood. In this study, we explored the regulatory role of ATAD3A on milk biosynthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cell. We showed that ATAD3A is localized in mitochondria and the expression of ATAD3A was up-regulated in response to extracellular stimuli such as amino acids and hormones...
December 29, 2017: Cell Biology International
Guoxiang Jin, Chuan Xu, Xian Zhang, Jie Long, Abdol Hossein Rezaeian, Chunfang Liu, Mark E Furth, Steven Kridel, Boris Pasche, Xiu-Wu Bian, Hui-Kuan Lin
Although deletion of certain autophagy-related genes has been associated with defects in hematopoiesis, it remains unclear whether hyperactivated mitophagy affects the maintenance and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and committed progenitor cells. Here we report that targeted deletion of the gene encoding the AAA+-ATPase Atad3a hyperactivated mitophagy in mouse hematopoietic cells. Affected mice showed reduced survival, severely decreased bone-marrow cellularity, erythroid anemia and B cell lymphopenia...
January 2018: Nature Immunology
Wai Kwan Tang, Ting Zhang, Yihong Ye, Di Xia
Association of the cytosolic AAA (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) protein p97 to membranes is essential for various cellular processes including endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation. The p97 consists of two ATPase domains and an N domain that interacts with numerous cofactors. The N domain of p97 is known to undergo a large nucleotide-dependent conformation switch, but its physiological relevance is unclear. Here we show p97 is recruited to canine ER membranes predominantly by interacting with VCP-interacting membrane protein (VIMP), an ER-resident protein...
2017: Cell Discovery
George K E Umanah, Marco Pignatelli, Xiling Yin, Rong Chen, Joshua Crawford, Stewart Neifert, Leslie Scarffe, Adam A Behensky, Noah Guiberson, Melissa Chang, Erica Ma, Jin Wan Kim, Cibele C Castro, Xiaobo Mao, Li Chen, Shaida A Andrabi, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Ann E Pulver, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Antonello Bonci, David Valle, Ted M Dawson, Valina L Dawson
The AAA+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) Thorase plays a critical role in controlling synaptic plasticity by regulating the expression of surface α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs). Bidirectional sequencing of exons of ATAD1, the gene encoding Thorase, in a cohort of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls revealed rare Thorase variants. These variants caused defects in glutamatergic signaling by impairing AMPAR internalization and recycling in mouse primary cortical neurons...
December 13, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
Yusuke Kato, Takuya Miyakawa, Masaru Tanokura
In the last two decades, a wealth of structural and functional knowledge has been obtained for the three major cytoskeletal motor proteins, myosin, kinesin and dynein, which we review here. The cytoskeletal motor proteins myosin and kinesin are structurally similar in the core architecture of their motor domains and have similar force-producing mechanisms that are coupled with the chemical cycles of ATP binding, hydrolysis, Pi release and subsequent ADP release. The force is generated through conformational changes in the motor domain during Pi release and ATP binding in myosin and kinesin, respectively, and then converted into the rotation of the lever arm or neck linker (referred to as a power stroke) through the common structural pathways...
December 12, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
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