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Cytokinesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436952/playing-polo-during-mitosis-plk1-takes-the-lead
#1
REVIEW
G Combes, I Alharbi, L G Braga, S Elowe
Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), the prototypical member of the polo-like family of serine/threonine kinases, is a pivotal regulator of mitosis and cytokinesis in eukaryotes. Many layers of regulation have evolved to target PLK1 to different subcellular structures and to its various mitotic substrates in line with its numerous functions during mitosis. Collective work is starting to illuminate an important set of substrates for PLK1: the mitotic kinases that together ensure the fidelity of the cell division process...
April 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436947/dedifferentiation-into-blastomere-like-cancer-stem-cells-via-formation-of-polyploid-giant-cancer-cells
#2
N Niu, I Mercado-Uribe, J Liu
Our recent perplexing findings that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) acquired embryonic-like stemness and were capable of tumor initiation raised two important unanswered questions: how do PGCCs acquire such stemness, and to which stage of normal development do PGCCs correspond. Intriguingly, formation of giant cells due to failed mitosis/cytokinesis is common in the blastomere stage of the preimplantation embryo. However, the relationship between PGCCs and giant blastomeres has never been studied. Here, we tracked the fate of single PGCCs following paclitaxel-induced mitotic failure...
April 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432453/the-influence-of-oxo-bridged-binuclear-gold-iii-complexes-on-na-k-atpase-activity-a-joint-experimental-and-theoretical-approach
#3
Aleksandra M Bondžić, Mirjana B Čolović, Goran V Janjić, Božidarka Zarić, Sandra Petrović, Danijela Z Krstić, Tiziano Marzo, Luigi Messori, Vesna M Vasić
The in vitro effects of oxo-bridged binuclear gold(III) complexes, i.e., [(bipy2Me)2Au2(μ-O)2][PF6]2 (Auoxo6), Au2[(bipydmb-H)2(μ-O)][PF6] (Au2bipyC) and [Au2(phen(2Me))2(μ-O)2](PF6)2 (Au2phen) on Na/K-ATPase, purified from the porcine cerebral cortex, were investigated. All three studied gold complexes inhibited the enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent manner achieving IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Kinetic analysis suggested an uncompetitive mode of inhibition for Auoxo6 and Au2bipyC, and a mixed type one for Au2phen...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431155/motoring-through-the-role-of-kinesin-superfamily-proteins-in-female-meiosis
#4
Nicole J Camlin, Eileen A McLaughlin, Janet E Holt
BACKGROUND: The kinesin motor protein family consists of 14 distinct subclasses and 45 kinesin proteins in humans. A large number of these proteins, or their orthologues, have been shown to possess essential function(s) in both the mitotic and the meiotic cell cycle. Kinesins have important roles in chromosome separation, microtubule dynamics, spindle formation, cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. This article contains a review of the literature with respect to the role of kinesin motor proteins in female meiosis in model species...
April 18, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430827/dual-role-of-the-toxoplasma-gondii-clathrin-adaptor-ap1-in-the-sorting-of-rhoptry-and-microneme-proteins-and-in-parasite-division
#5
Kannan Venugopal, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Nicolas Barois, Jean-Michel Saliou, Anais Poncet, Ludovic Huot, Fabien Sindikubwabo, Mohamed Ali Hakimi, Gordon Langsley, Frank Lafont, Sabrina Marion
Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL)...
April 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430635/unsuccessful-mitosis-in-multicellular-tumour-spheroids
#6
Annie Molla, Morgane Couvet, Jean-Luc Coll
Multicellular spheroids are very attractive models in oncology because they mimic the 3D organization of the tumour cells with their microenvironment. We show here using 3 different cell types (mammary TSA/pc, embryonic kidney Hek293 and cervical cancer HeLa), that when the cells are growing as spheroids the frequency of binucleated cells is augmented as occurs in some human tumours.We therefore describe mitosis in multicellular spheroids by following mitotic markers and by time-lapse experiments. Chromosomes alignment appears to be correct on the metaphasic plate and the passenger complex is well localized on centromere...
February 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429652/atypical-regulators-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Jianxiang Chen, Muthukumar Rajasekaran, Kam M Hui
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma development depends on the inhibition and activation of multiple vital pathways, including the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway lies at the center of various signaling pathways that regulate embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and cancers. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been observed frequently in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, activating mutations in β-catenin, Axin and Adenomatous Polyposis Coli only contribute to a portion of the Wnt signaling hyper-activation observed in hepatocellular carcinoma...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428954/uncovering-the-roles-of-septins-in-cilia
#8
REVIEW
Oliva Palander, Maha El-Zeiry, William S Trimble
Septins are a family of GTP-binding proteins that associate with cellular membranes and the cytoskeleton. Their ability to polymerize into filamentous structures permits them to serve as diffusion barriers for membrane proteins and as multi-molecular scaffolds that recruit components of signaling pathways. At the cellular level, septins contribute to the regulation of numerous processes, including cytokinesis, cell polarity, cell migration, and many others. In this review, we discuss emerging evidence for roles of mammalian septins in the biogenesis and function of flagella and cilia, and how this may impact human diseases such as ciliopathies...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426272/temperature-dependent-regulation-of-rdna-condensation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Donglai Shen, Robert V Skibbens
Chromatin condensation during mitosis produces detangled and discrete DNA entities required for high fidelity sister chromatid segregation during mitosis and positions DNA away from the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Regional condensation during G1 also establishes a nuclear architecture through which gene transcription is regulated but remains plastic so that cells can respond to changes in nutrient levels, temperature and signaling molecules. To date, however, the potential impact of this plasticity on mitotic chromosome condensation remains unknown...
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424461/a-lack-of-coordination-between-sister-chromatids-segregation-and-cytokinesis-in-the-oocytes-of-b6-y-tir-xy-sex-reversed-female-mice
#10
Jia-Qiao Zhu, Seang Lin Tan, Teruko Taketo
The B6.Y(TIR) (XY) mouse develops bilateral ovaries despite the expression of the testis-determining gene Sry during gonadal differentiation. We reported that the oocytes of the XY female are defective in their cytoplasm, resulting in a failure in the second meiotic division after activation or fertilization in vitro. However, the mechanism of meiotic failure or the cause of infertility remained to be clarified. In the present study, we obtained mature oocytes from XY females by superovulation and confirmed that these oocytes also fail in zygotic development...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420479/andrographolide-disrupts-meiotic-maturation-by-blocking-cytoskeletal-reorganisation-and-decreases-the-fertilisation-potential-of-mouse-oocytes
#11
Hong-Xing Liang, Sheng-Sheng Lu, Zheng Yan, Yan-Ping Kuang, Xiang-Xing Zhu, Zhi-Guang Yan, Tong Du, Wei-Ran Chai, Hui Long, Qi-Feng Lyu
Andrographolide (AG) is a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the stem and leaves of Andrographis paniculata Nees that is used for the effective treatment of infectious diseases in Asian countries. Previous studies have reported adverse effects of AG on female fertility in rodents; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of AG on the IVM of mouse oocytes and their fertilisation potential. Immature oocytes incubated for 6, 14 or 24h in medium containing 5, 10 or 20μM AG showed time- and dose-dependent decreases in maturation rates compared with the control group...
April 19, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419521/cytokinetic-abscission-phosphoinositides-and-escrts-direct-the-final-cut
#12
Federico Gulluni, Miriam Martini, Emilio Hirsch
Cytokinetic abscission involves the fine and regulated recruitment of membrane remodeling proteins that participate in the abscission of the intracellular bridge that connects the two dividing cells. This essential process is mediated by the concomitant activity of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) and the vesicular trafficking directed to the midbody. Phosphoinositides (PtdIns), produced at plasma membrane and endosomes, act as molecular intermediates by recruiting effector proteins involved in multiple cellular processes, such as intracellular signalling, endo- and exo-cytosis and membrane remodelling events...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417908/cytokinesis-failure-leading-to-chromosome-instability-in-v-src-induced-oncogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Yuji Nakayama, Shuhei Soeda, Masayoshi Ikeuchi, Keiko Kakae, Naoto Yamaguchi
v-Src, an oncogene found in Rous sarcoma virus, is a constitutively active variant of c-Src. Activation of Src is observed frequently in colorectal and breast cancers, and is critical in tumor progression through multiple processes. However, in some experimental conditions, v-Src causes growth suppression and apoptosis. In this review, we highlight recent progress in our understanding of cytokinesis failure and the attenuation of the tetraploidy checkpoint in v-Src-expressing cells. v-Src induces cell cycle changes-such as the accumulation of the 4N cell population-and increases the number of binucleated cells, which is accompanied by an excess number of centrosomes...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415805/regulatory-functional-territory-of-plk-1-and-their-substrates-beyond-mitosis
#14
REVIEW
Shiv Kumar, Garima Sharma, Chiranjib Chakraborty, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Jaebong Kim
Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) is a well-known (Ser/Thr) mitotic protein kinase and is considered as a proto-oncogene. As hyper-activation of PLK-1 is broadly associated with poor prognosis and cancer progression, it is one of the most extensively studied mitotic kinases. During mitosis, PLK-1 regulates various cell cycle events, such as spindle pole maturation, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. However, studies have demonstrated that the role of PLK-1 is not only restricted to mitosis, but PLK-1 can also regulate other vital events beyond mitosis, including transcription, translation, ciliogenesis, checkpoint adaptation and recovery, apoptosis, chromosomes dynamics etc...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413159/the-hippo-pathway-maintains-the-equatorial-division-plane-in-the-ciliate-tetrahymena
#15
Yu-Yang Jiang, Wolfgang Maier, Ralf Baumeister, Gregory Minevich, Ewa Joachimiak, Zheng Ruan, Natarajan Kannan, Diamond Clarke, Joseph Frankel, Jacek Gaertig
The mechanisms that govern pattern formation within the cell are poorly understood. Ciliates carry on their surface an elaborate pattern of cortical organelles that are arranged along the anteroposterior and circumferential axes by largely unknown mechanisms. Ciliates divide by tandem duplication: the cortex of the pre-division cell is remodeled into two similarly-sized and complete daughters. In the conditional cdaI-1 mutant of Tetrahymena thermophile, the division plane migrates from its initially correct equatorial position toward the cell's anterior, resulting in unequal cell division, and defects in nuclear divisions and cytokinesis...
April 16, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409308/asymmetries-in-cell-division-cell-size-and-furrowing-in-the-xenopus-laevis-embryo
#16
Jean-Pierre Tassan, Martin Wühr, Guillaume Hatte, Jacek Kubiak
Asymmetric cell divisions produce two daughter cells with distinct fate. During embryogenesis, this mechanism is fundamental to build tissues and organs because it generates cell diversity. In adults, it remains crucial to maintain stem cells. The enthusiasm for asymmetric cell division is not only motivated by the beauty of the mechanism and the fundamental questions it raises, but has also very pragmatic reasons. Indeed, misregulation of asymmetric cell divisions is believed to have dramatic consequences potentially leading to pathogenesis such as cancers...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409304/the-midbody-and-its-remnant-in-cell-polarization-and-asymmetric-cell-division
#17
Christian Pohl
The midbody is a protein-dense assembly that forms during cytokinesis when the actomyosin ring constricts around bundling central spindle microtubules. After its initial description by Walther Flemming in the late nineteenth century and its rediscovery through electron microscopy in the 1960s and 1970s, its ultrastructural organization and the sequential recruitment of its molecular constituents has only been elucidated in the past decade. Recently, it has become clear that the midbody can serve as a polarity cue during asymmetric cell division, cell polarization, and spindle orientation by coordinating cytoskeletal organization, vesicular transport, and localized cortical cues...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400443/plastin-increases-cortical-connectivity-to-facilitate-robust-polarization-and-timely-cytokinesis
#18
Wei Yung Ding, Hui Ting Ong, Yusuke Hara, Jantana Wongsantichon, Yusuke Toyama, Robert C Robinson, François Nédélec, Ronen Zaidel-Bar
The cell cortex is essential to maintain animal cell shape, and contractile forces generated within it by nonmuscle myosin II (NMY-2) drive cellular morphogenetic processes such as cytokinesis. The role of actin cross-linking proteins in cortical dynamics is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that the evolutionarily conserved actin bundling/cross-linking protein plastin is instrumental for the generation of potent cortical actomyosin contractility in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote. PLST-1 was enriched in contractile structures and was required for effective coalescence of NMY-2 filaments into large contractile foci and for long-range coordinated contractility in the cortex...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400286/increased-oxidative-stress-and-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay-parameters-in-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and-gestational-arterial-hypertension
#19
Mina Toljic, Amira Egic, Jelena Munjas, Natasa Karadzov Orlic, Zagorka Milovanovic, Aleksandra Radenkovic, Jovana Vuceljic, Ivana Joksic
We investigated whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational arterial hypertension (GH) are associated with increased oxidative stress and DNA damage. Study included 3 groups of pregnant women (GDM, GH and control). DNA damage biomarkers (micronuclei MNi, nucleoplasmic bridges NPBs and nuclear buds NBUDs) were assessed by cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Oxidative stress levels were evaluated by analyzing malondialdehyde equivalents (TBARS) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)...
April 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397275/the-physcomitrella-patens-exocyst-subunit-exo70-3d-has-distinct-roles-in-growth-and-development-and-is-essential-for-completion-of-the-moss-life-cycle
#20
Anamika Rawat, Lucie Brejšková, Michal Hála, Fatima Cvrčková, Viktor Žárský
The exocyst, an evolutionarily conserved secretory vesicle-tethering complex, spatially controls exocytosis and membrane turnover in fungi, metazoans and plants. The exocyst subunit EXO70 exists in multiple paralogs in land plants, forming three conserved clades with assumed distinct roles. Here we report functional analysis of the first moss exocyst subunit to be studied, Physcomitrella patens PpEXO70.3d (Pp1s97_91V6), from the, as yet, poorly characterized EXO70.3 clade. Following phylogenetic analysis to confirm the presence of three ancestral land plant EXO70 clades outside angiosperms, we prepared and phenotypically characterized loss-of-function Ppexo70...
April 11, 2017: New Phytologist
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