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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724165/cytogenotoxicity-of-inclusion-complexes-of-diazepam-with-2-hydroxypropyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin
#1
Jasmina Hadžiabdić, Nevenka Kopjar, Davor Želježić, Selma Špirtović-Halilović, Davorka Završnik
Background Diazepam, as one of the most frequent prescribed drug from 1,4-benzodiazepine group, has certain limitations in pharmaceutical technology due to its poor solubility in water. By forming inclusion complexes with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, diazepam's biopharmaceutical properties can be greatly improved. Aim Aim of this research was to in vitro evaluate genotoxicity of prepared novel complexes of diazepam and their influence on proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods For identification of possible genotoxicity of diazepam inclusion complexes, cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay has been chosen...
July 19, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716822/dock2-deficiency-mitigates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-by-reducing-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-increasing-energy-expenditure
#2
Xia Guo, Feifei Li, Zaiyan Xu, Amelia Yin, Hang Yin, Chenxiao Li, Shi-You Chen
Obesity is the major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and many other diseases. Adipose tissue inflammation is frequently associated with obesity and contributes to the morbidity and mortality. Dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2) is involved in several inflammatory diseases, but its role in obesity remain unknown. To explore the function of DOCK2 in obesity and insulin resistance, wild-type (WT) and DOCK2 deficient (DOCK2-/-) mice were given chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks followed by metabolic, biochemical and histologic analyses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714471/progression-through-mitosis-promotes-parp-inhibitor-induced-cytotoxicity-in-homologous-recombination-deficient-cancer-cells
#3
Pepijn M Schoonen, Francien Talens, Colin Stok, Ewa Gogola, Anne Margriet Heijink, Peter Bouwman, Floris Foijer, Madalena Tarsounas, Sohvi Blatter, Jos Jonkers, Sven Rottenberg, Marcel A T M van Vugt
Mutations in homologous recombination (HR) genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to tumorigenesis. HR-deficient cancers are hypersensitive to Poly (ADP ribose)-polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, but can acquire resistance and relapse. Mechanistic understanding how PARP inhibition induces cytotoxicity in HR-deficient cancer cells is incomplete. Here we find PARP inhibition to compromise replication fork stability in HR-deficient cancer cells, leading to mitotic DNA damage and consequent chromatin bridges and lagging chromosomes in anaphase, frequently leading to cytokinesis failure, multinucleation and cell death...
July 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711459/influence-of-the-bud-neck-on-nuclear-envelope-fission-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#4
Patricia G Melloy, Mark D Rose
Studies have shown that nuclear envelope fission (karyokinesis) in budding yeast depends on cytokinesis, but not distinguished whether this was a direct requirement, indirect, because of cell cycle arrest, or due to bud neck-localized proteins impacting both processes. To determine the requirements for karyokinesis, we examined mutants conditionally defective for bud emergence and/or nuclear migration. The common mutant phenotype was completion of the nuclear division cycle within the mother cell, but karyokinesis did not occur...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708841/nlpd-links-cell-wall-remodeling-and-outer-membrane-invagination-during-cytokinesis-in-escherichia-coli
#5
Mary-Jane Tsang, Anastasiya A Yakhnina, Thomas G Bernhardt
Cytokinesis in gram-negative bacteria requires the constriction of all three cell envelope layers: the inner membrane (IM), the peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall and the outer membrane (OM). In order to avoid potentially lethal breaches in cell integrity, this dramatic reshaping of the cell surface requires tight coordination of the different envelope remodeling activities of the cytokinetic ring. However, the mechanisms responsible for this coordination remain poorly defined. One of the few characterized regulatory points in the envelope remodeling process is the activation of cell wall hydrolytic enzymes called amidases...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708292/fhod1-regulates-cytoplasmic-actin-based-spindle-migration-for-mouse-oocyte-asymmetric-cell-division
#6
Meng-Hao Pan, Fei Wang, Yujie Lu, Feng Tang, Xing Duan, Yu Zhang, Bo Xiong, Shao-Chen Sun
FHOD1 is a member of Diaphanous related formins (DRFs) which belongs to the Formin family. Previous studies have shown that the DFRs might affect several cellular functions such as morphogenesis, cytokinesis, cell polarity and embryonic differentiation. However, there is no evidence showing the functions of FHOD1 during oocyte meiosis. This study is aimed at exploring the roles of FHOD1 during the mammalian oocyte maturation. Immunofluorescent staining showed that FHOD1 was restricted to the nucleus in germinal vesicle (GV) stage of the oocytes, after the GV breakdown FHOD1 was primarily located at two poles of the spindle at both metaphase I and metaphase II stages...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706219/high-temperature-induced-production-of-unreduced-pollen-and-its-cytological-effects-in-populus
#7
Jun Wang, Daili Li, Fengnan Shang, Xiangyang Kang
Temperature change is of potential to trigger the formation of unreduced gametes. In this study, we showed that short periods of high temperature treatment can induce the production of 2n pollen in Populus pseudo-simonii Kitag. The meiotic stage, duration of treatment, and temperature have significant effects on the induction of 2n pollen. Heat stress resulted in meiotic abnormalities, including failure of chromosome separation, chromosome stickiness, laggards and micronuclei. Spindle disorientations in the second meiotic division, such as parallel, fused, and tripolar spindles, either increased in frequency or were induced de novo by high temperature treatment...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701658/drosophila-dock-family-protein-zizimin-involves-in-pigment-cell-differentiation-in-pupal-retinae
#8
Fumito Ozasa, Kazushige Morishita, Ngoc Anh Suong Dang, Seiji Miyata, Hideki Yoshida, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
The dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family proteins are known as one of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), that contribute to cellular signaling processes by activating small G proteins. Although mammalian Zizimin is known to be a GEF for Cdc42 of Rho family small GTPase, its role in vivo is not well understood. Here we studied in vivo function of Drosophila Zizimin (Ziz). Knockdown of Ziz in eye imaginal discs induced the rough eye phenotype accompanied with fusion of ommatidia, loss of bristles and loss of pigments...
July 13, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701343/let-99-functions-in-the-astral-furrowing-pathway-where-it-is-required-for-myosin-enrichment-in-the-contractile-ring
#9
Kari L Price, Lesilee S Rose
The anaphase spindle determines the position of the cytokinesis furrow, such that the contractile ring assembles in an equatorial zone between the two spindle poles. Contractile ring formation is mediated by RhoA activation at the equator by the centralspindlin complex and midzone microtubules. Astral microtubules also inhibit RhoA accumulation at the poles. In the C. elegans one-cell embryo, the astral microtubule dependent pathway requires anillin, NOP-1 and LET-99. LET-99 is well characterized for generating the asymmetric cortical localization of the Gα-dependent force-generating complex that positions the spindle during asymmetric division...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698371/deletion-of-gas2l3-in-mice-leads-to-specific-defects-in-cardiomyocyte-cytokinesis-during-development
#10
Sabine Stopp, Marco Gründl, Marc Fackler, Jonas Malkmus, Marina Leone, Ronald Naumann, Stefan Frantz, Elmar Wolf, Björn von Eyss, Felix B Engel, Stefan Gaubatz
GAS2L3 is a recently identified cytoskeleton-associated protein that interacts with actin filaments and tubulin. The in vivo function of GAS2L3 in mammals remains unknown. Here, we show that mice deficient in GAS2L3 die shortly after birth because of heart failure. Mammalian cardiomyocytes lose the ability to proliferate shortly after birth, and further increase in cardiac mass is achieved by hypertrophy. The proliferation arrest of cardiomyocytes is accompanied by binucleation through incomplete cytokinesis...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696482/cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-stilbene-derivatives-in-cho-k1-and-hepg2-cell-lines
#11
Cassia Suemi Mizuno, Winnifred Ampomaah, Fernanda Ribeiro Mendonça, Gabriela Carvalho Andrade, Ariel Maria Nazaré da Silva, Mirian Oliveira Goulart, Raquel Alves Dos Santos
The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the stilbenes (E)-methyl-4-(3-5-dimethoxystyryl)benzoate (ester), (E)-4-(3-5-dimethoxystyryl)aniline (amino), (Z)-1,3-dimethoxy-5-(4-methoxystyryl)benzene (cis-TMS) and (E)-1,3-dimethoxy-5-(4-methoxystyryl)benzene (trans-TMS) were investigated in this work. Structural modifications of resveratrol, a naturally occurring stilbene, have been previously performed, including the replacement of hydroxyl by different functional groups. Such modifications resulted in significant improvement of target-specific effects on cell death and antiproliferative responses...
July 10, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687623/nonmuscle-myosin-ii-b-regulates-epicardial-integrity-and-epicardial-derived-mesenchymal-cell-maturation
#12
Xuefei Ma, Derek C Sung, Yanqin Yang, Yoshi Wakabayashi, Robert S Adelstein
Nonmuscle myosin II-B (NMII-B) is essential for cardiac myocyte cytokinesis. The role of NMII-B in other cardiac cells is not known. Here we show that NMII-B is required in epicardial formation and function to support myocardial proliferation and coronary vessel development. Ablation of NMII-B in epicardial cells results in disruption of epicardial integrity with a loss of E-cadherin at cell-cell junctions and a focal detachment of epicardial cells from the myocardium. NMII-B ablated or blebbistatin inhibited epicardial explants demonstrate impaired mesenchymal cell maturation during epicardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684607/forces-that-shape-fission-yeast-cells
#13
Fred Chang
One of the major challenges of modern cell biology is to understand how cells are assembled from nanoscale components into micrometer-scale entities with a specific size and shape. Here I describe how our quest to understand the morphogenesis of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe drove us to investigate cellular mechanics. These studies build on the view that cell shape arises from the physical properties of an elastic cell wall inflated by internal turgor pressure. Consideration of cellular mechanics provides new insights into not only mechanisms responsible for cell-shape determination and growth, but also cellular processes such as cytokinesis and endocytosis...
July 7, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684541/consequences-of-mitotic-slippage-for-antimicrotubule-drug-therapy
#14
Bing Cheng, Karen Carmelina Crasta
Antimicrotubule agents are commonly utilized as front-line therapies against several malignancies, either by themselves or as combination therapies. Cell-based studies have pinpointed the anti-proliferative basis of action to be a consequence of perturbation of microtubule dynamics leading to sustained activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, prolonged mitotic arrest and mitotic cell death. However, depending on the biological context and cell type, cells may take an alternative route besides mitotic cell death via a process known as mitotic slippage...
July 6, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679631/myosin-independent-cytokinesis-in-giardia-utilizes-flagella-to-coordinate-force-generation-and-direct-membrane-trafficking
#15
William R Hardin, Renyu Li, Jason Xu, Andrew M Shelton, Germain C M Alas, Vladimir N Minin, Alexander R Paredez
Devoid of all known canonical actin-binding proteins, the prevalent parasite Giardia lamblia uses an alternative mechanism for cytokinesis. Unique aspects of this mechanism can potentially be leveraged for therapeutic development. Here, live-cell imaging methods were developed for Giardia to establish division kinetics and the core division machinery. Surprisingly, Giardia cytokinesis occurred with a median time that is ∼60 times faster than mammalian cells. In contrast to cells that use a contractile ring, actin was not concentrated in the furrow and was not directly required for furrow progression...
July 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676796/cell-cycle-dependent-expression-dynamics-of-g1-s-specific-cyclin-cellulose-synthase-and-cellulase-in-the-dinoflagellate-prorocentrum-donghaiense
#16
Xinguo Shi, Minglei Ma, Senjie Lin
Dinoflagellates undergo a typical eukaryotic cell cycle consisting of G1, S, G2, and M phases and some of the typical cell cycle related genes have been computationally identified. However, very few of these genes have been experimentally linked to the cell cycle phases. Besides, although thecate dinoflagellates are known to possess theca composed of cellulose, information on cellulose synthesis and degradation associated with the cell cycle is also limited. In this study, we isolated G1/S cyclin, cellulose synthase and cellulase encoding genes in dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675297/a-human-tyrosine-phosphatase-interactome-mapped-by-proteomic-profiling
#17
Parveen Kumar, Prathyusha Munnangi, Kvs Rammohan Chowdary, Varun J Shah, Swapnil R Shinde, Nanci R Kolli, Rachita R Halehalli, Hampapathalu A Nagarajaram, Subbareddy Maddika
Tyrosine phosphatases play a critical role in many cellular processes and pathogenesis, yet comprehensive analysis of their functional interacting proteins in the cell is limited. By utilizing a proteomic approach, here we present an interaction network of 81 human tyrosine phosphatases built on 1884 high-confidence interactions of which 85% are unreported. Our analysis has linked several phosphatases with new cellular processes and unveiled protein interactions genetically linked to various human diseases including cancer...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671988/checkpoints-of-apicomplexan-cell-division-identified-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#18
Carmelo A Alvarez, Elena S Suvorova
The unusual cell cycles of Apicomplexa parasites are remarkably flexible with the ability to complete cytokinesis and karyokinesis coordinately or postpone cytokinesis for several rounds of chromosome replication, and are well recognized. Despite this surprising biology, the molecular machinery required to achieve this flexibility is largely unknown. In this study, we provide comprehensive experimental evidence that apicomplexan parasites utilize multiple Cdk-related kinases (Crks) to coordinate cell division...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670398/microrna-1825-induces-proliferation-of-adult-cardiomyocytes-and-promotes-cardiac-regeneration-post-ischemic-injury
#19
Raghav Pandey, Sebastian Velasquez, Shazia Durrani, Min Jiang, Michelle Neiman, Jeffrey S Crocker, Joshua B Benoit, Jack Rubinstein, Arghya Paul, Rafeeq Ph Ahmed
In mammals, proliferative capacity of cardiomyocytes is lost soon after birth, while zebrafish and other lower organisms like newts are known to regenerate injured hearts even at an adult age. Here, we show that miR-1825 can induce robust proliferation of adult rat cardiomyocytes and can improve cardiac function in-vivo post myocardial infarction. Rat adult cardiomyocytes transfected with miR-1825 showed a significant increase in DNA synthesis, mitosis, cytokinesis, and an increase in cell number when compared to cel-miR-67 transfected control...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670392/interactome-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-of-cervical-cancer-reveals-dysregulated-mitotic-gene-clusters
#20
Jing Cheng, Xiaosheng Lu, Jianguang Wang, Huina Zhang, Ping Duan, Chunyang Li
Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. HPV infections are the leading cause of cervical cancer. Although progress has been made in understanding cervical cancer, knowledge of oncogenic gene clusters that participate in squamous-cell mitosis is still lacking. We performed a computational analysis with qRT-PCR validation of gene expression profiles of cervical cancer tissues. Genes involved in muscle contraction and development were downregulated in cervical cancer tissues, suggesting decreased muscle function in cervical cancer...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
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