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Cytokinesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642276/dedifferentiation-proliferation-and-redifferentiation-of-adult-mammalian-cardiomyocytes-after-ischemic-injury
#1
Wei Eric Wang, Liangpeng Li, Xuewei Xia, Wenbin Fu, Qiao Liao, Cong Lan, Dezhong Yang, Hongmei Chen, Rongchuan Yue, Cindy S Zeng, Lin Zhou, Bin Zhou, Dayue D Duan, Xiongwen Chen, Steven R Houser, Chunyu Zeng
Background -Adult mammalian hearts have a limited ability to generate new cardiomyocytes. Proliferation of existing adult cardiomyocytes (ACM) is a potential source of new cardiomyocytes. Understanding the fundamental biology of ACM proliferation could be of great clinical significance for treating myocardial infarction (MI). We aim to understand the process and regulation of ACM proliferation and its role in new cardiomyocyte formation of post-MI mouse hearts. Methods -β-actin-GFP transgenic mice and fate-mapping Myh6-MerCreMer-tdTomato/lacZ mice were used to trace the fate of ACMs...
June 22, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638076/single-molecule-analysis-reveals-that-dna-replication-dynamics-vary-across-the-course-of-schizogony-in-the-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#2
Slavica Stanojcic, Nada Kuk, Imran Ullah, Yvon Sterkers, Catherine J Merrick
The mechanics of DNA replication and cell cycling are well-characterized in model organisms, but less is known about these basic aspects of cell biology in early-diverging Apicomplexan parasites, which do not divide by canonical binary fission but undergo unconventional cycles. Schizogony in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, generates ~16-24 new nuclei via independent, asynchronous rounds of genome replication prior to cytokinesis and little is known about the control of DNA replication that facilitates this...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637712/shrinking-daughters-rlm1-dependent-g1-s-checkpoint-maintains-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-daughter-cell-size-and-viability
#3
Sarah Piccirillo, Deepshikha Neog, David Spade, J David Van Horn, LeAnn M Tiede-Lewis, Sarah L Dallas, Tamas Kapros, Saul M Honigberg
The Rlm1 transcription factor is a target of the cell-wall integrity pathway. We report that an rlm1Δ; mutant grown on a non-fermentable carbon source at low osmolarity forms cell groups in which a mother cell is surrounded by smaller "satellite daughter" cells. Mother cells in these groups progressed through repeated rounds of cell division with normal rates of bud growth and genetic stability; however, these cells underwent precocious START relative to wild-type mothers. Thus, once activated, Rlm1 delays the transition from G1 to S, a mechanism we term the CW/START checkpoint...
June 21, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636231/orchestration-at-the-beginning-mitosis-in-sea-urchin-embryo
#4
Giselle A Abruzzese, Nae Tanpradit, Renata S Tavares
Development of multicellular organisms is driven by a series of mitotic divisions after fertilization. Total cytoplasmic volume does not increase during this process, resulting in an increasing number of smaller daughter cells. Cell divisions are initially synchronous in an early embryo, but this ends at the 16-cell stage in the sea urchin. Orchesterated mitosis does, however, continue in subpopulations via the coordination of two different processes: karyokinesis and cytokinesis. Part of this asynchrony is due to the differentiation of lineages...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634331/genotoxicity-and-cytotoxicity-of-the-plasma-jet-treated-medium-on-lymphoblastoid-wil2-ns-cell-line-using-the-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay
#5
Sung-Ha Hong, Endre J Szili, Michael Fenech, Nishtha Gaur, Robert D Short
Despite growing interest in the application of atmospheric plasma jets as medical treatment strategies, there has been comparatively little research on the potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of plasma jet treatment. In this study, we have employed the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay with WIL2-NS B lymphoblastoid cells to test the potential genotoxicity, as well as the cytotoxicity, of toxic species generated in cell culture media by an argon (Ar) plasma jet. Elevated levels of cell death (necrosis) and occurrence of chromosomal damage (micronuclei MN, nculeoplasmic bridge NPBs and nuclear bus, Nbuds) were observed when cells were exposed to plasma jet-treated media...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634179/lessons-from-bacterial-homolog-of-tubulin-ftsz-for-microtubule-dynamics
#6
Rachana Rao Battaje, Dulal Panda
FtsZ, a homolog of tubulin, is found in almost all bacteria and archaea where it has a primary role in cytokinesis. Evidence for structural homology between FtsZ and tubulin came from their crystal structures and identification of the GTP-box. Tubulin and FtsZ constitute a distinct family of GTPases and show striking similarities in many of their polymerization properties. The differences between them, more so, the complexities of microtubule dynamic behavior in comparison to that of FtsZ, indicate that the evolution to tubulin is attributable to the incorporation of the complex functionalities in higher organisms...
June 20, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633918/traction-force-and-its-regulation-during-cytokinesis-in-dictyostelium-cells
#7
Md Golam Sarowar Jahan, Shigehiko Yumura
Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division. Dictyostelium cells have multiple modes of cytokinesis, including cytokinesis A, B and C. Cytokinesis A is a conventional mode, which depends on myosin II in the contractile ring. Myosin II null cells divide depending on substratum-attachment (cytokinesis B) or in a multi-polar fashion independent of the cell cycle (cytokinesis C). We investigated the traction stress exerted by dividing cells in the three different modes using traction force microscopy. In all cases, the traction forces were directed inward from both poles...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630940/fluconazole-induced-ploidy-change-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-results-from-the-uncoupling-of-cell-growth-and-nuclear-division
#8
Sophie Altamirano, Diana Fang, Charles Simmons, Shreyas Sridhar, Peipei Wu, Kaustuv Sanyal, Lukasz Kozubowski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes lethal cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. One of the challenges in treating cryptococcosis is the development of resistance to azole antifungals. Previous studies linked azole resistance to elevated numbers of copies of critical resistance genes in aneuploid cells. However, how aneuploidy is formed in the presence of azole drugs remains unclear. This study showed that treatment with inhibitory concentrations of an azole drug, fluconazole (FLC), resulted in a significant population of cells with increased DNA content, through the following defects: inhibition of budding, premature mitosis, and inhibition of cytokinesis followed by replication in the mother cell...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630147/a-bifurcated-signaling-cascade-of-nima-related-kinases-controls-distinct-kinesins-in-anaphase
#9
Sierra N Cullati, Lilian Kabeche, Arminja N Kettenbach, Scott A Gerber
In mitosis, cells undergo a precisely orchestrated series of spatiotemporal changes in cytoskeletal structure to divide their genetic material. These changes are coordinated by a sophisticated network of protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications. In this study, we report a bifurcation in a signaling cascade of the NIMA-related kinases (Neks) Nek6, Nek7, and Nek9 that is required for the localization and function of two kinesins essential for cytokinesis, Mklp2 and Kif14. We demonstrate that a Nek9, Nek6, and Mklp2 signaling module controls the timely localization and bundling activity of Mklp2 at the anaphase central spindle...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626024/intersectin-2-controls-actin-cap-formation-and-meiotic-division-in-mouse-oocytes-through-the-cdc42-pathway
#10
Jiaqi Zhang, Rujun Ma, Ling Li, Lina Wang, Xiaojing Hou, Longsen Han, Juan Ge, Mo Li, Qiang Wang
Intersectins (ITSNs), an evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein family, have been implicated in multiple biologic processes; however, their functions in mammalian oocytes have not been addressed. Here, we report delayed meiotic resumption and defective cytokinesis upon specific depletion of ITSN2 in mouse oocytes. In particular, abnormal spindle, misaligned chromosomes, and loss of cortical actin cap are readily observed in ITSN2-depleted oocytes. Similarly, a small molecule that targets the Cdc42-ITSN interaction also disrupts oocyte maturation and actin polymerization...
June 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625885/dock8-deficiency-insights-into-pathophysiology-clinical-features-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Catherine M Biggs, Sevgi Keles, Talal A Chatila
Dedicator of Cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is a combined immunodeficiency that exemplifies the broad clinical features of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), extending beyond recurrent infections to include atopy, autoimmunity and cancer. It is caused by loss of function mutations in DOCK8, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor highly expressed in lymphocytes that regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Additional roles of DOCK8 have also emerged, including regulating MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling and the activation of the transcription factor STAT3...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618065/cold-interferes-with-male-meiotic-cytokinesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-independently-of-the-ahk2-3-ahp2-3-5-cytokinin-signaling-module
#12
Bing Liu, Nico De Storme, Danny Geelen
Previously we have shown that low temperature stress in Arabidopsis causes defects in microtubule organization and cytokinesis in male meiocytes, which leads to the formation of diploid pollen. Because cytokinin (CK) mediates multiple physiological responses to cold stress, we investigated whether CK signaling is involved in cold-induced diploid pollen formation. To this end, we monitored male sporogenesis in a series of mutants defective in CK metabolism and signalling. Arabidopsis plants with altered CK homeostasis, i...
June 15, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613431/a-conserved-coiled-coil-protein-pair-focuses-the-cytokinetic-z-ring-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#13
Selamawit Woldemeskel, Ryan McQuillen, Alex M Hessel, Jie Xiao, Erin D Goley
The cytoskeletal GTPase FtsZ assembles at midcell, recruits the division machinery, and directs envelope invagination for bacterial cytokinesis. ZapA, a conserved FtsZ-binding protein, promotes Z-ring stability and efficient division through a mechanism that is not fully understood. Here we investigated the function of ZapA in Caulobacter crescentus. We found that ZapA is encoded in an operon with a small coiled-coil protein we named ZauP. ZapA and ZauP co-localized at the division site and were each required for efficient division...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613380/influence-of-processing-and-storage-of-integral-grape-juice-vitis-labrusca-l-on-its-physical-and-chemical-characteristics-cytotoxicity-and-mutagenicity-in-vitro
#14
E Düsman, I V Almeida, E P Pinto, L Lucchetta, V E P Vicentini
Integral grape juice is extracted from the grape through processes that allow the retention of their natural composition. However, due to the severity of some processes, fruit juices can undergo changes in their quality. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of integral grape juice by a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay in Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro. Vitis labrusca L. (variety Concord) were produced organically and by a conventional system, and their juice was extracted by a hot extraction process...
May 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611247/the-malaria-parasite-cyclin-h-homolog-pfcyc1-is-required-for-efficient-cytokinesis-in-blood-stage-plasmodium-falciparum
#15
Jonathan A Robbins, Sabrina Absalon, Vincent A Streva, Jeffrey D Dvorin
All well-studied eukaryotic cell cycles are driven by cyclins, which activate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and these protein kinase complexes are viable drug targets. The regulatory control of the Plasmodium falciparum cell division cycle remains poorly understood, and the roles of the various CDKs and cyclins remain unclear. The P. falciparum genome contains multiple CDKs, but surprisingly, it does not contain any sequence-identifiable G1-, S-, or M-phase cyclins. We demonstrate that P. falciparum Cyc1 (PfCyc1) complements a G1 cyclin-depleted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and confirm that other identified malaria parasite cyclins do not complement this strain...
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609481/the-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-cdc34-is-essential-for-cytokinesis-in-contrast-to-putative-subunits-of-a-scf-complex-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#16
Federico Rojas, Joanna Koszela, Jacqueline Búa, Briardo Llorente, Richard Burchmore, Manfred Auer, Jeremy C Mottram, María Teresa Téllez-Iñón
The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a post-translational regulatory pathway for controlling protein stability and activity that underlies many fundamental cellular processes, including cell cycle progression. Target proteins are tagged with ubiquitin molecules through the action of an enzymatic cascade composed of E1 ubiquitin activating enzymes, E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, and E3 ubiquitin ligases. One of the E3 ligases known to be responsible for the ubiquitination of cell cycle regulators in eukaryotes is the SKP1-CUL1-F-box complex (SCFC)...
June 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604682/architecture-and-permeability-of-post-cytokinesis-plasmodesmata-lacking-cytoplasmic-sleeves
#17
William J Nicolas, Magali S Grison, Sylvain Trépout, Amélia Gaston, Mathieu Fouché, Fabrice P Cordelières, Karl Oparka, Jens Tilsner, Lysiane Brocard, Emmanuelle M Bayer
Plasmodesmata are remarkable cellular machines responsible for the controlled exchange of proteins, small RNAs and signalling molecules between cells. They are lined by the plasma membrane (PM), contain a strand of tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the space between these two membranes is thought to control plasmodesmata permeability. Here, we have reconstructed plasmodesmata three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructure with an unprecedented level of 3D information using electron tomography. We show that within plasmodesmata, ER-PM contact sites undergo substantial remodelling events during cell differentiation...
June 12, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604678/dynamic-subunit-turnover-in-escrt-iii-assemblies-is-regulated-by-vps4-to-mediate-membrane-remodelling-during-cytokinesis
#18
Beata E Mierzwa, Nicolas Chiaruttini, Lorena Redondo-Morata, Joachim Moser von Filseck, Julia König, Jorge Larios, Ina Poser, Thomas Müller-Reichert, Simon Scheuring, Aurélien Roux, Daniel W Gerlich
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III mediates membrane fission in fundamental cellular processes, including cytokinesis. ESCRT-III is thought to form persistent filaments that over time increase their curvature to constrict membranes. Unexpectedly, we found that ESCRT-III at the midbody of human cells rapidly turns over subunits with cytoplasmic pools while gradually forming larger assemblies. ESCRT-III turnover depended on the ATPase VPS4, which accumulated at the midbody simultaneously with ESCRT-III subunits, and was required for assembly of functional ESCRT-III structures...
June 12, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596780/katanin-effects-on-dynamics-of-cortical-microtubules-and-mitotic-arrays-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-revealed-by-advanced-live-cell-imaging
#19
George Komis, Ivan Luptovčiak, Miroslav Ovečka, Despina Samakovli, Olga Šamajová, Jozef Šamaj
Katanin is the only microtubule severing protein identified in plants so far. Previous studies have documented its role in regulating cortical microtubule organization during cell growth and morphogenesis. Although, some cell division defects are reported in KATANIN mutants, it is not clear whether or how katanin activity may affect microtubule dynamics in interphase cells, as well as the progression of mitosis and cytokinesis and the orientation of cell division plane (CDP). For this reason, we characterized microtubule organization and dynamics in growing and dividing cotyledon cells of Arabidopsis ktn1-2 mutant devoid of KATANIN 1 activity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588300/pre-rc-protein-mcm7-depletion-promotes-mitotic-exit-by-inhibiting-cdk1-activity
#20
Dianpeng Zheng, Sichao Ye, Xiuyun Wang, Yongjun Zhang, Daoyu Yan, Xiangsheng Cai, Weihong Gao, Hongbo Shan, Yang Gao, Juanjuan Chen, Zhiming Hu, Hongwei Li, Jinlong Li
MCM7, a subunit of mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) complex, plays an important role in initiating DNA replication during the G1 phase and extending DNA strands during the S phase. Here, we demonstrated that MCM7 is not only sustained but maintains association with chromatin during M phase. Remarkably, MCM7 siRNA can accelerate mitotic exit. MCM7 depletion leads to CDK1 inactivation and promotes subsequent cohesin/RAD21 cleavage, which eventually leads to sister chromatin segregation. Moreover, MCM7 is co-localized with tubulin in the mitotic cells and MCM7 depletion results in aberrant mitosis...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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