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Cytokinesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351567/whole-thorax-irradiation-of-non-human-primates-induces-persistent-nuclear-damage-and-gene-expression-changes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#1
Shanaz A Ghandhi, Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Gregory O Dugan, J Daniel Bourland, John D Olson, Janet A Tooze, Shad R Morton, Ines Batinic-Haberle, J Mark Cline, Sally A Amundson
We investigated the cytogenetic and gene expression responses of peripheral blood cells of non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that were whole-thorax irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy. In this model, partial irradiation of NHPs in the thoracic region (Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation, WTLI) allows the study of late radiation-induced lung injury, while avoiding acute radiation syndromes related to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury. A transient drop in circulating lymphocytes and platelets was seen by 9 days, followed by elevations in respiratory rate, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes at 60-100 days, corresponding to computed tomography (CT) and histologic evidence of pneumonitis, and elective euthanasia of four animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344759/mathematical-model-of-contractile-ring-driven-cytokinesis-in-a-three-dimensional-domain
#2
Seunggyu Lee
In this paper, a mathematical model of contractile ring-driven cytokinesis is presented by using both phase-field and immersed-boundary methods in a three-dimensional domain. It is one of the powerful hypotheses that cytokinesis happens driven by the contractile ring; however, there are only few mathematical models following the hypothesis, to the author's knowledge. I consider a hybrid method to model the phenomenon. First, a cell membrane is represented by a zero-contour of a phase-field implicitly because of its topological change...
January 17, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343550/cdk1-dependent-phospho-inhibition-of-a-formin-f-bar-interaction-opposes-cytokinetic-contractile-ring-formation
#3
Alaina H Willet, K Adam Bohnert, Kathleen L Gould
In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cytokinesis requires the assembly and constriction of an actomyosin-based contractile ring (CR). A single essential formin, Cdc12, localizes to the cell middle upon mitotic onset and nucleates the F-actin of the CR. Cdc12 medial recruitment is mediated in part by its direct binding to the F-BAR scaffold Cdc15. Given that Cdc12 is hyper-phosphorylated in M phase, we explored whether Cdc12 phospho-regulation impacts its association with Cdc15 during mitosis. We found that Cdk1, a major mitotic kinase, phosphorylates Cdc12 on six N-terminal residues near the Cdc15-binding site...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337680/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-cytotoxic-dna-damaging-and-cytogenetic-effects-of-hydroquinone-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#4
Karlo Jurica, Irena Brčić Karačonji, Vesna Benković, Nevenka Kopjar
This study investigated the mechanisms of hydroquinone toxicity and assessed the relationships between its cytotoxic, genotoxic, and cytogenetic effects tested at 8, 140, and 280 μg mL-1 in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed for 24 h. The outcomes of the treatments were evaluated using the apoptosis/necrosis assay, the alkaline comet assay, and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome assay. The tested hydroquinone concentrations produced relatively weak cytotoxicity in resting lymphocytes, which mostly died via apoptosis...
December 20, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335807/assessment-of-in-vitro-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-activities-of-some-trimethoprim-conjugates
#5
Devrim Güzel Bayülken, R Beklem Bostancıoğlu, A Tansu Koparal, Berrin Ayaz Tüylü, Aydan Dağ, Kadriye Benkli
Trimethoprim, a commonly used antibacterial agent, is widely applied in the treatment of variety of infections in human. A few studies have demonstrated an extensive exposure of man to antibiotics, but there is still a lack of data for cytotoxic effects including nephrotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, hematotoxicity, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity. The main purpose behind this study was to determine cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of trimethoprim (1), trimethoprim with maleic acid (2) and trimethoprim in conjugation with oxalic acid dihydrate (3)...
January 15, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335562/cryo-em-structure-of-the-exocyst-complex
#6
Kunrong Mei, Yan Li, Shaoxiao Wang, Guangcan Shao, Jia Wang, Yuehe Ding, Guangzuo Luo, Peng Yue, Jun-Jie Liu, Xinquan Wang, Meng-Qiu Dong, Hong-Wei Wang, Wei Guo
The exocyst is an evolutionarily conserved octameric protein complex that mediates the tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane during exocytosis and is implicated in many cellular processes such as cell polarization, cytokinesis, ciliogenesis and tumor invasion. Using cryo-EM and chemical cross-linking MS (CXMS), we solved the structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae exocyst complex at an average resolution of 4.4 Å. Our model revealed the architecture of the exocyst and led to the identification of the helical bundles that mediate the assembly of the complex at its core...
January 15, 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325677/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-among-lung-cancer-free-smokers-the-importance-of-healthy-controls
#7
Michelle D Karpman, Ronald Eldridge, Jack L Follis, Carol J Etzel, Sanjay Shete, Randa A El-Zein
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers enrolled as "healthy" controls in studies is 10-50%. The COPD status of ideal smoker populations for lung cancer case-control studies should be checked via spirometry; however, this is often not feasible, because no medical indications exist for asymptomatic smokers to undergo spirometry prior to study enrollment. Therefore, there is an unmet need for robust, cost effective assays for identifying undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers...
January 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321253/role-of-the-hof1-cyk3-interaction-in-cleavage-furrow-ingression-and-primary-septum-formation-during-yeast-cytokinesis
#8
Meng Wang, Ryuichi Nishihama, Masayuki Onishi, John R Pringle
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is well established that Hof1, Cyk3, and Inn1 contribute to septum formation and cytokinesis. Because hof1∆ and cyk3∆ single mutants have relatively mild defects but hof1∆ cyk3∆ double mutants are nearly dead, it has been hypothesized that these proteins contribute to parallel pathways. However, there is also evidence that they interact physically. In this study, we examined this interaction and its functional significance in detail. Our data indicate that the interaction (i) is mediated by a direct binding of the Hof1 SH3 domain to a proline-rich motif in Cyk3; (ii) occurs specifically at the time of cytokinesis but is independent of the (hyper)phosphorylation of both proteins that occurs at about the same time; (iii) is dispensable for the normal localization of both proteins; (iv) is essential for normal primary-septum formation and a normal rate of cleavage-furrow ingression; and (v) becomes critical for growth when either Inn1 or the type II myosin Myo1 (a key component of the contractile actomyosin ring) is absent...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321250/myosin-ii-interacting-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-myogef-promotes-bleb-retraction-via-stimulating-cortex-reassembly-at-the-bleb-membrane
#9
Meng Jiao, Di Wu, Qize Wei
Blebs are involved in various biological processes such as cell migration, cytokinesis, and apoptosis. While the expansion of blebs is largely an intracellular pressure-driven process, the retraction of blebs is believed to be driven by RhoA activation that leads to the reassembly of the actomyosin cortex at the bleb membrane. However, it is still poorly understood how RhoA is activated at the bleb membrane. Here, we provide evidence demonstrating that nonmuscle myosin II-interacting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (MYOGEF) is implicated in bleb retraction via stimulating RhoA activation and the reassembly of an actomyosin network at the bleb membrane during bleb retraction...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314576/rab35-gtpase-and-cancer-linking-membrane-trafficking-to-tumorigenesis
#10
REVIEW
Ronan Shaughnessy, Arnaud Echard
Rab35 is a small GTPase that is involved in many cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, cell polarity, lipid homeostasis, immunity, phagocytosis and cytokinesis. Recent studies showed that activating mutations confer Rab35 with oncogenic properties. Conversely downregulation of Rab35 inverts apico-basal cell polarity and promotes cell migration. Here we review Rab35's known functions in membrane trafficking and signaling, cell division, and cell migration in cancer cells and discuss the importance of Rab35-dependent membrane trafficking in cancer progression...
January 4, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312601/inhibition-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-growth-by-blockade-of-glycosphingolipid-synthesis
#11
Richard Jennemann, Giuseppina Federico, Daniel Mathow, Mariona Rabionet, Francesca Rampoldi, Zoran V Popovic, Martina Volz, Thomas Hielscher, Roger Sandhoff, Hermann-Josef Gröne
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent cancers. In vitro studies suggest that growth and response to therapy of human carcinomas may depend on glycosphingolipid (GSL) expression. Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), encoded by the gene Ugcg, is the basic enzyme required for the synthesis of GSLs. Gene array analysis implied that Ugcg is significantly overexpressed in human HCC as compared to non-tumorous liver tissue. Therefore we have investigated whether tumor - genesis and - growth is altered in the absence of GSLs...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311228/tpxl-1-activates-aurora-a-to-clear-contractile-ring-components-from-the-polar-cortex-during-cytokinesis
#12
Sriyash Mangal, Jennifer Sacher, Taekyung Kim, Daniel Sampaio Osório, Fumio Motegi, Ana Xavier Carvalho, Karen Oegema, Esther Zanin
During cytokinesis, a signal from the central spindle that forms between the separating anaphase chromosomes promotes the accumulation of contractile ring components at the cell equator, while a signal from the centrosomal microtubule asters inhibits accumulation of contractile ring components at the cell poles. However, the molecular identity of the inhibitory signal has remained unknown. To identify molecular components of the aster-based inhibitory signal, we developed a means to monitor the removal of contractile ring proteins from the polar cortex after anaphase onset...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307375/a-three-dimensional-in-vitro-hepg2-cells-liver-spheroid-model-for-genotoxicity-studies
#13
Ume-Kulsoom Shah, Jefferson de Oliveira Mallia, Neenu Singh, Katherine E Chapman, Shareen H Doak, Gareth J S Jenkins
The liver's role in metabolism of chemicals makes it an appropriate tissue for toxicity testing. Current testing protocols, such as animal testing and two-dimensional liver cell systems, offer limited resemblance to in vivo liver cell behaviour, in terms of gene expression profiles and metabolic competence; thus, they do not always accurately predict human toxicology. In vitro three-dimensional liver cell models offer an attractive alternative. This study reports on the development of a 3D liver model, using HepG2 cells, by a hanging-drop technique, with a focus on evaluating spheroid growth characteristics and suitability for genotoxicity testing...
January 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307372/biphasic-regulation-of-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-by-low-and-high-concentrations-of-resveratrol-leads-to-the-opposite-effect-on-chromosomal-instability
#14
Xihan Guo, Juan Ni, Xueqin Dai, Tao Zhou, Guofang Yang, Jinglun Xue, Xu Wang
Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic phytoalexin possessing numerous health-promoting effects. Chromosomal instability (CIN), usually results from defective spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), is a major contributor to many diseases. While it's recently recognized that RSV exhibits a nonlinear dose response for disease prevention, whether it's the case for its role in CIN remains unknown. Here, we investigated the potential of a broad range of RSV concentrations (0.01-100μM) on CIN and the underlying mechanisms in human normal colon epithelial NCM460 cells...
January 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307370/evaluation-of-chromosomal-dna-damage-cytotoxicity-cytostasis-oxidative-dna-damage-and-their-relationship-with-endocrine-hormones-in-patients-with-acute-organophosphate-poisoning
#15
Kursat Gundogan, Hamiyet Donmez-Altuntas, Zuhal Hamurcu, Ismail Hakkı Akbudak, Murat Sungur, Nazmiye Bitgen, Gulden Baskol, Fahri Bayram
Pesticides are commonly used compounds in agriculture. Especially, organophosphates (OPs) are among the extensively used pesticides. Therefore, OPs poisoning is common, especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. Primary aim of this study was to research the effects of acute OPs poisoning on genome instability in the individuals' lymphocytes with acute OPs poisoning both by using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-cyt) assay to examine chromosome/genome damage, cell proliferation index and cell death rate and by using the plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels to determine oxidative DNA damage...
January 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304868/further-characterization-of-adult-sheep-ovarian-stem-cells-and-their-involvement-in-neo-oogenesis-and-follicle-assembly
#16
Hiren Patel, Deepa Bhartiya, Seema Parte
BACKGROUND: Stem cells in the ovary comprise of two distinct populations including very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and slightly bigger progenitors termed ovarian stem cells (OSCs). They are lodged in ovary surface epithelium (OSE) and are expected to undergo neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle (PF) assembly in adult ovaries. The ovarian stem cells express follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors and are directly activated by FSH resulting in formation of germ cell nests (GCN) in vitro...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291271/shared-mechanisms-regulate-spatiotemporal-rhoa-dependent-actomyosin-contractility-during-adhesion-and-cell-division
#17
Patrick W B Derksen, Robert A H van de Ven
Local modulation of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for the initiation and maintenance of strong homotypic adhesive interfaces between neighboring cells. The epithelial adherens junction (AJ) fulfils a central role in this process by mediating E-cadherin interactions and functioning as a signaling scaffold to control the activity of the small GTPase RhoA and subsequent actomyosin contractility. Interestingly, a number of regulatory proteins that modulate RhoA activity at the AJ also control RhoA during cytokinesis, an actomyosin-dependent process that divides the cytoplasm to generate two daughter cells at the final stages of mitosis...
December 31, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288355/ucs-protein-function-is-partially-restored-in-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-she4-mutant-with-expression-of-the-human-unc45-gc-but-not-unc45-sm
#18
Susana Gómez Escalante, Joseph A Brightmore, Peter W Piper, Stefan H Millson
A dedicated UNC45, Cro1, She4 (UCS) domain-containing protein assists in the Hsp90-mediated folding of the myosin head. Only weak sequence conservation exists between the single UCS protein of simple eukaryotes (She4 in budding yeast) and the two UCS proteins of higher organisms (the general cell and striated muscle UNC45s; UNC45-GC and UNC45-SM, respectively). In vertebrates, UNC45-GC facilitates cytoskeletal functions, whereas the 55% identical UNC45-SM assists assembly of the contractile apparatus of cardiac and skeletal muscles...
December 29, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287109/biogenesis-of-the-mitochondrial-dna-inheritance-machinery-in-the-mitochondrial-outer-membrane-of-trypanosoma-brucei
#19
Sandro Käser, Mathilde Willemin, Felix Schnarwiler, Bernd Schimanski, Daniel Poveda-Huertes, Silke Oeljeklaus, Beat Haenni, Benoît Zuber, Bettina Warscheid, Chris Meisinger, André Schneider
Mitochondria cannot form de novo but require mechanisms that mediate their inheritance to daughter cells. The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei has a single mitochondrion with a single-unit genome that is physically connected across the two mitochondrial membranes with the basal body of the flagellum. This connection, termed the tripartite attachment complex (TAC), is essential for the segregation of the replicated mitochondrial genomes prior to cytokinesis. Here we identify a protein complex consisting of three integral mitochondrial outer membrane proteins-TAC60, TAC42 and TAC40-which are essential subunits of the TAC...
December 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283376/differential-selective-pressures-experienced-by-the-aurora-kinase-gene-family
#20
Joni M Seeling, Alexis A Farmer, Adam Mansfield, Hyuk Cho, Madhusudan Choudhary
Aurora kinases (AKs) are serine/threonine kinases that are essential for cell division. Humans have three AK genes: AKA, AKB, and AKC. AKA is required for centrosome assembly, centrosome separation, and bipolar spindle assembly, and its mutation leads to abnormal spindle morphology. AKB is required for the spindle checkpoint and proper cytokinesis, and mutations cause chromosome misalignment and cytokinesis failure. AKC is expressed in germ cells, and has a role in meiosis analogous to that of AKB in mitosis...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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