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Cytokinesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238662/coordination-by-cdc42-of-actin-contractility-and-adhesion-for-melanoblast-movement-in-mouse-skin
#1
Emma F Woodham, Nikki R Paul, Benjamin Tyrrell, Heather J Spence, Karthic Swaminathan, Michelle R Scribner, Evangelos Giampazolias, Ann Hedley, William Clark, Frieda Kage, Daniel J Marston, Klaus M Hahn, Stephen W G Tait, Lionel Larue, Cord H Brakebusch, Robert H Insall, Laura M Machesky
The individual molecular pathways downstream of Cdc42, Rac, and Rho GTPases are well documented, but we know surprisingly little about how these pathways are coordinated when cells move in a complex environment in vivo. In the developing embryo, melanoblasts originating from the neural crest must traverse the dermis to reach the epidermis of the skin and hair follicles. We previously established that Rac1 signals via Scar/WAVE and Arp2/3 to effect pseudopod extension and migration of melanoblasts in skin...
February 18, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238661/motor-activity-dependent-and-independent-functions-of-myosin-ii-contribute-to-actomyosin-ring-assembly-and-contraction-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#2
Saravanan Palani, Ting Gang Chew, Srinivasan Ramanujam, Anton Kamnev, Shrikant Harne, Bernardo Chapa-Y-Lazo, Rebecca Hogg, Mayalagu Sevugan, Mithilesh Mishra, Pananghat Gayathri, Mohan K Balasubramanian
Cytokinesis depends on a contractile actomyosin ring in many eukaryotes [1-3]. Myosin II is a key component of the actomyosin ring, although whether it functions as a motor or as an actin cross-linker to exert its essential role is disputed [1, 4, 5]. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the myo2-E1 mutation affects the upper 50 kDa sub-domain of the myosin II heavy chain, and cells carrying this lethal mutation are defective in actomyosin ring assembly at the non-permissive temperature [6, 7]. myo2-E1 also affects actomyosin ring contraction when rings isolated from permissive temperature-grown cells are incubated with ATP [8]...
February 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237997/umtco1-a-hybrid-histidine-kinase-gene-is-essential-for-the-sexual-development-and-virulence-of-ustilago-maydis
#3
Yeo Hong Yun, Man Hwan Oh, Jun Young Kim, Seong Hwan Kim
Hybrid histidine kinase is a part of two-component system that is required for various stress responses and pathogenesis of pathogenic fungi. The Tco1 gene in human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans encodes a hybrid histidine kinase and is important for pathogenesis. In the present study, we identified a Tco1 gene homolog, UmTco1, in the corn smut pathogen Ustilago maydis by bioinformatics analysis. To explore the role of UmTco1 in the survival of U. maydis under environmental stresses and its pathogenesis, Δumtco1 mutants were constructed by allelic exchange...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231025/rabit-ii-implementation-of-a-high-throughput-micronucleus-biodosimetry-assay-on-commercial-biotech-robotic-systems
#4
Mikhail Repin, Sergey Pampou, Charles Karan, David J Brenner, Guy Garty
We demonstrate the use of high-throughput biodosimetry platforms based on commercial high-throughput/high-content screening robotic systems. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, using only 20 μl whole blood from a fingerstick, was implemented on a PerkinElmer cell::explorer and General Electric IN Cell Analyzer 2000. On average 500 binucleated cells per sample were detected by our FluorQuantMN software. A calibration curve was generated in the radiation dose range up to 5.0 Gy using the data from 8 donors and 48,083 binucleated cells in total...
February 23, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230050/oxidation-of-f-actin-controls-the-terminal-steps-of-cytokinesis
#5
Stéphane Frémont, Hussein Hammich, Jian Bai, Hugo Wioland, Kerstin Klinkert, Murielle Rocancourt, Carlos Kikuti, David Stroebel, Guillaume Romet-Lemonne, Olena Pylypenko, Anne Houdusse, Arnaud Echard
Cytokinetic abscission, the terminal step of cell division, crucially depends on the local constriction of ESCRT-III helices after cytoskeleton disassembly. While the microtubules of the intercellular bridge are cut by the ESCRT-associated enzyme Spastin, the mechanism that clears F-actin at the abscission site is unknown. Here we show that oxidation-mediated depolymerization of actin by the redox enzyme MICAL1 is key for ESCRT-III recruitment and successful abscission. MICAL1 is recruited to the abscission site by the Rab35 GTPase through a direct interaction with a flat three-helix domain found in MICAL1 C terminus...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224124/the-mammalian-septin-interactome
#6
REVIEW
Katharina Neubauer, Barbara Zieger
Septins are GTP-binding and membrane-interacting proteins with a highly conserved domain structure involved in various cellular processes, including cytoskeleton organization, cytokinesis, and membrane dynamics. To date, 13 different septin genes have been identified in mammals (SEPT1 to SEPT12 and SEPT14), which can be classified into four distinct subgroups based on the sequence homology of their domain structure (SEPT2, SEPT3, SEPT6, and SEPT7 subgroup). The family members of these subgroups have a strong affinity for other septins and form apolar tri-, hexa-, or octameric complexes consisting of multiple septin polypeptides...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223486/serum-borne-bioactivity-caused-by-pulmonary-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-induces-neuroinflammation-via-blood-brain-barrier-impairment
#7
Mario J Aragon, Lauren Topper, Christina R Tyler, Bethany Sanchez, Katherine Zychowski, Tamara Young, Guy Herbert, Pamela Hall, Aaron Erdely, Tracy Eye, Lindsey Bishop, Samantha A Saunders, Pretal P Muldoon, Andrew K Ottens, Matthew J Campen
Pulmonary exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) causes indirect systemic inflammation through unknown pathways. MWCNTs translocate only minimally from the lungs into the systemic circulation, suggesting that extrapulmonary toxicity may be caused indirectly by lung-derived factors entering the circulation. To assess a role for MWCNT-induced circulating factors in driving neuroinflammatory outcomes, mice were acutely exposed to MWCNTs (10 or 40 µg/mouse) via oropharyngeal aspiration. At 4 h after MWCNT exposure, broad disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was observed across the capillary bed with the small molecule fluorescein, concomitant with reactive astrocytosis...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212314/a-gin4-like-protein-kinase-gil1-involvement-in-hyphal-growth-asexual-development-and-pathogenesis-in-fusarium-graminearum
#8
Dan Yu, Shijie Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Jin-Rong Xu, Zachary Schultzhaus, Qiaojun Jin
Fusarium graminearum is the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley. In a previous study, a GIN4-like protein kinase gene, GIL1, was found to be important for plant infection and sexual reproduction. In this study we further characterized the functions of GIL1 kinase in different developmental processes. The Δgil1 mutants were reduced in growth, conidiation, and virulence, and formed whitish and compact colonies. Although phialide formation was rarely observed in the mutants, deletion of GIL1 resulted in increased hyphal branching and increased tolerance to cell wall and cell membrane stresses...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211852/plasmodium-falciparum-crk4-directs-continuous-rounds-of-dna-replication-during-schizogony
#9
Markus Ganter, Jonathan M Goldberg, Jeffrey D Dvorin, Joao A Paulo, Jonas G King, Abhai K Tripathi, Aditya S Paul, Jing Yang, Isabelle Coppens, Rays H Y Jiang, Brendan Elsworth, David A Baker, Rhoel R Dinglasan, Steven P Gygi, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have evolved a unique cell division cycle in the clinically relevant asexual blood stage of infection(1). DNA replication commences approximately halfway through the intracellular development following invasion and parasite growth. The schizont stage is associated with multiple rounds of DNA replication and nuclear division without cytokinesis, resulting in a multinucleated cell. Nuclei divide asynchronously through schizogony, with only the final round of DNA replication and segregation being synchronous and coordinated with daughter cell assembly(2,3)...
February 17, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209898/treadmilling-by-ftsz-filaments-drives-peptidoglycan-synthesis-and-bacterial-cell-division
#10
Alexandre W Bisson-Filho, Yen-Pang Hsu, Georgia R Squyres, Erkin Kuru, Fabai Wu, Calum Jukes, Yingjie Sun, Cees Dekker, Seamus Holden, Michael S VanNieuwenhze, Yves V Brun, Ethan C Garner
The mechanism by which bacteria divide is not well understood. Cell division is mediated by filaments of FtsZ and FtsA (FtsAZ) that recruit septal peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes to the division site. To understand how these components coordinate to divide cells, we visualized their movements relative to the dynamics of cell wall synthesis during cytokinesis. We found that the division septum was built at discrete sites that moved around the division plane. FtsAZ filaments treadmilled circumferentially around the division ring and drove the motions of the peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199840/citron-kinase-deficiency-leads-to-chromosomal-instability-and-tp53-sensitive-microcephaly
#11
Federico Tommaso Bianchi, Chiara Tocco, Gianmarco Pallavicini, Yifan Liu, Fiammetta Vernì, Chiara Merigliano, Silvia Bonaccorsi, Nadia El-Assawy, Lorenzo Priano, Marta Gai, Gaia Elena Berto, Alessandra Maria Adelaide Chiotto, Francesco Sgrò, Alessia Caramello, Laura Tasca, Ugo Ala, Francesco Neri, Salvatore Oliviero, Alessandro Mauro, Stephan Geley, Maurizio Gatti, Ferdinando Di Cunto
Mutations in citron (CIT), leading to loss or inactivation of the citron kinase protein (CITK), cause primary microcephaly in humans and rodents, associated with cytokinesis failure and apoptosis in neural progenitors. We show that CITK loss induces DNA damage accumulation and chromosomal instability in both mammals and Drosophila. CITK-deficient cells display "spontaneous" DNA damage, increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation, and defective recovery from radiation-induced DNA lesions. In CITK-deficient cells, DNA double-strand breaks increase independently of cytokinesis failure...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197912/the-sumo-pathway-in-mitosis
#12
Debaditya Mukhopadhyay, Mary Dasso
Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during which replicated chromosomes must be precisely divided to allow the formation of two daughter cells possessing equal genetic material. Much of the careful spatial and temporal organization of mitosis is maintained through post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination, of key cellular proteins. Here, we will review evidence that sumoylation, conjugation to the SUMO family of small ubiquitin-like modifiers, also serves essential regulatory roles during mitosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195318/biallelic-loss-of-function-variants-in-dock3-cause-muscle-hypotonia-ataxia-and-intellectual-disability
#13
Katherine L Helbig, Cameron Mroske, Divya Moorthy, Samin A Sajan, Milen Velinov
DOCK3 encodes the dedicator of cytokinesis 3 protein, a member of the DOCK180 family of proteins that are characterized by guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity. DOCK3 is expressed exclusively in the central nervous system and plays an important role in axonal outgrowth and cytoskeleton reorganization. Dock3 knockout mice exhibit motor deficiencies with abnormal ataxic gait and impaired learning. We report two siblings with biallelic loss-of-function variants in DOCK3. Diagnostic whole exome sequencing and chromosomal microarray were performed on a proband with severe intellectual disability, hypotonia, and ataxic gait...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193733/giant-faz10-is-required-for-flagellum-attachment-zone-stabilization-and-furrow-positioning-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#14
Bernardo Pereira Moreira, Carol Kobori Da Fonseca, Tansy C Hammarton, Munira Muhammad Abdel Baqui
The flagellum and flagellum attachment zone (FAZ) are important cytoskeletal structures in trypanosomatids, being required for motility, cell division and cell morphogenesis. Trypanosomatid cytoskeletons contain abundant high molecular weight proteins (HMWPs), but many of their biological functions are still unclear. Here, we report the characterization of the giant FAZ protein, FAZ10, in Trypanosoma brucei, which we show using immuno-electron microscopy, localises to the intermembrane staples in the FAZ intracellular domain...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193315/survivin-protects-fused-cancer-cells-from-massive-cell-death
#15
Mihyang Do, In-Hae Kwak, Ju-Hyun Ahn, In Jeong Lee, Jae-Ho Lee
Tetraploidy, a potential precursor of cancer-associated aneuploidy, is produced either by cell fusion or cytokinesis failure. Here, we used low p53-expressing HeLa cells to address the fate of cancer cells after fusion. We found that massive cell death or growth arrest occurred a few days after fusion. Interestingly, cells with larger nuclei preferentially died after fusion, suggesting that a larger deviation of DNA content is a strong inducer of apoptosis. Notably, a fraction of cells escaped cell death. It turned out that the stability of survivin was increased, and its localization changed preferentially to the cytosol in fused cells...
February 14, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188342/the-equilibrium-of-ubiquitination-and-deubiquitination-at-plk1-regulates-sister-chromatid-separation
#16
REVIEW
Junjun Liu, Chuanmao Zhang
PLK1 regulates almost every aspect of mitotic events, including mitotic entry, spindle assembly, chromosome alignment, sister chromatid segregation, metaphase-anaphase transition, cytokinesis, etc. In regulating the chromosome alignment and sister chromatid segregation, PLK1 has to be localized to and removed from kinetochores at the right times, and the underlying mechanism that regulates PLK1 both spatially and temporally only became clearer recently. It has been found that deubiquitination and ubiquitination of PLK1 are responsible for its localization to and dissociation from the kinetochores, respectively...
February 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179288/aurora-b-inhibitor-tak-901-synergizes-with-bcl-xl-inhibition-by-inducing-active-bax-in-cancer-cells
#17
Saomi Murai, Jennifer Matuszkiewicz, Yuumi Okuzono, Hiroyuki Miya, Ron DE Jong
BACKGROUND: Aurora B kinase plays an essential role in chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, and is dysregulated in many cancer types, making it an attractive therapeutic target. TAK-901 is a potent aurora B inhibitor that showed efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo oncology models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a synthetic lethal siRNA screening to identify the genes that, when silenced, can potentiate the cell growth-inhibitory effect of TAK-901. RESULTS: B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-xL) depletion by siRNA or chemical inhibition synergized with TAK-901 in cancer cell lines...
2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174310/the-antituberculosis-drug-ethambutol-selectively-blocks-apical-growth-in-cmn-group-bacteria
#18
Karin Schubert, Boris Sieger, Fabian Meyer, Giacomo Giacomelli, Kati Böhm, Angela Rieblinger, Laura Lindenthal, Nadja Sachs, Gerhard Wanner, Marc Bramkamp
: Members of the genus Mycobacterium are the most prevalent cause of infectious diseases. Mycobacteria have a complex cell envelope containing a peptidoglycan layer and an additional arabinogalactan polymer to which a mycolic acid bilayer is linked; this complex, multilayered cell wall composition (mAGP) is conserved among all CMN group bacteria. The arabinogalactan and mycolic acid synthesis pathways constitute effective drug targets for tuberculosis treatment. Ethambutol (EMB), a classical antituberculosis drug, inhibits the synthesis of the arabinose polymer...
February 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166285/p38%C3%AE-regulates-actin-cytoskeleton-and-cytokinesis-in-hepatocytes-during-development-and-aging
#19
Ana M Tormos, Sergio Rius-Pérez, María Jorques, Patricia Rada, Lorena Ramirez, Ángela M Valverde, Ángel R Nebreda, Juan Sastre, Raquel Taléns-Visconti
BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte poliploidization is an age-dependent process, being cytokinesis failure the main mechanism of polyploid hepatocyte formation. Our aim was to study the role of p38α MAPK in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton and cytokinesis in hepatocytes during development and aging. METHODS: Wild type and p38α liver-specific knock out mice at different ages (after weaning, adults and old) were used. RESULTS: We show that p38α MAPK deficiency induces actin disassembly upon aging and also cytokinesis failure leading to enhanced binucleation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161539/a-novel-role-of-kif3b-in-the-seminoma-cell-cycle
#20
Hao-Qing Shen, Yu-Xi Xiao, Zhen-Yu She, Fu-Qing Tan, Wan-Xi Yang
KIF3b is a protein of the kinesin-2 family which plays an important role in intraflagellar transport. Testis cancer is a common cancer among young men. Its diagnostic rate is increasing and over half of the cases are seminomas. Many aspects of the mechanism and gene expression background of this cancer remain unclear. Using western-blotting and semi-quantitative PCR we found high protein levels of KIF3b enrichment in seminoma tissue despite the mRNA levels remaining equivalent to that of normal testicular tissues...
March 1, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
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