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Laura Monteonofrio, Davide Valente, Manuela Ferrara, Serena Camerini, Roberta Miscione, Marco Crescenzi, Cinzia Rinaldo, Silvia Soddu
Cytokinesis, the final phase of cell division, is necessary to form two distinct daughter cells with correct distribution of genomic and cytoplasmic materials. Its failure provokes genetically unstable states, such as tetraploidization and polyploidization, which can contribute to tumorigenesis. Aurora-B kinase controls multiple cytokinetic events, from chromosome condensation to abscission when the midbody is severed. We have previously shown that HIPK2, a kinase involved in DNA damage response and development, localizes at the midbody and contributes to abscission by phosphorylating extrachromosomal histone H2B at Ser14...
March 22, 2018: Oncogene
Marcin Krupka, William Margolin
To generate two cells from one, bacteria such as Escherichia coli use a complex of membrane-embedded proteins called the divisome that synthesize the division septum. The initial stage of cytokinesis requires a tubulin homolog, FtsZ, which forms polymers that treadmill around the cell circumference. The attachment of these polymers to the cytoplasmic membrane requires an actin homolog, FtsA, which also forms dynamic polymers that directly bind to FtsZ. Recent evidence indicates that FtsA and FtsZ regulate each other's oligomeric state in E...
2018: F1000Research
Yanan Du, Yan Wang, Liqing Du, Chang Xu, Kaihua Ji, Jinhan Wang, Qiang Liu
In this data article, 146 villagers (exposed group) were randomly selected from the workers who involved in the e-wastes recycling directly as a daily job in Tianjin. Control group, including 121 villagers, came from another town without e-waste disposal sites. Chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cytokinesis blocking micronucleus (CBMN) were performed to detect the cytogenetic effect for each subject. DNA damage was detected using comet assay; the DNA percentage in the comet tail (TDNA%), tail moment (TM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) were recorded to describe DNA damage to lymphocytes and spermatozoa...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Zhiyuan Xing, Fengbo Sun, Wang He, Zhiwei Wang, Xiuqi Song, Fengjuan Zhang
Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 39 (USP39) has been reported to participate in the mitotic spindle checkpoint and the process of cytokinesis. and has been identified as a therapeutic target for various types of cancer. However, the effect of USP39 in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been investigated. To explore the functional role of USP39 in CRC cell growth, lentivirus-mediated RNA interference was applied to inhibit USP39 expression in SW1116 and HCT116 cells. The relative USP39 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly reduced in the USP39 knockdown cells, as verified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Sreeharsha Gurrapu, Emanuela Pupo, Giulia Franzolin, Letizia Lanzetti, Luca Tamagnone
Semaphorin 4C (Sema4C) expression in human breast cancers correlates with poor disease outcome. Surprisingly, upon knock-down of Sema4C or its receptor PlexinB2 in diverse mammary carcinoma cells (but not their normal counterparts), we observed dramatic growth inhibition associated with impairment of G2/M phase transition, cytokinesis defects and the onset of cell senescence. Mechanistically, we demonstrated a Sema4C/PlexinB2/LARG-dependent signaling cascade that is required to maintain critical RhoA-GTP levels in cancer cells...
March 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Serpil Könen-Adıgüzel, Serap Ergene
Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are used in a wide range of applications because of their unique properties. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are one of the important ENPs, and they can cause negative health effects, such as genotoxicity, in humans and other living organisms. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic effects of short-term (3-24 h) CeO2 NPs exposure to cultured human blood lymphocytes. Three genotoxicity systems "cytokinesis-block micronucleus test, comet assay, and gamma H2AX test" were used to show the genotoxic potential of CeO2 NPs (particle size <25 nm, concentrations: 6, 12, and 18 µg/mL)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Maria S Shutova, Tatyana M Svitkina
Nonmuscle myosin II is an actin-based motor that executes numerous mechanical tasks in cells including spatiotemporal organization of the actin cytoskeleton, adhesion, migration, cytokinesis, tissue remodeling, and membrane trafficking. Nonmuscle myosin II is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells as a tissue-specific combination of three paralogs. Recent studies reveal novel specific aspects of their kinetics, intracellular regulation and functions. On the other hand, the three paralogs also can copolymerize and cooperate in cells...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hoku West-Foyle, Priyanka Kothari, Jonathan Osborne, Douglas N Robinson
The 14-3-3 family comprises a group of small proteins that are essential, ubiquitous, and highly conserved across eukaryotes. Overexpression of the 14-3-3s sigma, epsilon, zeta, and eta correlates with high metastatic potential in multiple cancer types. In Dictyostelium , 14-3-3 promotes myosin II turnover in the cell cortex and modulates cortical tension, cell shape, and cytokinesis. In light of the important roles of 14-3-3 proteins across a broad range of eukaryotic species, we sought to determine how 14-3-3 proteins interact with myosin II...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Minle Li, Keyu Gao, Laili Chu, Junnian Zheng, Jing Yang
Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A), a member of the Aurora family of serine/threonine kinases, plays a critical role in multiple steps of mitotic progression, including microtubule stability during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, chromosome alignment and segregation, and cytokinesis and is aberrantly expressed in various types of human cancers. In addition to its classic functions, recent studies have indicated that Aurora-A is critical for controlling self-renewal of embryonic stem cells through negative regulation of p53...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Qing Cai, Sen-Miao Tong, Wei Shao, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) maintain dynamics of lysine acetylation/deacetylation on histones and non-histone substrates involved in gene regulation and cellular events. Hos2 is a class I HDAC that deacetylates unique histone H4-K16 site in yeasts. Here, we report that orthologous Hos2 deacetylates H4-K16 and is also involved in the acetylation of histone H3-K56 and the phosphorylation of histone H2A-S129 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 CDK1-Y15 in Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Julie C Canman, Clemens Cabernard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Cher-Pheng Ooi, Terry K Smith, Eva Gluenz, Nadina Vasileva Wand, Sue Vaughan, Gloria Rudenko
The predominant secretory cargo of bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei is Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG), comprising ~10% total protein and forming a dense protective layer. Blocking VSG translation using Morpholino oligonucleotides triggered a precise pre-cytokinesis arrest. We investigated the effect of blocking VSG synthesis on the secretory pathway. The number of Golgi decreased, particularly in post-mitotic cells, from 3.5 ± 0.6 to 2.0 ± 0.04 per cell. Similarly, the number of ER exit sites (ERES) in post-mitotic cells dropped from (3...
March 13, 2018: Traffic
Hanako Hayashi, Bungo Akiyoshi
Kinetoplastids have a nucleus that contains the nuclear genome and a kinetoplast that contains the mitochondrial genome. These single-copy organelles must be duplicated and segregated faithfully to daughter cells at each cell division. In Trypanosoma brucei , although duplication of both organelles starts around the same time, segregation of the kinetoplast precedes that of the nucleus. Cytokinesis subsequently takes place so that daughter cells inherit a single copy of each organelle. Very little is known about the molecular mechanism that governs the timing of these events...
March 12, 2018: Biology Open
Mohapatra Liza, Dash Gaurav, Mohanty Prasenjeet, Jena Swapna, Behera Binodini
The hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare group of primary immunodeficiency characterised by recurrent infections, eczema, and elevated serum levels of IgE. Autosomal dominant HIES is caused by mutations in transcription factor - signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. Autosomal-recessive (AR) HIES was described in 2004 due to mutation of tyrosine kinase 2 gene, and subsequently, another mutation in dedicator of cytokinesis 8 gene was discovered in 2009. Although both the forms have many common clinical features, few characteristic findings help in differentiating them...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Marina Leone, Gentian Musa, Felix Benedikt Engel
Aims: After birth mammalian cardiomyocytes initiate a last cell cycle which results in binucleation due to cytokinesis failure. Despite its importance for cardiac regenerative therapies, this process is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at a better understanding of the difference between cardiomyocyte proliferation and binucleation, and providing a new tool to distinguish these two processes. Methods and Results: Monitoring of cell division by time-lapse imaging revealed that rat cardiomyocyte binucleation stems from a failure to properly ingress the cleavage furrow...
March 7, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Sandra Huber, Tulin Karagenc, Dominic Ritler, Sven Rottenberg, Kerry Woods
Theileria annulata is an apicomplexan parasite that modifies the phenotype of its host cell completely, inducing uncontrolled proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and increased invasiveness. The infected cell thus resembles a cancer cell, and changes to various host cell signaling pathways accompany transformation. Most of the molecular mechanisms leading to Theileria-induced immortalization of leukocytes remain unknown. The parasite dissolves the surrounding host cell membrane soon after invasion and starts interacting with host proteins, ensuring its propagation by stably associating with the host cell microtubule network...
March 8, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Hironori Inaba, Daishi Yamakawa, Yasuko Tomono, Atsushi Enomoto, Shinji Mii, Kousuke Kasahara, Hidemasa Goto, Masaki Inagaki
We previously reported that vimentin, GFAP, and desmin (type III intermediate filament [IF] proteins) are mitotically phosphorylated by CDK1, Aurora-B, and Rho-kinase. This phosphorylation is critical for efficient separation of these IFs and completion of cytokinesis. Keratin 5 (K5) and K14 form a heterodimer, which constitutes IF network in basal layer cells of stratified squamous epithelia. Here, we report that the solubility of K5/K14 increased in mitosis. The in vitro assays revealed that three mitotic kinases phosphorylate K5 more than K14...
March 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yangyang Xu, Xiangxiang Zhou, Ying Li, Ya Zhang, Xin Wang
Context: T-cell lymphomas (TCLs) have been heterogeneous lymphoid malignancies with aggressive clinical phenotype and poor prognosis. Centrosomal protein 55 (CEP55) played a critical role in cytokinesis and served as a centrosome- and midbody-associated protein. Previous studies have reported the overexpression and clinical significance of CEP55 in various human malignancies, but the exact biological roles of CEP55 in TCLs remained unclear. Aims: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the CEP55 expression in patients with TCL and reactive hyperplasia of lymph nodes...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Marie Rogne, Oksana Svaerd, Julia Madsen-Østerbye, Adnan Hashim, Geir E Tjønnfjord, Judith Staerk
Cytokinesis failure leads to the emergence of tetraploid cells and multiple centrosomes. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common haematological malignancy in adults and is characterized by clonal B cell expansion. Here, we show that a significant number of peripheral blood CLL cells are arrested in cytokinesis and that this event occurred after nuclear envelope reformation and before cytoplasmic abscission. mRNA expression data showed that several genes known to be crucial for cell cycle regulation, checkpoint and centromere function, such as ING4, ING5, CDKN1A and CDK4, were significantly dysregulated in CLL samples...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Jasna Jagan Mohan, Prashanth Narayan, Renjini Ambika Padmanabhan, Selin Joseph, Pradeep G Kumar, Malini Laloraya
PROBLEM: Dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK 180) involved in cytoskeletal reorganization is primarily a cytosolic molecule. It is recently shown to be nuclear in HeLa cells but its nuclear function is not known. METHOD OF STUDY: The spatiotemporal distribution of DOCK180 in uterus was studied in uterine cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments during the "window of implantation." The functional significance of nuclear DOCK180 was explored by homology modeling, co-immunoprecipitation assays, and mass spectrometric analysis...
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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