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Cytokinesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791846/myosin-iia-promotes-antibody-responses-by-regulating-b-cell-activation-acquisition-of-antigen-and-proliferation
#1
Robbert Hoogeboom, Elizabeth M Natkanski, Carla R Nowosad, Dessislava Malinova, Rajesh P Menon, Antonio Casal, Pavel Tolar
B cell responses are regulated by antigen acquisition, processing, and presentation to helper T cells. These functions are thought to depend on contractile activity of non-muscle myosin IIa. Here, we show that B cell-specific deletion of the myosin IIa heavy chain reduced the numbers of bone marrow B cell precursors and splenic marginal zone, peritoneal B1b, and germinal center B cells. In addition, myosin IIa-deficient follicular B cells acquired an activated phenotype and were less efficient in chemokinesis and extraction of membrane-presented antigens...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789541/identifying-and-characterizing-scrambled-synthetic-yeast-using-rescues
#2
Zhouqing Luo, Lihui Wang, Yun Wang, Weimin Zhang, Yakun Guo, Yue Shen, Linghuo Jiang, Qingyu Wu, Chong Zhang, Yizhi Cai, Junbiao Dai
SCRaMbLE is a novel system implemented in the synthetic yeast genome, enabling massive chromosome rearrangements to produce strains with a large genotypic diversity upon induction. Here we describe a reporter of SCRaMbLEd cells using efficient selection, termed ReSCuES, based on a loxP-mediated switch of two auxotrophic markers. We show that all randomly isolated clones contained rearrangements within the synthetic chromosome, demonstrating high efficiency of selection. Using ReSCuES, we illustrate the ability of SCRaMbLE to generate strains with increased tolerance to several stress factors, such as ethanol, heat and acetic acid...
May 22, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784807/oocyte-stage-specific-effects-of-mtor-determine-granulosa-cell-fate-and-oocyte-quality-in-mice
#3
Jing Guo, Teng Zhang, Yueshuai Guo, Tao Sun, Hui Li, Xiaoyun Zhang, Hong Yin, Guangyi Cao, Yaoxue Yin, Hao Wang, Lanying Shi, Xuejiang Guo, Jiahao Sha, John J Eppig, You-Qiang Su
MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) is a widely recognized integrator of signals and pathways key for cellular metabolism, proliferation, and differentiation. Here we show that conditional knockout (cKO) of Mtor in either primordial or growing oocytes caused infertility but differentially affected oocyte quality, granulosa cell fate, and follicular development. cKO of Mtor in nongrowing primordial oocytes caused defective follicular development leading to progressive degeneration of oocytes and loss of granulosa cell identity coincident with the acquisition of immature Sertoli cell-like characteristics...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781112/identification-of-toefaz1-interacting-proteins-reveals-key-regulators-of-trypanosoma-brucei-cytokinesis
#4
Nicholas A Hilton, Thomas E Sladewski, Jenna A Perry, Zemplen Pataki, Amy N Sinclair-Davis, Richard S Muniz, Holly L Tran, Jenna I Wurster, Jiwon Seo, Christopher L de Graffenried
The protist parasite Trypanosoma brucei is an obligate extracellular pathogen that retains its highly-polarized morphology during cell division and has evolved a novel cytokinetic process independent of non-muscle myosin II. The polo-like kinase homolog TbPLK is essential for transmission of cell polarity during division and for cytokinesis. We previously identified a putative TbPLK substrate named Tip of the Extending FAZ 1 (TOEFAZ1) as an essential kinetoplastid-specific component of the T. brucei cytokinetic machinery...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774021/mitotic-spindle-organizing-protein-mzta-mediates-septation-signaling-by-suppressing-the-regulatory-subunit-of-protein-phosphatase-2a-para-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#5
Ping Jiang, Shujun Zheng, Ling Lu
The proper timing and positioning of cytokinesis/septation is crucial for hyphal growth and conidiation in Aspergillus nidulans . The septation initiation network (SIN) components are a conserved spindle pole body (SPB) localized signaling cascade and the terminal kinase complex SidB-MobA, which must localize on the SPB in this pathway to trigger septation/cytokinesis. The regulatory subunit of phosphatase PP2A-ParA has been identified to be a negative regulator capable of inactivating the SIN. However, little is known about how ParA regulates the SIN pathway and whether ParA regulates the septum formation process through affecting the SPB-localized SIN proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771379/cdk-phosphorylation-licenses-kif4a-chromosome-localization-required-for-early-mitotic-progression
#6
Zhixiong Dong, Changjun Zhu, Qimin Zhan, Wei Jiang
The chromokinesin Kif4A controls proper chromosome condensation, congression/alignment, and cytokinesis to ensure faithful genetic inheritance. Here, we report that Cdk phosphorylation of human Kif4A at T1161 licenses Kif4A chromosomal localization, which, in turn, controls Kif4A early mitotic function. Phosphorylated Kif4A (Kif4AWT) or Cdk phospho-mimetic Kif4A mutant (Kif4ATE) associated with chromosomes and condensin I (non-SMC subunit CAP-G and core subunit SMC2) to regulate chromosome condensation, spindle morphology, and chromosome congression/alignment in early mitosis...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768213/mirnas-that-induce-human-cardiomyocyte-proliferation-converge-on-the-hippo-pathway
#7
Marta Diez-Cuñado, Ke Wei, Paul J Bushway, Mano R Maurya, Ranjan Perera, Shankar Subramaniam, Pilar Ruiz-Lozano, Mark Mercola
Understanding the mechanisms that control human cardiomyocyte proliferation might be applicable to regenerative medicine. We screened a whole genome collection of human miRNAs, identifying 96 to be capable of increasing proliferation (DNA synthesis and cytokinesis) of human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. Chemical screening and computational approaches indicated that most of these miRNAs (67) target different components of the Hippo pathway and that their activity depends on the nuclear translocation of the Hippo transcriptional effector YAP...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764941/a-trypanosome-specific-protein-cooperates-with-the-cif1-protein-to-promote-cytokinesis-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#8
Yasuhiro Kurasawa, Huiqing Hu, Qing Zhou, Ziyin Li
Cytokinesis, the terminal step in cell division, in the protist human pathogen Trypanosoma brucei occurs along the longitudinal axis from the anterior tip of the new flagellum attachment zone (FAZ) towards the posterior cell tip. This process is regulated by a signaling cascade composed of the Polo-like kinase homolog TbPLK, the Aurora B kinase homolog TbAUK1, and the trypanosome-specific CIF1-CIF2 protein complex. However, the regulatory mechanism and the signaling pathway for this unusual mode of cytokinesis remain poorly understood...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763674/septin-associated-protein-kinase-gin4-affects-localization-and-phosphorylation-of-chs4-the-regulatory-subunit-of-the-baker-s-yeast-chitin-synthase-iii-complex
#9
Simon Gohlke, Daniela Heine, Hans-Peter Schmitz, Hans Merzendorfer
Chitin is mainly formed by the chitin synthase III complex (CSIII) in yeast cells. This complex is considered to be composed of the catalytic subunit Chs3 and the regulatory subunit Chs4, both of which are phosphoproteins and transported to the plasma membrane by different trafficking routes. During cytokinesis, Chs3 associates with Chs4 and other proteins at the septin ring, which results in an active CSIII complex. In this study, we focused on the role of Chs4 as a regulatory subunit of the CSIII complex...
May 12, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761860/hypermethylation-of-cpg-islands-is-associated-with-increasing-chromosomal-damage-in-chinese-lead-exposed-workers
#10
Li-Bo Yu, Yu-Ting Tu, Jing-Wen Huang, Ya-Nan Zhang, Guo-Qiao Zheng, Xiao-Wen Xu, Jin-Wei Wang, Jean Qin Xiao, David C Christiani, Zhao-Lin Xia
Lead is a widely existing environmental pollutant with potential carcinogenicity. To investigate the association of blood lead level (B-Pb) with potential chromosomal damage and cancer, we analyzed micronucleus (MN) frequency of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and the methylation status of six human tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) post lead exposure. In the study, 147 lead-exposed workers were divided into two groups according to their B-Pb P50 value, with other 50 lead-unexposed workers as a control group...
May 15, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760875/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-promotes-multicellular-development-over-unicellular-encystation-in-encysting-dictyostelia
#11
Yoshinori Kawabe, Takahiro Morio, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Pauline Schaap
Background: Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) regulates many cell fate decisions in animal development. In multicellular structures of the group 4 dictyostelid Dictyostelium discoideum , GSK3 promotes spore over stalk-like differentiation. We investigated whether, similar to other sporulation-inducing genes such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), this role of GSK3 is derived from an ancestral role in encystation of unicellular amoebas. Results: We deleted GSK3 in Polysphondylium pallidum , a group 2 dictyostelid which has retained encystation as an alternative survival strategy...
2018: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755398/deconvolution-of-human-brain-cell-type-transcriptomes-unraveled-microglia-specific-potential-biomarkers
#12
R Ayana, Shailja Singh, Soumya Pati
Microglial cells form a context-dependent network of brain immunoeffector cells. Despite their indispensable roles, unresolved questions exist around biomarker discovery relevant to their cellular localization, self-renewing potential, and brain developmental dynamics. To resolve the existent gap in the annotation of candidate biomarkers, we conducted a meta-analysis of brain cells using available high-throughput data sets for deciphering microglia-specific expression profiles. We have identified 3,290 significant genes specific to microglia and further selected the top 20 dysregulated genes on the basis of p -value and log2 FC...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754473/actin-dysfunction-induces-cell-cycle-delay-at-g2-m-with-sustained-erk-and-rsk-activation-in-imr-90-normal-human-fibroblasts
#13
Deepmala Shrestha, Daeun Choi, Kiwon Song
The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in the entry of mitosis as well as in cytokinesis. In a previous study, we showed that actin disruption delays mitotic entry at G2/M by sustained activation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in primary cells but not in transformed cancer cell lines. Here, we examined the mechanism of cell cycle delay at G2/M by actin dysfunction in IMR-90 normal human fibroblasts. We observed that de-polymerization of actin with cytochalasin D (CD) constitutively activated ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and induced inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2 (Tyr 15) in IMR-90 cells...
May 4, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752448/regulation-of-proliferation-and-cell-cycle-by-protein-regulator-of-cytokinesis-1-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Fanglong Wu, Xueke Shi, Rui Zhang, Yuan Tian, Xiangjian Wang, Changlei Wei, Duo Li, Xiaoyu Li, Xiangli Kong, Yurong Liu, Weihua Guo, Yiqing Guo, Hongmei Zhou
Protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1), a microtubule-associated protein, has emerged as a critical regulator of proliferation and apoptosis, acting predominantly in numerous tumors. However, its function in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still unknown. To establish the roles of PRC1 in OSCC, 95 oral clinical samples (54 OSCC, 24 oral leukoplakia [OLK], and 17 normal oral mucosa) and seven oral cell lines (6 OSCC and 1 normal oral cell lines) were analyzed using a series of molecular and genomic assays both in vivo and in vitro were conducted in this study...
May 11, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749467/kif20a-expression-as-a-prognostic-indicator-and-its-possible-involvement-in-the-proliferation-of-ovarian-clear%C3%A2-cell-carcinoma-cells
#15
Yosuke Kawai, Kiyosumi Shibata, Jun Sakata, Shiro Suzuki, Fumi Utsumi, Kaoru Niimi, Ryuichiro Sekiya, Takeshi Senga, Fumitaka Kikkawa, Hiroaki Kajiyama
Kinesin family member 20A (KIF20A), which is involved in cytokinesis and intracellular transportation, has been recently reported to be upregulated in several malignancies and may contribute to chemotherapeutic resistance. We examined the distribution and expression of KIF20A in clear‑cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary to elucidate its clinical significance and molecular mechanism. Paraffin sections from ovarian CCC tissues (N=43) were immunostained with KIF20A antibody, and the staining intensities were semi‑quantitatively evaluated...
April 25, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748662/reducing-protein-regulator-of-cytokinesis-1-as-a-prospective-therapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Xinran Liu, Yangkai Li, Lijing Meng, Xin-Yuan Liu, Anlin Peng, Yuchen Chen, Chengyu Liu, Hong Chen, Sheng Sun, Xiaoping Miao, Yu Zhang, Ling Zheng, Kun Huang
Proteins that bind to microtubule are important for cell cycle, and some of these proteins show oncogenic characteristics with mechanisms not fully understood. Herein we demonstrate overexpression of protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1), a microtubule-associated regulator of mitosis, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, upregulated PRC1 is associated with lower survival rates of HCC patients. Mechanistically, reducing PRC1 blocks mitotic exit of HCC cells at telophase in a spindle assembly checkpoint independent manner, and acts synergistically with microtubule-associated agents (MTAs) to suppress p53-wt or p53-null HCC cells in a p53- or p14ARF-dependent manner; while overexpressing PRC1 increases the resistance of HCC to taxol...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748644/live-cell-imaging-of-nuclear-chromosomal-dynamics-in-bovine-in-vitro-fertilised-embryos
#17
Tatsuma Yao, Rie Suzuki, Natsuki Furuta, Yuka Suzuki, Kyoko Kabe, Mikiko Tokoro, Atsushi Sugawara, Akira Yajima, Tomohiro Nagasawa, Satoko Matoba, Kazuo Yamagata, Satoshi Sugimura
Nuclear/chromosomal integrity is an important prerequisite for the assessment of embryo quality in artificial reproductive technology. However, lipid-rich dark cytoplasm in bovine embryos prevents its observation by visible light microscopy. We performed live-cell imaging using confocal laser microscopy that allowed long-term imaging of nuclear/chromosomal dynamics in bovine in vitro fertilised (IVF) embryos. We analysed the relationship between nuclear/chromosomal aberrations and in vitro embryonic development and morphological blastocyst quality...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747238/septins-active-gtpases-or-just-gtp-binding-proteins
#18
Megha Abbey, Matthias Gaestel, Manoj B Menon
Septins are conserved cytoskeletal proteins with unique filament forming capabilities and roles in cytokinesis and cell morphogenesis. Septins undergo hetero-oligomerization and assemble into higher order structures including filaments, rings and cages. Hetero- and homotypic interactions of septin isoforms involve alternating GTPase (G)-domain interfaces and those mediated by N- and C-terminal extensions. While most septins bind GTP, display weak GTP-hydrolysis activity and incorporate guanine nucleotides in their interaction interfaces, studies using GTPase-inactivating mutations have failed to conclusively establish a crucial role for GTPase activity in mediating septin functions...
May 10, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743597/mastl-overexpression-promotes-chromosome-instability-and-metastasis-in-breast-cancer
#19
Samuel Rogers, Rachael A McCloy, Benjamin L Parker, David Gallego-Ortega, Andrew M K Law, Venessa T Chin, James R W Conway, Dirk Fey, Ewan K A Millar, Sandra O'Toole, Niantao Deng, Alexander Swarbrick, Paul D Chastain, Anthony J Cesare, Paul Timpson, C Elizabeth Caldon, David R Croucher, David E James, D Neil Watkins, Andrew Burgess
MASTL kinase is essential for correct progression through mitosis, with loss of MASTL causing chromosome segregation errors, mitotic collapse and failure of cytokinesis. However, in cancer MASTL is most commonly amplified and overexpressed. This correlates with increased chromosome instability in breast cancer and poor patient survival in breast, ovarian and lung cancer. Global phosphoproteomic analysis of immortalised breast MCF10A cells engineered to overexpressed MASTL revealed disruption to desmosomes, actin cytoskeleton, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and p38 stress kinase signalling pathways...
May 10, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743530/iaspp-pp1-complex-is-required-for-cytokinetic-abscission-by-controlling-cep55-dephosphorylation
#20
Kun Gao, Yuanyuan Zhang, Qing Shi, Jianong Zhang, Liang Zhang, Huiru Sun, Dongyue Jiao, Xiayin Zhao, Hongru Tao, Youheng Wei, Yuqi Wang, Hexige Saiyin, Shi-Min Zhao, Yao Li, Pingzhao Zhang, Chenji Wang
Cytokinesis is the last step of cell division and is concluded by the abscission of the intercellular bridge that connects two daughter cells. The tight regulation of cytokinesis completion is essential because cytokinesis failure is associated with various human diseases. Here, we report that iASPP, a member of the apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP) family, is required for proper cell division. iASPP depletion results in abnormal midbody structure and failed cytokinesis. We used protein affinity purification methods to identify the functional partners of iASPP...
May 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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