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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913220/mapk-erk-activity-is-required-for-the-successful-progression-of-mitosis-in-sea-urchin-embryos
#1
Mulner-Lorillon Odile, Chassé Héloïse, Morales Julia, Bellé Robert, Cormier Patrick
Using sea urchin embryos, we demonstrate that the MEK/MAPK/ERK cascade is essential for the proper progression of the cell cycle. Activation of a limited fraction of MAPK/ERK is required between S-phase and M-phase. Neither DNA replication nor CDK1 activation are impacted by the inhibition of this small active MAPK/ERK fraction. Nonetheless, the chromatin and spindle organisations are profoundly altered. Early morphological disorders induced by the absence of MAPK/ERK activation are correlated with an important inhibition of global protein synthesis and modification in the cyclin B accumulation profile...
November 29, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912189/genotoxicity-assessment-of-pulp-and-paper-mill-effluent-before-and-after-bacterial-degradation-using-allium-cepa-test
#2
Izharul Haq, Sharad Kumar, Abhay Raj, Mohtashim Lohani, G N V Satyanarayana
A lignin peroxidases-producing Serratia liquefaciens was used for bioremediation of pulp and paper (P&P) mill effluent. The treatment led to reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, lignin and phenolic content by 84%, 72%, 61% and 95%, respectively. The effluent detoxification was studied by genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa L. (onion) root tip cells. Genotoxicity studies included measuring mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in root tip cells following treatment with 25, 50, 75 and 100% (v/v) of effluent...
November 29, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911711/diaphanous-related-formin-1-as-a-target-for-tumor-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Yuan-Na Lin, Sabine Windhorst
Formins nucleate actin and stabilize microtubules (MTs). Expression of the formin Diaphanous homolog 1 (DIAPH1) is increased in malignant colon carcinoma cells, while expression of DIAPH3 is up-regulated in breast and prostate carcinoma cells. Both DIAPH1 isoforms are required to stabilize interphase MTs of cancer cells, and it has been shown that loss of this function decreases the metastatic potential of these cells. Moreover, depletion of DIAPH3 increases the sensitivity of breast and prostate carcinoma cells to taxanes...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910998/aurora-a-shines-on-t-cell-activation-through-the-regulation-of-lck
#4
Noelia Blas-Rus, Eugenio Bustos-Morán, Noa B Martín-Cófreces, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
Different protein kinases control signaling emanating from the T cell receptor (TCR) during antigen-specific T cell activation. Mitotic kinases, e.g. Aurora-A, have been widely studied in the context of mitosis due to their role during microtubule (MT) nucleation, becoming critical regulators of cell cycle progression. We have recently described a specific role for Aurora-A kinase in antigenic T cell activation. Blockade of Aurora-A in T cells severely disrupts the dynamics of MTs and CD3ζ-bearing signaling vesicles during T cell activation...
December 2, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909956/docking-and-three-dimensional-quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-analyses-of-imidazole-and-thiazolidine-derivatives-as-aurora-a-kinase-inhibitors
#5
Chaeuk Im
Aurora A kinase is involved in the inactivation of apoptosis leading to ovarian, breast, colon, and pancreatic cancers. Inhibitors of Aurora A kinase promote aberrant mitosis resulting in arrest at a pseudo G1 state to induce mitotic catastrophe, ultimately leading to apoptosis. In this study, ligand-based and docking-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) analyses of imidazole and thiazolidine derivatives as potential Aurora A kinase inhibitors were performed. The results provided highly reliable and predictive 3D-QSAR comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) models with a cross-validated q(2) value of 0...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908937/the-centrosome-a-multitalented-renaissance-organelle
#6
REVIEW
Anastassiia Vertii, Heidi Hehnly, Stephen Doxsey
The centrosome acts as a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) from the G1 to G2 phases of the cell cycle; it can mature into a spindle pole during mitosis and/or transition into a cilium by elongating microtubules (MTs) from the basal body on cell differentiation or cell cycle arrest. New studies hint that the centrosome functions in more than MT organization. For instance, it has recently been shown that a specific substructure of the centrosome-the mother centriole appendages-are required for the recycling of endosomes back to the plasma membrane...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908116/energetic-and-entropic-components-of-the-tolman-length-for-mw-and-tip4p-2005-water-nanodroplets
#7
Mark N Joswiak, Ryan Do, Michael F Doherty, Baron Peters
The surface free energy of a droplet is approximately γ(R)=γ(∞)(1-2δ/R), with R being the droplet radius and δ being the Tolman length. Here we use the mitosis method to compute δ=-0.56±0.1Å at 300 K for mW water, indicating that γ(R) increases as the droplet size decreases. The computed Tolman length agrees quite well with a previous study of TIP4P/2005 water. We also decompose the size-dependent surface free energy into energetic and entropic contributions for the mW and TIP4P/2005 force fields...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907267/mitogenic-action-of-hypoxia-upon-cutaneous-neuroepithelial-cells-in-developing-zebrafish
#8
Benjamin W Dean, Thalia J Rashid, Michael G Jonz
In zebrafish, cutaneous neuroepithelial cells (NECs) contain serotonin (5-HT) and are believed to initiate physiological and behavioral responses to hypoxia during embryonic and early larval development, when mature gills and O2 chemoreceptors are not yet present. The number of skin NECs rapidly declines as embryos develop into larvae, but acclimation to hypoxia leads to retention of a greater number of these cells. We hypothesized that reduction of the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 ) in water would stimulate mitosis in cutaneous NECs in zebrafish...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905678/a-phase-i-ii-trial-of-at9283-a-selective-inhibitor-of-aurora-kinase-in-children-with-relapsed-or-refractory-acute-leukemia-challenges-to-run-early-phase-clinical-trials-for-children-with-leukemia
#9
B Vormoor, G J Veal, M J Griffin, A V Boddy, J Irving, L Minto, M Case, U Banerji, K E Swales, J R Tall, A S Moore, M Toguchi, G Acton, K Dyer, C Schwab, C J Harrison, J D Grainger, D Lancaster, P Kearns, D Hargrave, J Vormoor
Aurora kinases regulate mitosis and are commonly overexpressed in leukemia. This phase I/IIa study of AT9283, a multikinase inhibitor, was designed to identify maximal tolerated doses, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic activity in children with relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. The trial suffered from poor recruitment and terminated early, therefore failing to identify its primary endpoints. AT9283 caused tolerable toxicity, but failed to show clinical responses. Future trials should be based on robust preclinical data that provide an indication of which patients may benefit from the experimental agent, and recruitment should be improved through international collaborations and early combination with established treatment strategies...
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902976/centrosome-clustering-in-the-development-of-bovine-binucleate-trophoblast-giant-cells
#10
Karl Klisch, Elisabeth M Schraner, Alois Boos
Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) are the characteristic feature of the ruminant placenta. During their development, BNC pass through 2 acytokinetic mitoses and become binucleate with 2 tetraploid nuclei. In this study, we investigate the number and location of centrosomes in bovine BNC. Centrosomes typically consist of 2 centrioles surrounded by electron-dense pericentriolar material. Duplication of centrosomes is tightly linked to the cell cycle, which ensures that the number of centrosomes remains constant in proliferating diploid cells...
December 1, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902970/activity-of-the-novel-polo-like-kinase-4-inhibitor-cfi-400945-in-pancreatic-cancer-patient-derived-xenografts
#11
I Lohse, J M Mason, P J Cao, Melania Pintilie, M R Bray, D W Hedley
BACKGROUND: Polo-like kinase 4 (PKL4) plays a key role in centriole replication. Hence PLK4 inhibition disrupts mitosis, and offers a novel approach to treating chromosomally unstable cancers, including pancreatic cancer. CFI-400945 is a first in class small molecule PLK4 inhibitor, currently undergoing early phase clinical trials. RESULTS: Treatment with CFI-400945 significantly reduced tumor growth and increased survival in four out of the six models tested. Consistent with PLK4 inhibition, we observed reduced expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 associated with an increase in nuclear diameter during treatment with CFI-400945...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901473/influence-of-solar-and-geomagnetic-activity-in-gymnodinium-catenatum-dinophyceae-cultures
#12
Paulo Vale
Laboratory cultures of the paralytic shellfish poisoning producing microalga Gymnodinium catenatum were subjected to a hypo-osmotic shock and changes in cell concentration were observed in two separate experiments of 8 and 24 hours duration, respectively. The increase in geomagnetic activity (GMA), radio and X-ray fluxes and solar X-ray flares were negatively correlated with cell numbers. Cell losses were observed in the short experiment, but not in the longest one. GMA action was related to the course of the experimental period, while electromagnetic radiation (EMR) was only significantly related when the previous hours before the experiments were considered...
November 30, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900245/image-analysis-assisted-study-of-mitotic-figures-in-oral-epithelial-dysplasia-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma-using-differential-stains
#13
Ankita Tandon, Narendra Nath Singh, V R Brave, Gadiputi Sreedhar
BACKGROUND: Mitosis is a process of cell division resulting in two genetically equivalent daughter cells. Excessive proliferation of cells due to mitosis is the hallmark in pre cancer and cancer. AIMS: This study was conducted to count the number of mitotic figures in normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma in both Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and Crystal Violet stained sections. Also the overall number of mitotic figures with both stains were compared along with the evaluation of staining efficacy of both the stains...
November 2016: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899647/spliceosomal-protein-eftud2-mutation-leads-to-p53-dependent-apoptosis-in-zebrafish-neural-progenitors
#14
Lei Lei, Shou-Yu Yan, Ran Yang, Jia-Yu Chen, Yumei Li, Ye Bu, Nannan Chang, Qinchao Zhou, Xiaojun Zhu, Chuan-Yun Li, Jing-Wei Xiong
Haploinsufficiency of EFTUD2 (Elongation Factor Tu GTP Binding Domain Containing 2) is linked to human mandibulofacial dysostosis, Guion-Almeida type (MFDGA), but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain to be addressed. We report here the isolation, cloning and functional analysis of the mutated eftud2 (snu114) in a novel neuronal mutant fn10a in zebrafish. This mutant displayed abnormal brain development with evident neuronal apoptosis while the development of other organs appeared less affected...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899507/cycling-through-developmental-decisions-how-cell-cycle-dynamics-control-pluripotency-differentiation-and-reprogramming
#15
REVIEW
Abdenour Soufi, Stephen Dalton
A strong connection exists between the cell cycle and mechanisms required for executing cell fate decisions in a wide-range of developmental contexts. Terminal differentiation is often associated with cell cycle exit, whereas cell fate switches are frequently linked to cell cycle transitions in dividing cells. These phenomena have been investigated in the context of reprogramming, differentiation and trans-differentiation but the underpinning molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Most progress to address the connection between cell fate and the cell cycle has been made in pluripotent stem cells, in which the transition through mitosis and G1 phase is crucial for establishing a window of opportunity for pluripotency exit and the initiation of differentiation...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894682/molecular-mechanisms-by-which-in-vivo-exposure-to-exogenous-chemical-genotoxic-agents-can-lead-to-micronucleus-formation-in-lymphocytes-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-in-humans
#16
REVIEW
Michael Fenech, Siegfried Knasmueller, Claudia Bolognesi, Stefano Bonassi, Nina Holland, Lucia Migliore, Fabrizio Palitti, Adayapalam T Natarajan, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
The purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which in vivo exposure to exogenous chemical genotoxins in humans induces micronuclei (MNi) and other nuclear anomalies in lymphocytes in vivo and ex vivo after nuclear division in vitro. MNi originate from acentric chromosome fragments and/or whole chromosomes that are unable to engage with the mitotic spindle and/or fail to segregate properly to the daughter nuclei during anaphase. The lagging fragments or whole chromosomes are surrounded by membrane and become MNi...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893714/the-lim-protein-ajuba-promotes-colorectal-cancer-cell-survival-through-suppression-of-jak1-stat1-ifit2-network
#17
H Jia, L Song, Q Cong, J Wang, H Xu, Y Chu, Q Li, Y Zhang, X Zou, C Zhang, Y E Chin, X Zhang, Z Li, K Zhu, B Wang, H Peng, Z Hou
The LIM protein AJUBA is a scaffold protein participating in the regulation of cell adhesion, mitosis, DNA damage, cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and gene transcription. However, its roles in tumorigenesis and progression are poorly defined. Here, we report that AJUBA is highly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) and promotes CRC cell growth in culture and in xenografted mice via an inhibition of apoptosis. AJUBA represses the expression of IFIT2 gene, an interferon-stimulated gene and a known apoptosis inducer and tumour suppressor to mediate its resistance to apoptosis...
November 28, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890626/the-appressorium-of-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae-remains-mitotically-active-during-post-penetration-hyphal-growth
#18
Cory B Jenkinson, Kiersun Jones, Jie Zhu, Sara Dorhmi, Chang Hyun Khang
To investigate the mitotic dynamics of an appressorium, we used live-cell confocal imaging of a fluorescence-based mitotic reporter strain of Magnaporthe oryzae. We present evidence that the M. oryzae appressorium remains viable and mitotically active well after host penetration. These results suggest the potential roles of the appressorium during post-penetration proliferation of invasive hyphae. Our studies also revealed that a mitotic appressorial nucleus undergoes extreme constriction and elongation as it migrates through the penetration peg in a manner analogous to mitosis during cell-to-cell movement of invasive hyphae...
November 23, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888710/plk1-a-potential-target-for-cancer-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Zhixian Liu, Qingrong Sun, Xiaosheng Wang
Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) plays an important role in the initiation, maintenance, and completion of mitosis. Dysfunction of PLK1 may promote cancerous transformation and drive its progression. PLK1 overexpression has been found in a variety of human cancers and was associated with poor prognoses in cancers. Many studies have showed that inhibition of PLK1 could lead to death of cancer cells by interfering with multiple stages of mitosis. Thus, PLK1 is expected to be a potential target for cancer therapy. In this article, we examined PLK1's structural characteristics, its regulatory roles in cell mitosis, PLK1 expression, and its association with survival prognoses of cancer patients in a wide variety of cancer types, PLK1 interaction networks, and PLK1 inhibitors under investigation...
November 23, 2016: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888217/quantitative-fastfucci-assay-defines-cell-cycle-dynamics-at-single-cell-level
#20
Siang-Boon Koh, Patrice Mascalchi, Esther Rodriguez, Yao Lin, Duncan I Jodrell, Frances M Richards, Scott K Lyons
The fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) is a powerful tool for use in live cells but current FUCCI-based assays have limited throughput and quantitative robustness. Here, we developed a lentiviral system that rapidly introduced FUCCI transgenes into cells, using an all-in-one expression cassette FastFUCCI. The approach obviated the need for sequential transduction and characterisation, improving labelling efficiency. We coupled the system to an automated imaging workflow capable of handling large datasets...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
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