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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640948/high-level-%C3%AE-iii-tubulin-overexpression-occurs-in-most-head-and-neck-cancers-but-is-unrelated-to-clinical-outcome
#1
Julie C Nienstedt, Alexander Gröbe, Till Clauditz, Ronald Simon, Adrian Muenscher, Rainald Knecht, Guido Sauter, Christoph Moebius, Marco Blessmann, Max Heiland, Christina Pflug
BACKGROUND: βIII-tubulin (TUBB3) is an isotype of microtubules, which are involved in crucial cellular roles including maintenance of cell shape, intracellular transport, and mitosis. Overexpression of TUBB3 was found to be associated with poor prognosis and resistance to tubulin-binding drugs and in several solid tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Considering the potential high importance of a prognostic biomarker in these cancers, the present study aimed to investigate the clinical relevance of immunohistochemical TUBB3 expression in HNSCC...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636231/orchestration-at-the-beginning-mitosis-in-sea-urchin-embryo
#2
Giselle A Abruzzese, Nae Tanpradit, Renata S Tavares
Development of multicellular organisms is driven by a series of mitotic divisions after fertilization. Total cytoplasmic volume does not increase during this process, resulting in an increasing number of smaller daughter cells. Cell divisions are initially synchronous in an early embryo, but this ends at the 16-cell stage in the sea urchin. Orchesterated mitosis does, however, continue in subpopulations via the coordination of two different processes: karyokinesis and cytokinesis. Part of this asynchrony is due to the differentiation of lineages...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634865/dynamics-of-tobacco-dna-topoisomerases-ii-in-cell-cycle-regulation-to-manage-topological-constrains-during-replication-transcription-and-mitotic-chromosome-condensation-and-segregation
#3
Badri Nath Singh, V Mohan Murali Achary, Varakumar Panditi, Sudhir K Sopory, Malireddy K Reddy
The topoisomerase II expression varies as a function of cell proliferation. Maximal topoisomerase II expression was tightly coupled to S phase and G2/M phase via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Investigation in meiosis using pollen mother cells also revealed that it is not the major component of meiotic chromosomes, it seems to diffuse out once meiotic chromosomal condensation is completed. Synchronized tobacco BY-2 cell cultures were used to study the role of topoisomerase II in various stages of the cell cycle...
June 20, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634794/evaluation-in-situ-of-genotoxicity-and-stress-in-south-american-common-toad-rhinella-arenarum-in-environments-related-to-fluorite-mine
#4
Favio E Pollo, Pablo R Grenat, Zulma A Salinas, Manuel A Otero, Nancy E Salas, Adolfo L Martino
Little attention has been paid to the impact of wastewater generated by mining activities on fluoride. In this study, we evaluated the hematology responses of common South American toad Rhinella arenarum inhabiting natural and artificial environments associated with a fluorite mine from central Argentina. We analyzed three sampling stations associated with the fluorite mine: (I) Los Cerros Negros stream (CN), which runs on granitic rock with a high fluorite content; (II) Los Vallecitos stream (LV), which runs on metamorphic rock with low fluorite content; and (III) artificial decantation ponds (DP) containing sediments produced by fluorite flotation process...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633031/cell-division-centrosomes-have-separation-anxiety
#5
Stephen R Norris, Ryoma Ohi
Prior to mitosis, duplicated centrosomes are tethered together, which is thought to prevent mitotic defects. A new study establishes the role of tetrameric Kif25, a microtubule minus-end-directed kinesin-14 motor, in preventing premature centrosome separation through a microtubule-dependent pathway.
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633016/mll-wdr5-complex-regulates-kif2a-localization-to-ensure-chromosome-congression-and-proper-spindle-assembly-during-mitosis
#6
Aamir Ali, Sailaja Naga Veeranki, Akash Chinchole, Shweta Tyagi
Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), along with multisubunit (WDR5, RbBP5, ASH2L, and DPY30) complex catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K4, leading to gene activation. Here, we characterize a chromatin-independent role for MLL during mitosis. MLL and WDR5 localize to the mitotic spindle apparatus, and loss of function of MLL complex by RNAi results in defects in chromosome congression and compromised spindle formation. We report interaction of MLL complex with several kinesin and dynein motors. We further show that the MLL complex associates with Kif2A, a member of the Kinesin-13 family of microtubule depolymerase, and regulates the spindle localization of Kif2A during mitosis...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631016/new-insights-into-cohesin-loading
#7
REVIEW
Ireneusz Litwin, Robert Wysocki
Cohesin is a conserved, ring-shaped protein complex that encircles sister chromatids and ensures correct chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. It also plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, DNA condensation, and DNA repair through both non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Cohesins are spatiotemporally regulated by the Scc2-Scc4 complex which facilitates cohesin loading onto chromatin at specific chromosomal sites. Over the last few years, much attention has been paid to cohesin and cohesin loader as it became clear that even minor disruptions of these complexes may lead to developmental disorders and cancers...
June 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630940/fluconazole-induced-ploidy-change-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-results-from-the-uncoupling-of-cell-growth-and-nuclear-division
#8
Sophie Altamirano, Diana Fang, Charles Simmons, Shreyas Sridhar, Peipei Wu, Kaustuv Sanyal, Lukasz Kozubowski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes lethal cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. One of the challenges in treating cryptococcosis is the development of resistance to azole antifungals. Previous studies linked azole resistance to elevated numbers of copies of critical resistance genes in aneuploid cells. However, how aneuploidy is formed in the presence of azole drugs remains unclear. This study showed that treatment with inhibitory concentrations of an azole drug, fluconazole (FLC), resulted in a significant population of cells with increased DNA content, through the following defects: inhibition of budding, premature mitosis, and inhibition of cytokinesis followed by replication in the mother cell...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630147/a-bifurcated-signaling-cascade-of-nima-related-kinases-controls-distinct-kinesins-in-anaphase
#9
Sierra N Cullati, Lilian Kabeche, Arminja N Kettenbach, Scott A Gerber
In mitosis, cells undergo a precisely orchestrated series of spatiotemporal changes in cytoskeletal structure to divide their genetic material. These changes are coordinated by a sophisticated network of protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications. In this study, we report a bifurcation in a signaling cascade of the NIMA-related kinases (Neks) Nek6, Nek7, and Nek9 that is required for the localization and function of two kinesins essential for cytokinesis, Mklp2 and Kif14. We demonstrate that a Nek9, Nek6, and Mklp2 signaling module controls the timely localization and bundling activity of Mklp2 at the anaphase central spindle...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628625/neural-progenitor-cell-proliferation-in-the-hypothalamus-is-involved-in-acquired-heat-tolerance-in-long-term-heat-acclimated-rats
#10
Kentaro Matsuzaki, Masanori Katakura, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Toshiko Hara, Michio Hashimoto, Osamu Shido
Constant exposure to moderate heat facilitates progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hypothalamus of heat-acclimated (HA) rats. In this study, we investigated neural phenotype and responsiveness to heat in HA rats' hypothalamic newborn cells. Additionally, the effect of hypothalamic neurogenesis on heat acclimation in rats was evaluated. Male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were housed at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 32°C for 6 days (STHA) or 40 days (LTHA), while control (CN) rats were kept at a Ta of 24°C for 6 days (STCN) or 40 days (LTCN)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627627/stromal-antigen-2-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-bladder-cancer-cells
#11
Han Wang, Jianhua Zhong, Chenglong Wu, Yang Liu, Jinghua Zhang, Xiaowen Zou, Yan Chen, Jinfeng Su, Gang Yang, Yuantang Zhong, Aifa Tang
Stromal antigen 2 (STAG2) is a subunit of the cohesion complex that plays an important role in the normal segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis or meiosis. However, the effect of STAG2 on the bladder cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion has not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we aimed to characterize STAG2 expression and functional significance in BC and adjacent normal tissue. Notably, STAG2 expression was markedly lower in BC cells and tumor tissues than their normal counterparts at the gene and protein levels...
June 12, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626760/txndc9-is-required-for-meiotic-maturation-of-mouse-oocytes
#12
Fanhua Ma, Liming Hou, Liguo Yang
Txndc9 (thioredoxin domain containing protein 9) has been shown to be involved in mammalian mitosis; however, its function in mammalian oocyte meiosis remains unclear. In this study, we initially found that Txndc9 is expressed during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes and higher expression of Txndc9 mRNA and protein occurred in germinal vesicle (GV) stage. By using confocal scanning, we observed that Txndc9 localized at both nucleus and cytoplasm, especially at spindle microtubules. Specific depletion of Txndc9 by siRNA in mouse oocyte resulted in decreasing the rate of first polar body extrusion and increasing abnormal spindle assemble...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624455/cellular-localization-of-atbf1-protein-and-its-functional-implication-in-breast-epithelial-cells
#13
Mei Li, Chi Zhang, Yi Zhong, Jiyuan Zhao
ATBF1, a large transcription factor, was normally localized in nuclei, and its mislocalization to cytoplasm was reported in multiple cancers. However, localization of ATBF1 in breast epithelial cells and its potential functions were unknown. Here, we investigated ATBF1 localization via immunofluorescence staining in different kinds of breast epithelial cells. In MCF10A cells and normal mice mammary gland tissues, ATBF1 was mainly localized in nuclei. Knockdown of ATBF1 expression in MCF10A cells by siRNA promoted cell proliferation...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622964/grand-paternal-inheritance-of-x-linked-myotubular-myopathy-due-to-mosaicism-and-identification-of-necklace-fibers-in-an-asymptomatic-male
#14
Carola Hedberg-Oldfors, Kittichate Visuttijai, Alexandra Topa, Mar Tulinius, Anders Oldfors
X-linked recessive myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a disorder associated with mutations in the myotubularin gene (MTM1) that usually affects boys, with transmission of the mutated allele from the mother. Here we describe a family with unexpected grand paternal transmission of a novel mutation in MTM1 (c.646_648dupGTT; p.Val216dup) identified in a severely affected infant boy with a centronuclear myopathy. We confirmed the carrier status of the mother, but surprisingly we found that her father was a carrier of the mutated MTM1 gene together with wild-type MTM1...
May 10, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622516/snapshot-phosphoregulation-of-mitosis
#15
Andrew Burgess, Jenny Vuong, Samuel Rogers, Marcos Malumbres, Seán I O'Donoghue
During mitosis, a cell divides its duplicated genome into two identical daughter cells. This process must occur without errors to prevent proliferative diseases (e.g., cancer). A key mechanism controlling mitosis is the precise timing of more than 32,000 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events by a network of kinases and counterbalancing phosphatases. The identity, magnitude, and temporal regulation of these events have emerged recently, largely from advances in mass spectrometry. Here, we show phosphoevents currently believed to be key regulators of mitosis...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622358/rotavirus-replication-is-correlated-with-s-g2-interphase-arrest-of-the-host-cell-cycle
#16
Selene Glück, Antonino Buttafuoco, Anita F Meier, Francesca Arnoldi, Bernd Vogt, Elisabeth M Schraner, Mathias Ackermann, Catherine Eichwald
In infected cells rotavirus (RV) replicates in viroplasms, cytosolic structures that require a stabilized microtubule (MT) network for their assembly, maintenance of the structure and perinuclear localization. Therefore, we hypothesized that RV could interfere with the MT-breakdown that takes place in mitosis during cell division. Using synchronized RV-permissive cells, we show that RV infection arrests the cell cycle in S/G2 phase, thus favoring replication by improving viroplasms formation, viral protein translation, and viral assembly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621416/all-in-one-integrating-cell-polarity-meiosis-mitosis-and-mechanical-forces-in-early-oocyte-differentiation-in-vertebrates
#17
Yaniv M Elkouby
While the differentiation of oocytes is key for embryonic development, and its investigation is crucial for advancing our understanding of human reproduction and fertility, many fundamental questions in oogenesis have been long standing. However, recent technical advances have led to several breakthroughs mainly in mice and zebrafish. Here I review these recent findings, including regulation and organization of the germline cyst, the mechanistics of chromosomal pairing, establishment of cell polarity, and formation of a universal mRNA-protein (mRNP) granule called the Balbiani body...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620461/the-enemies-within-regions-of-the-genome-that-are-inherently-difficult-to-replicate
#18
REVIEW
Rahul Bhowmick, Ian D Hickson
An unusual feature of many eukaryotic genomes is the presence of regions that appear intrinsically difficult to copy during the process of DNA replication. Curiously, the location of these difficult-to-replicate regions is often conserved between species, implying a valuable role in some aspect of genome organization or maintenance. The most prominent class of these regions in mammalian cells is defined as chromosome fragile sites, which acquired their name because of a propensity to form visible gaps/breaks on otherwise-condensed chromosomes in mitosis...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619713/molecular-model-of-fission-yeast-centrosome-assembly-determined-by-superresolution-imaging
#19
Andrew J Bestul, Zulin Yu, Jay R Unruh, Sue L Jaspersen
Microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs), known as centrosomes in animals and spindle pole bodies (SPBs) in fungi, are important for the faithful distribution of chromosomes between daughter cells during mitosis as well as for other cellular functions. The cytoplasmic duplication cycle and regulation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe SPB is analogous to centrosomes, making it an ideal model to study MTOC assembly. Here, we use superresolution structured illumination microscopy with single-particle averaging to localize 14 S...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617655/adapted-biotroph-manipulation-of-plant-cell-ploidy
#20
Mary C Wildermuth, Michael A Steinwand, Amanda G McRae, Johan Jaenisch, Divya Chandran
Diverse plant biotrophs that establish a sustained site of nutrient acquisition induce localized host endoreduplication. Endoreduplication is a process by which cells successively replicate their genomes without mitosis, resulting in an increase in nuclear DNA ploidy. Elevated ploidy is associated with enhanced cell size, metabolic capacity, and the capacity to differentiate. Localized host endoreduplication induced by adapted plant biotrophs promotes biotroph colonization, development, and/or proliferation...
June 15, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
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