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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445502/role-of-kif15-and-its-novel-mitotic-partner-kbp-in-k-fiber-dynamics-and-chromosome-alignment
#1
Nathalie Brouwers, Nuria Mallol Martinez, Isabelle Vernos
Faithful segregation of the genetic material during the cell cycle is key for the continuation of life. Central to this process is the assembly of a bipolar spindle that aligns the chromosomes and segregates them to the two daughter cells. Spindle bipolarity is strongly dependent on the activity of the homotetrameric kinesin Eg5. However, another kinesin, Kif15, also provides forces needed to separate the spindle poles during prometaphase and to maintain spindle bipolarity at metaphase. Here we identify KBP as a specific interaction partner of Kif15 in mitosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444194/evolution-of-the-3r-myb-gene-family-in-plants
#2
Guanqiao Feng, J Gordon Burleigh, Edward L Braun, Wenbin Mei, W Brad Barbazuk
Plant 3R-MYB transcription factors are an important subgroup of the MYB super family in plants; however, their evolutionary history and functions remain poorly understood. We identified 225 3R-MYB proteins from 65 plant species, including algae and all major lineages of land plants. Two segmental duplication events preceding the common ancestor of angiosperms have given rise to three subgroups of the 3R-MYB proteins. Five conserved introns in the domain region of the 3R-MYB genes were identified, which arose through a step-wise pattern of intron gain during plant evolution...
April 20, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443118/the-absence-of-the-arabidopsis-chaperone-complex-caf-1-produces-mitotic-chromosome-abnormalities-and-changes-in-the-expression-profiles-of-genes-involved-in-dna-repair
#3
Javier Varas, Juan L Santos, Mónica Pradillo
Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotrimeric chaperone complex that facilitates the incorporation of histones H3 and H4 onto newly synthesized DNA. We demonstrate here that the mutant deficient for the large subunit of the complex, fas1-4, and in minor extent, the mutant deficient for the middle subunit, fas2-1, display chromosome abnormalities throughout Arabidopsis mitosis. Among them, we observed multicentromeric chromosomes at metaphase, and chromatid bridges and acentric fragments at anaphase-telophase...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442503/molecular-pathways-targeting-the-protein-kinase-wee1-in-cancer
#4
Jill J J Geenen, Jan H M Schellens
Wee1 is a protein kinase that regulates the G2 checkpoint and prevents entry into mitosis in response to DNA damage. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of 14 serine/threonine protein kinases, which coordinate the progression through the cell cycle. The Cdc2/cyclin B complex controls the progression from G2 into mitosis. There are two mechanisms by which the G2 checkpoint is initiated in response to DNA damage: phosphorylation of Cdc25c by CHK1 and of Wee1 kinase, which phosphorylates Cdc2. Blockade at the G2 checkpoint is especially important for p53 mutant cells because these tumors mainly rely on DNA repair at the G2 checkpoint...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440022/mir-372-3p-promotes-cell-growth-and-metastasis-by-targeting-fgf9-in-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Qing Wang, Siyang Liu, Xitong Zhao, Yuan Wang, Dali Tian, Wenjun Jiang
The aim of this study was to study the role of miR-372-3p in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cell proliferation and invasion by suppressing FGF9. RT-PCR was used to determine miR-372-3p and FGF9 mRNA expression in tissues and cells. Western blot was used to determine FGF9 expression in tissues and NCI-H520 cell line. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay was conducted to confirm that FGF9 can be directly targeted by miR-372-3p. MTT, colony formation assays were conducted to investigate the effects of ectopic miR-372-3p and FGF9 expression on NCI-H520 cell growth...
April 24, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439046/protein-phosphatase-2a-regulatory-subunit-b55%C3%AE-functions-in-mouse-oocyte-maturation-and-early-embryonic-development
#6
Shuang Liang, Jing Guo, Jeong-Woo Choi, Kyung-Tae Shin, Hai-Yang Wang, Yu-Jin Jo, Nam-Hyung Kim, Xiang-Shun Cui
Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B55α (PP2A-B55α) has been studied in mitosis. However, its functions in mammalian meiosis and early embryonic development remain unknown. Here, we report that PP2A-B55α is critical for mouse oocyte meiosis and preimplantation embryo development. Knockdown of PP2A-B55α in oocytes led to abnormal asymmetric division, disordered spindle dynamics, defects in chromosome congression, an increase in aneuploidy, and induction of the DNA damage response. Moreover, knockdown of PP2A-B55α in fertilized mouse zygotes impaired development to the blastocyst stage...
March 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436952/playing-polo-during-mitosis-plk1-takes-the-lead
#7
REVIEW
G Combes, I Alharbi, L G Braga, S Elowe
Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), the prototypical member of the polo-like family of serine/threonine kinases, is a pivotal regulator of mitosis and cytokinesis in eukaryotes. Many layers of regulation have evolved to target PLK1 to different subcellular structures and to its various mitotic substrates in line with its numerous functions during mitosis. Collective work is starting to illuminate an important set of substrates for PLK1: the mitotic kinases that together ensure the fidelity of the cell division process...
April 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436947/dedifferentiation-into-blastomere-like-cancer-stem-cells-via-formation-of-polyploid-giant-cancer-cells
#8
N Niu, I Mercado-Uribe, J Liu
Our recent perplexing findings that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) acquired embryonic-like stemness and were capable of tumor initiation raised two important unanswered questions: how do PGCCs acquire such stemness, and to which stage of normal development do PGCCs correspond. Intriguingly, formation of giant cells due to failed mitosis/cytokinesis is common in the blastomere stage of the preimplantation embryo. However, the relationship between PGCCs and giant blastomeres has never been studied. Here, we tracked the fate of single PGCCs following paclitaxel-induced mitotic failure...
April 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436411/benign-mixed-epithelial-and-stromal-tumor-of-the-kidney-with-inferior-vena-cava-tumor-thrombus-a-rare-case-report-and-review-of%C3%A2-literature
#9
Chi Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Chengqiang Mo, Zhenpeng Peng, Ruilin Yang, Yiming Tang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Rongpei Wu
Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney (MESTK) is a rare renal tumor composed of epithelial and stromal cells. In this study, we report a rare case of MESTK, which was pathologically benign but complicated with renal vein and inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. The 50-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital for a mass on the left kidney. Computed tomography showed a 32 mm×18 mm mass with slight delayed enhancement in the left renal sinus, and neoplastic thrombus was detected in left renal vein and inferior vena cava...
April 18, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434146/differential-regulation-of-h3s10-phosphorylation-mitosis-progression-and-cell-fate-by-aurora-kinase-b-and-c-in-mouse-preimplantation-embryos
#10
Wenzhi Li, Peizhe Wang, Bingjie Zhang, Jing Zhang, Jia Ming, Wei Xie, Jie Na
Coordination of cell division and cell fate is crucial for the successful development of mammalian early embryos. Aurora kinases are evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinases and key regulators of mitosis. Aurora kinase B (AurkB) is ubiquitously expressed while Aurora kinase C (AurkC) is specifically expressed in gametes and preimplantation embryos. We found that increasing AurkC level in one blastomere of the 2-cell embryo accelerated cell division and decreasing AurkC level slowed down mitosis. Changing AurkB level had the opposite effect...
April 22, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431392/characterization-of-aurora-a-and-its-impact-on-the-effect-of-cisplatin-based-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Peng Kuang, Zuhua Chen, JiaYuan Wang, Zhentao Liu, Jingyuan Wang, Jing Gao, Lin Shen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Aurora A, as a member of serine/threonine kinase family and a common characteristic of epithelial cancers, plays a critical role in cell mitosis. However, the clinical significance of Aurora A in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains undetermined. METHODS: The expression of Aurora A in NSCLC and paired normal adjacent lung tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
April 18, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431155/motoring-through-the-role-of-kinesin-superfamily-proteins-in-female-meiosis
#12
Nicole J Camlin, Eileen A McLaughlin, Janet E Holt
BACKGROUND: The kinesin motor protein family consists of 14 distinct subclasses and 45 kinesin proteins in humans. A large number of these proteins, or their orthologues, have been shown to possess essential function(s) in both the mitotic and the meiotic cell cycle. Kinesins have important roles in chromosome separation, microtubule dynamics, spindle formation, cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. This article contains a review of the literature with respect to the role of kinesin motor proteins in female meiosis in model species...
April 18, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430635/unsuccessful-mitosis-in-multicellular-tumour-spheroids
#13
Annie Molla, Morgane Couvet, Jean-Luc Coll
Multicellular spheroids are very attractive models in oncology because they mimic the 3D organization of the tumour cells with their microenvironment. We show here using 3 different cell types (mammary TSA/pc, embryonic kidney Hek293 and cervical cancer HeLa), that when the cells are growing as spheroids the frequency of binucleated cells is augmented as occurs in some human tumours.We therefore describe mitosis in multicellular spheroids by following mitotic markers and by time-lapse experiments. Chromosomes alignment appears to be correct on the metaphasic plate and the passenger complex is well localized on centromere...
February 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430577/synthetic-lethal-interaction-between-the-tumour-suppressor-stag2-and-its-paralog-stag1
#14
Lorena Benedetti, Matteo Cereda, LeeAnn Monteverde, Nikita Desai, Francesca D Ciccarelli
Cohesin is a multi-protein complex that tethers sister chromatids during mitosis and mediates DNA repair, genome compartmentalisation and regulation of gene expression. Cohesin subunits frequently acquire cancer loss-of-function alterations and act as tumour suppressors in several tumour types. This has led to increased interest in cohesin as potential target in anti-cancer therapy. Here we show that the loss-of-function of STAG2, a core component of cohesin and an emerging tumour suppressor, leads to synthetic dependency of mutated cancer cells on its paralog STAG1...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426272/temperature-dependent-regulation-of-rdna-condensation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Donglai Shen, Robert V Skibbens
Chromatin condensation during mitosis produces detangled and discrete DNA entities required for high fidelity sister chromatid segregation during mitosis and positions DNA away from the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Regional condensation during G1 also establishes a nuclear architecture through which gene transcription is regulated but remains plastic so that cells can respond to changes in nutrient levels, temperature and signaling molecules. To date, however, the potential impact of this plasticity on mitotic chromosome condensation remains unknown...
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424288/virion-associated-vpr-alleviates-a-post-integration-block-to-hiv-1-infection-of-dendritic-cells
#16
Caitlin M Miller, Hisashi Akiyama, Luis M Agosto, Ann Emery, Chelsea R Ettinger, Ronald I Swamstrom, Andrew J Henderson, Suryaram Gummuluru
Viral protein R (Vpr) is an HIV-1 accessory protein whose function remains poorly understood. In this report, we sought to determine the requirement of Vpr in facilitating HIV-1 infection of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), one of the first cells to encounter virus in the peripheral mucosal tissues. We characterize in this report a significant restriction to Vpr-deficient virus replication and spread in MDDCs alone and in cell-to-cell spread in MDDC - CD4(+) T cell co-cultures. This restriction to HIV-1 replication in MDDCs was observed in a single round of virus replication and was rescued by expression of Vpr in trans in the incoming virion...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423514/mitotic-read-out-genes-confer-poor-outcome-in-luminal-a-breast-cancer-tumors
#17
Javier Pérez-Peña, Ana Alcaraz-Sanabria, Cristina Nieto-Jiménez, Raquel Páez, Verónica Corrales-Sánchez, Leticia Serrano-Oviedo, Vikram B Wali, Gauri A Patwardhan, Eitan Amir, Balázs Győrffy, Atanasio Pandiella, Alberto Ocaña
Luminal breast tumors have been classified into A and B subgroups, with the luminal A being associated with a more favorable clinical outcome. Unfortunately, luminal A tumors do not have a universally good prognosis. We used transcriptomic analyses using public datasets to evaluate the differential expression between normal breast tissue and breast cancer, focusing on upregulated genes included in cell cycle function. Association of selected genes with relapse free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) was performed using the KM Plotter Online Tool (http://www...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416751/proteasome-inhibition-enhances-the-efficacy-of-volasertib-induced-mitotic-arrest-in-aml-in-vitro-and-prolongs-survival-in-vivo
#18
Dominik Schnerch, Julia Schüler, Marie Follo, Julia Felthaus, Dagmar Wider, Kathrin Klingner, Christine Greil, Justus Duyster, Monika Engelhardt, Ralph Wäsch
Elderly and frail patients, diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and ineligible to undergo intensive treatment, have a dismal prognosis. The small molecule inhibitor volasertib induces a mitotic block via inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 and has shown remarkable anti-leukemic activity when combined with low-dose cytarabine. We have demonstrated that AML cells are highly vulnerable to cell death in mitosis yet manage to escape a mitotic block through mitotic slippage by sustained proteasome-dependent slow degradation of cyclin B...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416635/vprbp-dcaf1-regulates-the-degradation-and-non-proteolytic-activation-of-the-cell-cycle-transcription-factor-foxm1
#19
Xianxi Wang, Anthony Arceci, Kelly Bird, Christine A Mills, Rajarshi Choudhury, Jennifer L Kernan, Chunxiao Zhou, Victoria Bae-Jump, Albert Bowers, Michael J Emanuele
The oncogenic transcription factor FoxM1 plays a vital role in cell cycle progression, is activated in numerous human malignancies and linked to chromosome instability. We characterize here a Cullin4-based E3 ubiquitin ligase and its substrate receptor VprBP/DCAF1 (CRL4(VprBP)) that we show regulate FoxM1 ubiquitylation and degradation. Paradoxically, we also found that the substrate receptor VprBP is a potent FoxM1 activator. VprBP depletion reduces expression of FoxM1 target genes and impairs mitotic entry, whereas ectopic VprBP expression strongly activates a FoxM1 transcriptional reporter...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415805/regulatory-functional-territory-of-plk-1-and-their-substrates-beyond-mitosis
#20
REVIEW
Shiv Kumar, Garima Sharma, Chiranjib Chakraborty, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Jaebong Kim
Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) is a well-known (Ser/Thr) mitotic protein kinase and is considered as a proto-oncogene. As hyper-activation of PLK-1 is broadly associated with poor prognosis and cancer progression, it is one of the most extensively studied mitotic kinases. During mitosis, PLK-1 regulates various cell cycle events, such as spindle pole maturation, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. However, studies have demonstrated that the role of PLK-1 is not only restricted to mitosis, but PLK-1 can also regulate other vital events beyond mitosis, including transcription, translation, ciliogenesis, checkpoint adaptation and recovery, apoptosis, chromosomes dynamics etc...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
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