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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230073/%C3%AE-synuclein-transfer-through-tunneling-nanotubes-occurs-in-sh-sy5y-cells-and-primary-brain-pericytes-from-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#1
Birger Victor Dieriks, Thomas I-H Park, Chantelle Fourie, Richard L M Faull, Mike Dragunow, Maurice A Curtis
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the presence of inclusions known as Lewy bodies, which mainly consist of α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates. There is growing evidence that α-syn self-propagates in non-neuronal cells, thereby contributing to the progression and spread of PD pathology in the brain. Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are long, thin, F-actin-based membranous channels that connect cells and have been proposed to act as conduits for α-syn transfer between cells. SH-SY5Y cells and primary human brain pericytes, derived from postmortem PD brains, frequently form TNTs that allow α-syn transfer and long-distance electrical coupling between cells...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229961/neurospora-tetrasperma-crosses-heterozygous-for-hybrid-translocation-strains-produce-rare-eight-spored-asci-bearing-heterokaryotic-ascospores
#2
Durgadas P Kasbekar, Selvam Rekha
During ascogenesis in Neurospora, the ascospores are partitioned at the eight-nucleus stage that follows meiosis and a post-meiotic mitosis, and the ascospores that form in eight-spored asci are usually homokaryotic. We had previously created novel TNt strains by introgressing four Neurospora crassa insertional translocations (EB4, IBj5, UK14-1, and B362i) into N. tetrasperma. We now show that crosses of all the TNt strains with single-mating-type derivatives of the standard N. tetrasperma pseudohomothallic strain 85 (viz...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228549/the-budding-yeast-polo-like-kinase-localizes-to-distinct-populations-at-centrosomes-during-mitosis
#3
Vladimir V Botchkarev, Mikael V Garabedian, Brenda Lemos, Eric Paulissen, James E Haber
The budding yeast Polo-like kinase Cdc5 is a key regulator of many mitotic events. Cdc5 coordinates its functions spatially and temporally by changing its localization during the cell cycle: Cdc5 is imported into the nucleus in G2 phase and is released to the cytoplasm in anaphase, where it accumulates at the bud neck. Cdc5 also localizes to the spindle pole bodies (SPBs) from S phase until the end of mitosis. Whether Cdc5 changes its SPB population during the cell cycle is not known. We find that Cdc5 localizes to distinct SPB subpopulations depending on the mitotic stage...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228537/morphoelasticity-in-the-development-of-brown-alga-ectocarpus-siliculosus-from-cell-rounding-to-branching
#4
Fei Jia, Martine Ben Amar, Bernard Billoud, Bénédicte Charrier
A biomechanical model is proposed for the growth of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus Featuring ramified uniseriate filaments, this alga has two modes of growth: apical growth and intercalary growth with branching. Apical growth occurs upon the mitosis of a young cell at one extremity and leads to a new tip cell followed by a cylindrical cell, whereas branching mainly occurs when a cylindrical cell becomes rounded and swells, forming a spherical cell. Given the continuous interplay between cell growth and swelling, a poroelastic model combining osmotic pressure and volumetric growth is considered for the whole cell, cytoplasm and cell wall...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228263/reciprocal-regulation-between-53bp1-and-the-anaphase-promoting-complex-cyclosome-is-required-for-genomic-stability-during-mitotic-stress
#5
Thomas J Kucharski, Paul E Minshall, Mohamed Moustafa-Kamal, Andrew S Turnell, Jose G Teodoro
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets substrates for degradation to promote mitotic progression. Here, we show that the DNA damage response protein 53BP1 contains conserved KEN boxes that are required for APC/C-dependent degradation in early mitosis. Mutation of the 53BP1 KEN boxes stabilized the protein and extended mitotic duration, whereas 53BP1 knockdown resulted in a shorter and delayed mitosis. Loss of 53BP1 increased APC/C activity, and we show that 53BP1 is a direct APC/C inhibitor...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228067/epigenetic-characteristics-of-the-mitotic-chromosome-in-1d-and-3d
#6
Marlies E Oomen, Job Dekker
While chromatin characteristics in interphase are widely studied, characteristics of mitotic chromatin and their inheritance through mitosis are still poorly understood. During mitosis, chromatin undergoes dramatic changes: transcription stalls, chromatin-binding factors leave the chromatin, histone modifications change and chromatin becomes highly condensed. Many key insights into mitotic chromosome state and conformation have come from extensive microscopy studies over the last century. Over the last decade, the development of 3C-based techniques has enabled the study of higher order chromosome organization during mitosis in a genome-wide manner...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227012/detection-of-mitotic-nuclei-in-breast-histopathology-images-using-localized-acm-and-random-kitchen-sink-based-classifier
#7
K Sabeena Beevi, Madhu S Nair, G R Bindu, K Sabeena Beevi, Madhu S Nair, G R Bindu, G R Bindu, Madhu S Nair
The exact measure of mitotic nuclei is a crucial parameter in breast cancer grading and prognosis. This can be achieved by improving the mitotic detection accuracy by careful design of segmentation and classification techniques. In this paper, segmentation of nuclei from breast histopathology images are carried out by Localized Active Contour Model (LACM) utilizing bio-inspired optimization techniques in the detection stage, in order to handle diffused intensities present along object boundaries. Further, the application of a new optimal machine learning algorithm capable of classifying strong non-linear data such as Random Kitchen Sink (RKS), shows improved classification performance...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226231/cell-biology-of-the-plant-nucleus
#8
Iris Meier, Eric J Richards, David E Evans
The eukaryotic nucleus is enclosed by the nuclear envelope, which is perforated by the nuclear pores, the gateways of macromolecular exchange between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The nucleoplasm is organized in a complex three-dimensional fashion that changes over time and in response to stimuli. Within the cell, the nucleus must be viewed as an organelle (albeit a gigantic one) that is a recipient of cytoplasmic forces and capable of morphological and positional dynamics. The most dramatic reorganization of this organelle occurs during mitosis and meiosis...
February 22, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223121/safety-evaluation-of-a-milk-based-protein-powder-produced-by-a-novel-manufacturing-technique
#9
A LeBeau, R Matulka, B Comstock
TruActive™ NF is a novel, fat-free, milk-based protein powder to be added to food to increase protein content and is manufactured using non-thermal treatment to reduce potential pathogens most relevant to protecting public health. TruActive™ NF was evaluated for potential pathogens of concern to public health regulators; none were detected. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of TruActive™ NF at a 90(th) percentile consumption for the powder in nutritional beverages and bars is 14,700 mg/day. In vitro genotoxicity testing revealed that concentrations of TruActive™ NF up to 5000 μg/plate did not induce point mutations in selected strains...
February 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222971/cancer-biology-of-small-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-2%C3%A2-cm-what-is-the-risk-of-malignancy
#10
K Søreide
INTRODUCTION: The identification of small (<2 cm) gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is increasingly recognized. The malignancy potential is not absent. However, data on risk is scarce. The aim was to review the existing data on perceived risk of small GISTs in population-based studies. METHODS: A combined review of small GISTs (<2 cm) in a population-based dataset compared with a systematic review of available population-based studies. RESULTS: About one in every four (27%) patient has a small GIST, of which 79% were incidental in presentation, and all had a low-risk mitoses index (<5/hpf)...
February 9, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222318/design-synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-molecular-modeling-study-of-novel-macrocyclic-bisbibenzyl-analogues-as-antitubulin-agents
#11
Bin Sun, Lin Li, Qing-Wen Hu, Hong-Bo Zheng, Hui Tang, Huan-Min Niu, Hui-Qing Yuan, Hong-Xiang Lou
A series of macrocyclic bisbibenzyls with novel skeletons was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for antiproliferative activity against five anthropic cancer cell lines. Among these novel molecules, compound 47 displayed excellent anticancer activity against HeLa, k562, HCC1428, HT29 and PC-3/Doc cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from of 1.51 μM-5.51 μM, which were more potent than the parent compound, marchantin C. Compounds 44 and 55 with novel bisbibenzyl skeletons also exhibited significantly improved antiproliferative potency...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220481/does-max-open-up-a-new-avenue-for-meiotic-research
#12
REVIEW
Ayumu Suzuki, Masataka Hirasaki, Akihiko Okuda
Meiosis is a central event of sexual reproduction. Like somatic cells, germ cells conduct mitosis to increase their cell number, but unlike somatic cells, germ cells switch their cell division mode from mitosis to meiosis at a certain point in gametogenesis. However, the molecular basis of this switch remains elusive. In this review article, we give an overview of the onset of mammalian meiosis, including our recent finding that MYC Associated Factor X (MAX) prevents ectopic and precocious meiosis in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and germ cells, respectively...
February 20, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219046/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-pyrazolic-chalcone-derivatives-as-novel-hepatocellular-carcinoma-therapeutics
#13
Mohammed M A Hawash, Deniz Cansen Kahraman, Fikriye Eren, Rengul Cetin Atalay, Sultan Nacak Baytas
Despite having the second highest mortality associated with cancer, currently Sorafenib is the only FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agent available for liver cancer patients which can only improve survival for few months. In this study, various pyrazolic chalcone analogous compounds were synthesized and evaluated as potential chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Modifying the central pyrazole ring at the C(3)-position with different heteroaryl rings and substituting the C(4)-position of pyrazole with differently substituted chalcone moiety produced fouthy two variant compounds...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218744/live-cell-imaging-to-compare-the-transfection-and-gene-silencing-efficiency-of-calcium-phosphate-nanoparticles-and-a-liposomal-transfection-agent
#14
S Chernousova, M Epple
The processing of DNA (for transfection) and siRNA (for gene silencing), introduced into HeLa cells by triple-shell calcium phosphate nanoparticles, was followed by live-cell imaging. For comparison, the commercial liposomal transfection agent Lipofectamine(TM) was used. The cells were incubated with these delivery systems, carrying either eGFP-encoding DNA or siRNA against eGFP. In the latter case, HeLa cells which stably expressed eGFP were used. The expression of eGFP started after 5 h in the case of nanoparticles and after 4 h in the case of Lipofectamine...
February 20, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218735/aurora-kinase-a-regulates-survivin-stability-through-targeting-fbxl7-in-gastric-cancer-drug-resistance-and-prognosis
#15
M Kamran, Z-J Long, D Xu, S-S Lv, B Liu, C-L Wang, J Xu, E W-F Lam, Q Liu
Aurora kinase A (AURKA) has been implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression, mitosis and a key number of oncogenic signaling pathways in various malignancies. However, little is known about its role in gastric cancer prognosis and genotoxic resistance. Here we found that AURKA was highly overexpressed in gastric cancer and inversely correlated with disease prognosis. Overexpression of AURKA exacerbated gastric cancer drug resistance through upregulating the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Survivin...
February 20, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218660/anaphase-a-disassembling-microtubules-move-chromosomes-toward-spindle-poles
#16
REVIEW
Charles L Asbury
The separation of sister chromatids during anaphase is the culmination of mitosis and one of the most strikingly beautiful examples of cellular movement. It consists of two distinct processes: Anaphase A, the movement of chromosomes toward spindle poles via shortening of the connecting fibers, and anaphase B, separation of the two poles from one another via spindle elongation. I focus here on anaphase A chromosome-to-pole movement. The chapter begins by summarizing classical observations of chromosome movements, which support the current understanding of anaphase mechanisms...
February 17, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218637/mechanisms-of-chromosome-congression-during-mitosis
#17
REVIEW
Helder Maiato, Ana Margarida Gomes, Filipe Sousa, Marin Barisic
Chromosome congression during prometaphase culminates with the establishment of a metaphase plate, a hallmark of mitosis in metazoans. Classical views resulting from more than 100 years of research on this topic have attempted to explain chromosome congression based on the balance between opposing pulling and/or pushing forces that reach an equilibrium near the spindle equator. However, in mammalian cells, chromosome bi-orientation and force balance at kinetochores are not required for chromosome congression, whereas the mechanisms of chromosome congression are not necessarily involved in the maintenance of chromosome alignment after congression...
February 17, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217890/cerebellar-hemangioblastoma-with-perivascular-pseudorosette-formation-and-glial-differentiation-a-case-report
#18
Jian Wang, Xu-Yong Lin, Xue-Shan Qiu, En-Hua Wang, Lian-He Yang, Juan-Han Yu
Hemangioblastoma is a well-circumscribed, highly vascular, lipid-rich and low-grade tumor of uncertain histogenesis. Its histopathological features have been well established. Herein, we present a case of cerebellar hemangioblastoma in a 43-year-old woman. Histologically, the tumor was predominantly composed of cellular areas showing eosinophilic or vacuolated stromal cells arranged in nests and sheets. Focally, conventional reticular areas could be seen. Additionally, in some areas, the stromal cells were arranged radially around blood vessels, exhibiting perivascular pseudorosette structures, which were similar mostly to those of ependymomas...
August 24, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216227/nek7-protects-telomeres-from-oxidative-dna-damage-by-phosphorylation-and-stabilization-of-trf1
#19
Rong Tan, Satoshi Nakajima, Qun Wang, Hongxiang Sun, Jing Xue, Jian Wu, Sabine Hellwig, Xuemei Zeng, Nathan A Yates, Thomas E Smithgall, Ming Lei, Yu Jiang, Arthur S Levine, Bing Su, Li Lan
Telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) is essential to the maintenance of telomere chromatin structure and integrity. However, how telomere integrity is maintained, especially in response to damage, remains poorly understood. Here, we identify Nek7, a member of the Never in Mitosis Gene A (NIMA) kinase family, as a regulator of telomere integrity. Nek7 is recruited to telomeres and stabilizes TRF1 at telomeres after damage in an ATM activation-dependent manner. Nek7 deficiency leads to telomere aberrations, long-lasting γH2AX and 53BP1 foci, and augmented cell death upon oxidative telomeric DNA damage...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215051/-pro-renin-receptor-atp6ap2-depletion-arrests-as4-1-cells-in-the-g0-g1-phase-thereby-increasing-formation-of-primary-cilia
#20
Heike Wanka, Philipp Lutze, Doreen Staar, Barbara Peters, Anica Morch, Lukas Vogel, Ravi Kumar Chilukoti, Georg Homuth, Jaroslaw Sczodrok, Inga Bäumgen, Jörg Peters
The (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR, ATP6AP2] is a multifunctional transmembrane protein that activates local renin-angiotensin systems, but also interacts with Wnt pathways and vacuolar H(+) -ATPase (V-ATPase) during organogenesis. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of ATP6AP2 in the cell cycle in more detail. ATP6AP2 down-regulation by siRNA in renal As4.1 cells resulted in a reduction in the rate of proliferation and a G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. We identified a number of novel target genes downstream of ATP6AP2 knock-down that were related to the primary cilium (Bbs-1, Bbs-3, Bbs-7, Rabl5, Ttc26, Mks-11, Mks-5, Mks-2, Tctn2, Nme7) and the cell cycle (Pierce1, Clock, Ppif)...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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