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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346108/modeling-of-electroporation-induced-by-pulsed-electric-fields-in-irregularly-shaped-cells
#1
Luciano Mescia, Michele A Chiapperino, Pietro Bia, Johan Gielis, Diego Caratelli
During the past decades, the poration of cell membrane induced by pulsed electric fields has been widely investigated. Since the basic mechanisms of this process have not yet been fully clarified, many research activities are focused on the development of suitable theoretical and numerical models. To this end, a nonlinear, nonlocal, dispersive, and space-time numerical algorithm has been developed and adopted to evaluate the transmembrane voltage and pore density along the perimeter of realistic irregularly shaped cells...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343550/cdk1-dependent-phospho-inhibition-of-a-formin-f-bar-interaction-opposes-cytokinetic-contractile-ring-formation
#2
Alaina H Willet, K Adam Bohnert, Kathleen L Gould
In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cytokinesis requires the assembly and constriction of an actomyosin-based contractile ring (CR). A single essential formin, Cdc12, localizes to the cell middle upon mitotic onset and nucleates the F-actin of the CR. Cdc12 medial recruitment is mediated in part by its direct binding to the F-BAR scaffold Cdc15. Given that Cdc12 is hyper-phosphorylated in M phase, we explored whether Cdc12 phospho-regulation impacts its association with Cdc15 during mitosis. We found that Cdk1, a major mitotic kinase, phosphorylates Cdc12 on six N-terminal residues near the Cdc15-binding site...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342962/functional-analyses-of-runx3-and-camkiin%C3%AE-in-ovarian-cancer-cell-lines-reveal-tumor-suppressive-functions-for-camkiin%C3%AE-and-dichotomous-roles-for-runx3-transcript-variants
#3
Karolin Heinze, Daniel Kritsch, Alexander S Mosig, Matthias Dürst, Norman Häfner, Ingo B Runnebaum
(1) Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal cancer of the female reproductive system. In an earlier study, we identified multiple genes as hypermethylated in tumors of patients with poor prognosis. The most promising combination of markers to predict a patient's outcome was CaMKIINα and RUNX3. Aim of this study was to functionally validate the importance of both genes. (2) Methods: IC50 measurements, cell cycle distribution-, proliferation, and migration experiments were conducted after transgene overexpression in two EOC cell lines...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342134/chromosomal-instability-drives-metastasis-through-a-cytosolic-dna-response
#4
Samuel F Bakhoum, Bryan Ngo, Ashley M Laughney, Julie-Ann Cavallo, Charles J Murphy, Peter Ly, Pragya Shah, Roshan K Sriram, Thomas B K Watkins, Neil K Taunk, Mercedes Duran, Chantal Pauli, Christine Shaw, Kalyani Chadalavada, Vinagolu K Rajasekhar, Giulio Genovese, Subramanian Venkatesan, Nicolai J Birkbak, Nicholas McGranahan, Mark Lundquist, Quincey LaPlant, John H Healey, Olivier Elemento, Christine H Chung, Nancy Y Lee, Marcin Imielenski, Gouri Nanjangud, Dana Pe'er, Don W Cleveland, Simon N Powell, Jan Lammerding, Charles Swanton, Lewis C Cantley
Chromosomal instability is a hallmark of cancer that results from ongoing errors in chromosome segregation during mitosis. Although chromosomal instability is a major driver of tumour evolution, its role in metastasis has not been established. Here we show that chromosomal instability promotes metastasis by sustaining a tumour cell-autonomous response to cytosolic DNA. Errors in chromosome segregation create a preponderance of micronuclei whose rupture spills genomic DNA into the cytosol. This leads to the activation of the cGAS-STING (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes) cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and downstream noncanonical NF-κB signalling...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340707/vrk1-and-aurkb-form-a-complex-that-cross-inhibit-their-kinase-activity-and-the-phosphorylation-of-histone-h3-in-the-progression-of-mitosis
#5
David S Moura, Ignacio Campillo-Marcos, Marta Vázquez-Cedeira, Pedro A Lazo
Regulation of cell division requires the integration of signals implicated in chromatin reorganization and coordination of its sequential changes in mitosis. Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) and Aurora B (AURKB) are two nuclear kinases involved in different steps of cell division. We have studied whether there is any functional connection between these two nuclear kinases, which phosphorylate histone H3 in Thr3 and Ser10, respectively. VRK1 and AURKB are able to form a stable protein complex, which represents only a minor subpopulation of each kinase within the cell and is detected following nocodazole release...
January 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339794/hpv-16-virions-can-remain-infectious-for-2-weeks-on-senescent-cells-but-require-cell-cycle-re-activation-to-allow-virus-entry
#6
Justyna Broniarczyk, Nadja Ring, Paola Massimi, Mauro Giacca, Lawrence Banks
Successful infection with Human Papillomaviruses requires mitosis, when incoming viral genomes gain access to nuclear components. However, very little is known about how long HPV particles can remain infectious in non-dividing cells or in which cellular compartments these viruses may reside. To investigate these questions we have used BJ cells as a reversible model of senescence and show that HPV-16 can only infect early-passage proliferating cells. Late-passage senescent cells are resistant to HPV infection, but this can be reversed by inducing cell cycle re-entry with a p53 siRNA...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339452/effects-of-colostrum-feeding-method-and-oral-igf1-on-porcine-uterine-development
#7
Ashley F George, Kathleen M Rahman, Dori J Miller, Anne A Wiley, Meredith E Camp, Frank Bartol, Carol A Bagnell
Nursing ensures lactocrine delivery of maternally-derived, milk-borne bioactive factors to offspring, which affects postnatal development of female reproductive tract tissues. Disruption of lactocrine communication for two days from birth (postnatal day = PND 0) by feeding milk replacer in lieu of nursing or consumption of colostrum alters porcine uterine gene expression globally by PND 2 and inhibits uterine gland genesis by PND 14. Here, objectives were to determine effects of: 1) nursing or milk replacer feeding from birth; 2) a single dose of colostrum or milk replacer and method of feeding; and 3) a single feeding of colostrum or milk replacer, with or without oral supplementation of IGF1, administered at birth on aspects of porcine uterine development at 12 h postnatally...
January 16, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339158/myosin-xi-localizes-at-the-mitotic-spindle-and-along-the-cell-plate-during-plant-cell-division-in-physcomitrella-patens
#8
Hao Sun, Fabienne Furt, Luis Vidali
Cell division is a fundamental biological process that has been extensively investigated in different systems. Similar to most eukaryotic cells, plant cells assemble a mitotic spindle to separate replicated chromosomes. In contrast, to complete cell division, plant cells assemble a phragmoplast, which is composed of aligned microtubules and actin filaments. This structure helps transport vesicles containing new cell wall material, which then fuse to form the cell plate; the cell plate will expand to create the new dividing cell wall...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338383/the-process-of-engraftment-of-myogenic-cells-in-skeletal-muscles-of-primates-understanding-clinical-observations-and-setting-directions-in-cell-transplantation-research
#9
Daniel Skuk, Jacques P Tremblay
We studied in macaques the evolution of the intramuscular transplantation of muscle precursor cells between the time of administration and the time at which the graft is considered stable. Satellite cell-derived myoblasts labeled with ß-galactosidase were transplanted into 1 cm3 muscle regions following cell culture and transplantation protocols similar to our last clinical trials. These regions were biopsied 1 h, 1, 3, 7 d, and 3 wk later and analyzed by histology. We observed that the cell suspension leaks from the muscle bundles during injection toward the epimysium and perimysium, where most cells accumulate after transplantation...
November 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336114/nucleolar-and-spindle-associated-protein-1-is-a-tumor-grade-correlated-prognosis-marker-for-glioma-patients
#10
Tao Zhu, Pan Xie, Yuan-Feng Gao, Ma-Sha Huang, Xi Li, Wei Zhang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Zhao-Qian Liu
AIMS: Despite therapeutic advances in glioma management including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the improvement of patient outcome is far from satisfactory. Nucleolar and spindle-associated protein 1 (NUSAP1) is an important functional protein during mitosis, and its abnormal expression is implicated in progression of different types of tumors. However, the role of NUSAP1 in gliomas remains unclear. METHODS: NUSAP1 expression in gliomas with different grades was investigated based on GEO glioma datasets...
January 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335529/transient-scute-activation-via-a-self-stimulatory-loop-directs-enteroendocrine-cell-pair-specification-from-self-renewing-intestinal-stem-cells
#11
Jun Chen, Na Xu, Chenhui Wang, Pin Huang, Huanwei Huang, Zhen Jin, Zhongsheng Yu, Tao Cai, Renjie Jiao, Rongwen Xi
The process through which multiple types of cell-lineage-restricted progenitor cells are specified from multipotent stem cells is unclear. Here we show that, in intestinal stem cell lineages in adult Drosophila, in which the Delta-Notch-signalling-guided progenitor cell differentiation into enterocytes is the default mode, the specification of enteroendocrine cells (EEs) is initiated by transient Scute activation in a process driven by transcriptional self-stimulation combined with a negative feedback regulation between Scute and Notch targets...
January 15, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332580/aurora-kinase-inhibitors-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#12
Guangying Qi, Jing Liu, Sisi Mi, Takaaki Tsunematsu, Shengjian Jin, Wenhua Shao, Tian Liu, Naozumi Ishimaru, Bo Tang, Yasusei Kudo
Aurora kinases are a group of serine/threonine kinases responsible for the regulation of mitosis. In recent years, with the increase in Aurora kinase-related research, the important role of Aurora kinases in tumorigenesis has been gradually recognized. Aurora kinases have been regarded as a new target for cancer therapy, resulting in the development of Aurora kinase inhibitors. The study and application of these small-molecule inhibitors, especially in combination with chemotherapy drugs, represents a new direction in cancer treatment...
January 12, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332027/phyllodes-tumors-of-the-breast-clinicopathological-analysis-of-106-cases-from-a-single-institution
#13
Boubacar Efared
BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumors (PT) are uncommon biphasic tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all breast primary neoplasms. They form a wide variety of tumors ranging from benign to malignant. Several histological features are used to grade PT into 3 categories: benign (grade I), borderline (grade II) and malignant (grade III) tumors. The aim of our study was to analyse histolopathological, radiological and clinical features of PT from an experience of a single center. METHODS: It was a retrospective study including 106 patients diagnosed with phyllodes tumors on surgical specimens at the department of pathology, of Hassan II university hospital (Fez, Morocco), from 2009 to 2016...
January 10, 2018: Breast Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327706/nuclear-grade-and-necrosis-predict-prognosis-in-malignant-epithelioid-pleural-mesothelioma-a-multi-institutional-study
#14
Lauren E Rosen, Theodore Karrison, Vijayalakshmi Ananthanarayanan, Alexander J Gallan, Prasad S Adusumilli, Fouad S Alchami, Richard Attanoos, Luka Brcic, Kelly J Butnor, Françoise Galateau-Sallé, Kenzo Hiroshima, Kyuichi Kadota, Astero Klampatsa, Nolween Le Stang, Joerg Lindenmann, Leslie A Litzky, Alberto Marchevsky, Filomena Medeiros, M Angeles Montero, David A Moore, Kazuki Nabeshima, Elizabeth N Pavlisko, Victor L Roggli, Jennifer L Sauter, Anupama Sharma, Michael Sheaff, William D Travis, Wickii T Vigneswaran, Bart Vrugt, Ann E Walts, Melissa Y Tjota, Thomas Krausz, Aliya N Husain
A recently described nuclear grading system predicted survival in patients with epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma. The current study was undertaken to validate the grading system and to identify additional prognostic factors. We analyzed cases of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma from 17 institutions across the globe from 1998 to 2014. Nuclear grade was computed combining nuclear atypia and mitotic count into a grade of I-III using the published system. Nuclear grade was assessed by one pathologist for three institutions, the remaining were scored independently...
January 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323269/postmitotic-nuclear-pore-assembly-proceeds-by-radial-dilation-of-small-membrane-openings
#15
Shotaro Otsuka, Anna M Steyer, Martin Schorb, Jean-Karim Hériché, M Julius Hossain, Suruchi Sethi, Moritz Kueblbeck, Yannick Schwab, Martin Beck, Jan Ellenberg
The nuclear envelope has to be reformed after mitosis to create viable daughter cells with closed nuclei. How membrane sealing of DNA and assembly of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are achieved and coordinated is poorly understood. Here, we reconstructed nuclear membrane topology and the structures of assembling NPCs in a correlative 3D EM time course of dividing human cells. Our quantitative ultrastructural analysis shows that nuclear membranes form from highly fenestrated ER sheets whose holes progressively shrink...
January 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323073/myoepithelial-carcinoma-of-the-tongue-spindle-cell-morphology-with-high-mitosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Abhimanyu Sharma, Priyanka Gogoi, Vinod Kumar Arora
Myoepithelial carcinomas represent <1% of salivary gland tumors. Tongue is a rare site of occurrence. We present a case of a 30 year old female with myoepithelial carcinoma seen over dorsum of tongue with predominantly spindle cell morphology with clear cytoplasm and mitotic count of 6-7/10 hpf. We need to differentiate it from a spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma which can be seen at this location, i.e., tongue. In our case, there was no connection of the tumor with overlying squamous epithelium.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322347/all-aspect-of-toxic-effect-of-brilliant-blue-and-sunset-yellow-in-allium-cepa-roots
#17
Kemal Koç, Dilek Pandir
Substances added to food are considerable for survival and are the oldest technologies used in preservation, sweetening and coloring. This work was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the food additives sunset yellow (SY) and brilliant blue (BB) on Allium cepa root meristematic cells. Control and treatment groups were created from germinated roots. Group 1 (control group) did not receive chemicals. Group 2 (SY or BB-treatment group), received increasing doses of SY (25, 50, 100 and 500 ppm) and BB (100, 200, 400 and 500 ppm) with time periods of 24, 48 and 72 h...
January 10, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322240/ki-67-more-than-a-proliferation-marker
#18
REVIEW
Xiaoming Sun, Paul D Kaufman
Ki-67 protein has been widely used as a proliferation marker for human tumor cells for decades. In recent studies, multiple molecular functions of this large protein have become better understood. Ki-67 has roles in both interphase and mitotic cells, and its cellular distribution dramatically changes during cell cycle progression. These localizations correlate with distinct functions. For example, during interphase, Ki-67 is required for normal cellular distribution of heterochromatin antigens and for the nucleolar association of heterochromatin...
January 10, 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321819/the-induction-of-endoreduplication-and-polyploidy-by-elevated-expression-of-14-3-3%C3%AE
#19
Cecil J Gomes, Sara M Centuori, Michael W Harman, Charles W Putnam, Charles W Wolgemuth, Jesse D Martinez
Several studies have demonstrated that specific 14-3-3 isoforms are frequently elevated in cancer and that these proteins play a role in human tumorigenesis. 14-3-3γ, an isoform recently demonstrated to function as an oncoprotein, is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers; however, its role in promoting tumorigenesis remains unclear. We previously reported that overexpression of 14-3-3γ caused the appearance of polyploid cells, a phenotype demonstrated to have profound tumor promoting properties. Here we examined the mechanism driving 14-3-3γ-induced polyploidization and the effect this has on genomic stability...
November 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321327/human-papillomavirus-16-infection-induces-vap-dependent-endosomal-tubulation
#20
Abida Siddiqa, Paola Massimi, David Pim, Justyna Broniarczyk, Lawrence Banks
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves complex interactions with the endocytic transport machinery, which ultimately facilitates the entry of the incoming viral genomes into the trans-Golgi network and their subsequent nuclear entry during mitosis. The endosomal pathway is a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which consists of vesicular compartments and tubular extensions, although it is currently unclear whether incoming viruses specifically alter the endocytic machinery. In this study, using MICAL-L1 as a marker for tubulating endosomes, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a profound alteration in global levels of endocytic tubulation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
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