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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323902/no-prognostic-value-added-by-vitamin-d-pathway-snps-to-current-prognostic-system-for-melanoma-survival
#1
Li Luo, Irene Orlow, Peter A Kanetsky, Nancy E Thomas, Shenying Fang, Jeffrey E Lee, Marianne Berwick, Ji-Hyun Lee
The prognostic improvement attributed to genetic markers over current prognostic system has not been well studied for melanoma. The goal of this study is to evaluate the added prognostic value of Vitamin D Pathway (VitD) SNPs to currently known clinical and demographic factors such as age, sex, Breslow thickness, mitosis and ulceration (CDF). We utilized two large independent well-characterized melanoma studies: the Genes, Environment, and Melanoma (GEM) and MD Anderson studies, and performed variable selection of VitD pathway SNPs and CDF using Random Survival Forest (RSF) method in addition to Cox proportional hazards models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317335/research-highlights
#2
(no author information available yet)
In this issue, we highlight work from Larson and Bement that describes an automated imaging software to track spindle dynamics during mitosis, a study by Lisse and Rieger that shows how IKKα promotes keratinocyte migration during wound repair, and a report by Baldwin and colleagues that shows how STAT3 fine tunes cytosolic DNA-induced gene expression.
March 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315405/location-and-functional-analysis-of-the-aspergillus-nidulans-aurora-kinase-confirm-mitotic-functions-and-suggest-non-mitotic-roles
#3
Colin P De Souza, Shahr B Hashmi, Natalie Hage, Rebecca M Fitch, Aysha H Osmani, Stephen A Osmani
Filamentous fungi have devastating negative impacts as pathogens and agents of food spoilage but also have critical ecological importance and are utilized for industrial applications. The characteristic multinucleate nature of filamentous fungi is facilitated by limiting if, when and where septation, the fungal equivalent of cytokinesis, occurs. In the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans septation does not occur immediately after mitosis and is an incomplete process resulting in the formation of a septal pore whose permeability is cell cycle regulated...
March 14, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314740/dual-recognition-of-chromatin-and-microtubules-by-incenp-is-important-for-mitotic-progression
#4
Michael S Wheelock, David J Wynne, Boo Shan Tseng, Hironori Funabiki
The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), composed of inner centromere protein (INCENP), Survivin, Borealin, and the kinase Aurora B, contributes to the activation of the mitotic checkpoint. The regulation of CPC function remains unclear. Here, we reveal that in addition to Survivin and Borealin, the single α-helix (SAH) domain of INCENP supports CPC localization to chromatin and the mitotic checkpoint. The INCENP SAH domain also mediates INCENP's microtubule binding, which is negatively regulated by Cyclin-dependent kinase-mediated phosphorylation of segments flanking the SAH domain...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303729/case-of-glioblastoma-patient-treated-with-tumor-treating-fields-therapy-at-recurrence-degenerating-to-sarcoma
#5
Pejman Majd, Daniel E O'Connell, Ronald C Kim, Daniela A Bota, Jose A Carrillo
Optune(®) treatment is a US FDA-approved treatment for glioblastoma (GBM) that employs alternating electric fields. Tumor treating field (TTF) therapy can exert its effects on GBM via cell cycle mitosis disruption and cytokinesis. We describe a patient with recurrent GBM who had disease progression following standard surgical treatment and concomitant chemoradiotherapy, and was found to have sarcomatous transformation after initiation of TTF therapy with bevacizumab. Upon tumor progression, repeat surgical resection revealed transformation into a GFAP-negative, reticulin-positive sarcoma with rhabdomyoid features...
March 17, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302022/glial-cell-a-potential-target-for-cellular-and-drug-based-therapy-in-various-cns-diseases
#6
Shakeeb Ahmed, Yasmin Sultana, Azka Gull, Tahir Khuroo, Mohd Aqil
Glial cells are integrated part of neurovascular unit of blood brain barrier (BBB). They undergo mitosis and mainly classified as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells and nerve glial antigen 2 cells. Being a most versatile glial cell, astrocytes provide structural support to neurons, maintain brain homeostasis, take part in neuronal communication, and perform some housekeeping functions. Oligodendrocytes myelinate the neuronal axons for proper transmission of nerve impulse and microglia are brain immune cells...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301465/an-smc-like-protein-binds-and-regulates-caenorhabditis-elegans-condensins
#7
Lucy Fang-I Chao, Meha Singh, James Thompson, John R Yates, Kirsten A Hagstrom
Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) family proteins participate in multisubunit complexes that govern chromosome structure and dynamics. SMC-containing condensin complexes create chromosome topologies essential for mitosis/meiosis, gene expression, recombination, and repair. Many eukaryotes have two condensin complexes (I and II); C. elegans has three (I, II, and the X-chromosome specialized condensin IDC) and their regulation is poorly understood. Here we identify a novel SMC-like protein, SMCL-1, that binds to C...
March 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300828/ncaph-plays-important-roles-in-human-colon-cancer
#8
Liang Yin, Li-Ping Jiang, Qiu-Shuo Shen, Qiu-Xia Xiong, Xiao Zhuo, Long-Long Zhang, Hai-Jing Yu, Xiang Guo, Ying Luo, Jian Dong, Qing-Peng Kong, Cui-Ping Yang, Yong-Bin Chen
Colon cancer (CC) is one of the major malignancies worldwide, whose pathogenesis is complex and requires the accumulated alteration of multiple genes and signaling pathways. Condensins are multi-protein complexes that play pivotal roles in chromosome assembly and segregation during mitosis, meiosis and even tumorigenesis. Using tissue microarrays by immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin-eosin staining, we found that non-SMC condensin I complex subunit H (NCAPH) in colon cancerous tissues was higher than that in all corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299653/mitotic-gene-bookmarking-an-epigenetic-mechanism-for-coordination-of-lineage-commitment-cell-identity-and-cell-growth
#9
Sayyed K Zaidi, Jane B Lian, Andre van Wijnen, Janet L Stein, Gary S Stein
Epigenetic control of gene expression contributes to dynamic responsiveness of cellular processes that include cell cycle, cell growth and differentiation. Mitotic gene bookmarking, retention of sequence-specific transcription factors at target gene loci, including the RUNX regulatory proteins, provide a novel dimension to epigenetic regulation that sustains cellular identity in progeny cells following cell division. Runx transcription factor retention during mitosis coordinates physiological control of cell growth and differentiation in a broad spectrum of biological conditions, and is associated with compromised gene expression in pathologies that include cancer...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299429/anther-preferential-expressing-gene-pmr-is-essential-for-the-mitosis-of-pollen-development-in-rice
#10
Yaqin Liu, Ya Xu, Sheng Ling, Shasha Liu, Jialing Yao
Phenotype identification, expression examination, and function prediction declared that the anther-preferential expressing gene PMR may participate in regulation of male gametophyte development in rice. Male germline development in flowering plants produces the pair of sperm cells for double fertilization and the pollen mitosis is a key process of it. Although the structural features of male gametophyte have been defined, the molecular mechanisms regulating the mitotic cell cycle are not well elucidated in rice...
March 15, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297665/mitotic-phosphorylation-of-trex1-c-terminus-disrupts-trex1-regulation-of-the-oligosaccharyltransferase-complex
#11
Martin Kucej, Charles S Fermaintt, Kun Yang, Ricardo A Irizarry-Caro, Nan Yan
TREX1 mutations are associated with several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The N-terminal DNase domain of TREX1 is important for preventing self-DNA from activating the interferon response. The C terminus of TREX1 is required for ER localization and regulation of oligosacchariyltransferase (OST) activity. Here, we show that during mitosis TREX1 is predominately phosphorylated at the C-terminal Serine-261 by Cyclin B/CDK1. TREX1 is dephosphorylated quickly at mitotic exit, likely by PP1/PP2-type serine/threonine phosphatase...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296955/the-gaga-factor-regulatory-network-identification-of-gaga-factor-associated-proteins
#12
Dmitry Lomaev, Anna Mikhailova, Maksim Erokhin, Alexander V Shaposhnikov, James J Moresco, Tatiana Blokhina, Daniel Wolle, Tsutomu Aoki, Vladimir Ryabykh, John R Yates, Yulii V Shidlovskii, Pavel Georgiev, Paul Schedl, Darya Chetverina
The Drosophila GAGA factor (GAF) has an extraordinarily diverse set of functions that include the activation and silencing of gene expression, nucleosome organization and remodeling, higher order chromosome architecture and mitosis. One hypothesis that could account for these diverse activities is that GAF is able to interact with partners that have specific and dedicated functions. To test this possibility we used affinity purification coupled with high throughput mass spectrometry to identify GAF associated partners...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296564/azd1775-induces-toxicity-through-double-stranded-dna-breaks-independently-of-chemotherapeutic-agents-in-p53-mutated-colorectal-cancer-cells
#13
Peter John Webster, Anna Tiffany Littlejohns, Hannah Jane Gaunt, K Raj Prasad, David John Beech, Dermot Anthony Burke
AZD1775 is a small molecule WEE1 inhibitor used in combination with DNA-damaging agents to cause premature mitosis and cell death in p53-mutated cancer cells. Here we sought to determine the mechanism of action of AZD1775 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in light of recent findings that AZD1775 can cause double-stranded DNA (DS-DNA) breaks. AZD1775 significantly improved the cytotoxicity of 5-FU in a p53-mutated colorectal cancer cell line (HT29 cells), decreasing the IC50 from 9.3 μM to 3.5 μM...
March 15, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296561/tyr-less-kinase-signalling-during-mitosis
#14
Sabine Elowe
Tyrosine phosphorylation is rare, representing only about 0.5% of phosphorylations in the cell under basal conditions. While mitogenic tyrosine kinase signalling has been extensively explored, the role of phosphotyrosine signaling across the cell cycle and in particular during mitosis is poorly understood. Two recent, independent studies tackled this question from different angles to reveal exciting new insights into the role of this modification during cell division. Caron et al. (1) exploited mitotic phosphoproteomics datasets to determine the extent of mitotic tyrosine phosphorylation, and St-Denis et al...
March 15, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296084/de-novo-loss-of-function-variants-in-stag2-are-associated-with-developmental-delay-microcephaly-and-congenital-anomalies
#15
Sureni V Mullegama, Steven D Klein, Milene V Mulatinho, Tharanga Niroshini Senaratne, Kathryn Singh, Dzung C Nguyen, Natalie M Gallant, Samuel P Strom, Shahnaz Ghahremani, Nagesh P Rao, Julian A Martinez-Agosto
The cohesin complex is an evolutionarily conserved multi-subunit protein complex which regulates sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis and meiosis. Additionally, the cohesin complex regulates DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription. The core of the complex consists of four subunits: SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21, and STAG1/2. Loss-of-function mutations in many of these proteins have been implicated in human developmental disorders collectively termed "cohesinopathies." Through clinical exome sequencing (CES) of an 8-year-old girl with a clinical history of global developmental delay, microcephaly, microtia with hearing loss, language delay, ADHD, and dysmorphic features, we describe a heterozygous de novo variant (c...
March 11, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294156/stk16-regulates-actin-dynamics-to-control-golgi-organization-and-cell-cycle
#16
Juanjuan Liu, Xingxing Yang, Binhua Li, Junjun Wang, Wenchao Wang, Jing Liu, Qingsong Liu, Xin Zhang
STK16 is a ubiquitously expressed, myristoylated, and palmitoylated serine/threonine protein kinase with underexplored functions. Recently, it was shown to be involved in cell division but the mechanism remains unclear. Here we found that human STK16 localizes to the Golgi complex throughout the cell cycle and plays important roles in Golgi structure regulation. STK16 knockdown or kinase inhibition disrupts actin polymers and causes fragmented Golgi in cells. In vitro assays show that STK16 directly binds to actin and regulates actin dynamics in a concentration- and kinase activity-dependent way...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293786/nonanaplastic-follicular-cell-derived-thyroid-carcinoma-mitosis-and-necrosis-in-long-term-follow-up
#17
Daniel Bräuner Skansing, Stefano Christian Londero, Pia Asschenfeldt, Stine Rosenkilde Larsen, Christian Godballe
Nonanaplastic follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinoma (NAFCTC) includes differentiated- (DTC) and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). DTC has an excellent prognosis, while PDTC is situated between DTC and anaplastic carcinomas. Short-term studies suggest that PDTC patients diagnosed only on tumor necrosis and/or mitosis have a prognosis similar to those diagnosed according to the TURIN proposal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prognosis for NAFCTC based on long-term follow-up illuminating the significance of tumor necrosis and mitosis...
March 14, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289717/retinoic-acid-orphan-receptor-c-inhibition-suppresses-th17-cells-and-induces-thymic-aberrations
#18
Christine Guntermann, Alessandro Piaia, Marie-Laure Hamel, Diethilde Theil, Tina Rubic-Schneider, Alberto Del Rio-Espinola, Linda Dong, Andreas Billich, Klemens Kaupmann, Janet Dawson, Klemens Hoegenauer, David Orain, Samuel Hintermann, Rowan Stringer, Dhavalkumar D Patel, Arno Doelemeyer, Mark Deurinck, Jens Schümann
Retinoic-acid-orphan-receptor-C (RORC) is a master regulator of Th17 cells, which are pathogenic in several autoimmune diseases. Genetic Rorc deficiency in mice, while preventing autoimmunity, causes early lethality due to metastatic thymic T cell lymphomas. We sought to determine whether pharmacological RORC inhibition could be an effective and safe therapy for autoimmune diseases by evaluating its effects on Th17 cell functions and intrathymic T cell development. RORC inhibitors effectively inhibited Th17 differentiation and IL-17A production, and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289130/inhibition-of-ectopic-microtubule-assembly-by-the-kinesin-13-klp-7-mcak-prevents-chromosome-segregation-and-cytokinesis-defects-in-oocytes
#19
Emmanuelle Gigant, Marine Stefanutti, Kimberley Laband, Agata Gluszek-Kustusz, Frances Edwards, Benjamin Lacroix, Gilliane Maton, Julie C Canman, Julie P I Welburn, Julien Dumont
In most species, oocytes lack centrosomes. Accurate meiotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation -essential to prevent miscarriage or developmental defects- thus occur through atypical mechanisms that are not well characterized. Using quantitative in vitro and in vivo functional assays in the C. elegans oocyte, we provide here novel evidence that the kinesin-13 KLP-7 promotes the destabilization of the whole cellular microtubule network. By counteracting ectopic microtubule assembly and disorganization of the microtubule network, this function is strictly required for spindle organization, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis in meiotic cells...
March 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287898/consequences-of-a-tight-squeeze-nuclear-envelope-rupture-and-repair
#20
Philipp Isermann, Jan Lammerding
Cell migration through tight spaces can induce substantial deformations of the nucleus and cause nuclear envelope (NE) rupture, resulting in uncontrolled exchange of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. These events can cause DNA damage and, in severe cases, nuclear fragmentation, challenging the integrity of the genomic material. Cells overcome NE ruptures during interphase by repairing the NE using components of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Paralleling the molecular mechanism employed during NE reformation in late mitosis, ESCRT-III subunits and the associated AAA-ATPase VPS4B are recruited to NE rupture sites and help restore NE integrity...
March 13, 2017: Nucleus
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