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Mitosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161593/mitotic-cortical-waves-predict-future-division-sites-by-encoding-positional-and-size-information
#1
Shengping Xiao, Cheesan Tong, Yang Yang, Min Wu
Dynamic spatial patterns such as traveling waves could theoretically encode spatial information, but little is known about whether or how they are employed by biological systems, especially higher eukaryotes. Here, we show that concentric target or spiral waves of active Cdc42 and the F-BAR protein FBP17 are invoked in adherent cells at the onset of mitosis. These waves predict the future sites of cell divisions and represent the earliest known spatial cues for furrow assembly. Unlike interphase waves, the frequencies and wavelengths of the mitotic waves display size-dependent scaling properties...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161589/mitosis-sans-mitosis-the-mitotic-oscillator-in-differentiation
#2
Miranda Stratton, Tim Stearns
Differentiation and proliferation are usually considered to be antagonistic partners in development. However, in a recent issue of Science, Al Jord et al. (2017) show that key regulators of the mitotic cycle are redeployed in differentiating multiciliated cells to promote ciliogenesis without mitotic progression.
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161561/nucleolar-condensation-a-new-mechanism-to-control-mitotic-exit
#3
Andrés Clemente-Blanco
The nucleolus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the last genomic regions to be condensed in mitosis. A new study shows that this extended nucleolar relaxation state is fundamental for the timely execution of mitotic exit.
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160911/simultaneous-use-of-erythropoietin-and-lfm-a13-as-a-new-therapeutic-approach-for-colorectal-cancer
#4
Anna Tankiewicz-Kwedlo, Justyna Magdalena Hermanowicz, Tomasz Domaniewski, Krystyna Pawlak, Małgorzata Rusak, Anna Pryczynicz, Arkadiusz Surazynski, Tomasz Kaminski, Adam Kazberuk, Dariusz Pawlak
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the activation of signaling pathways responsible for cell maturation and viability. BTK has previously been reported to be overexpressed in colon cancers. This kind of cancer is often accompanied by anemia, which is treated with an erythropoietin supplement. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of combination therapy with erythropoietin beta (Epo) and LFM-A13 (BTK inhibitor) on colon cancer in in vitro and in vivo models...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158444/hnf1b-controls-epithelial-organization-and-cell-polarity-during-ureteric-bud-branching-and-collecting-duct-morphogenesis
#5
Audrey Desgrange, Claire Heliot, Ilya Skovorodkin, Saad U Akram, Janne Heikkilä, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Ilkka Miinalainen, Seppo J Vainio, Silvia Cereghini
Kidney development depends critically on proper ureteric bud branching giving rise to the entire collecting duct system. The transcription factor HNF1B is required for the early steps of ureteric bud branching. Yet, the molecular and cellular events regulated by HNF1B are poorly understood. We report that specific removal of Hnf1b from the ureteric bud leads to defective cell-cell contacts and apico-basal polarity during the early branching events. High resolution ex vivo imaging combined with a membranous fluorescent reporter strategy show decreased mutant cell-rearrangements during mitosis-associated cell dispersal and severe epithelial disorganisation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158290/a-comparative-proteome-profile-of-female-mouse-gonads-suggests-a-tight-link-between-the-electron-transport-chain-and-meiosis-initiation
#6
Cong Shen, Mingrui Li, Pan Zhang, Yueshuai Guo, Hao Zhang, Bo Zheng, Hui Teng, Tao Zhou, Xuejiang Guo, Ran Huo
Generation of haploid gametes by meiosis is a unique property of germ cells and is critical for sexual reproduction. Leaving mitosis and entering meiosis is a key step in germ cell development. Several inducers or intrinsic genes are known to be important for meiotic initiation, but the regulation of meiotic initiation, especially at the protein level, is still not well understood. We constructed a comparative proteome profile of female mouse fetal gonads at specific time points (11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum), spanning a critical window for initiation of meiosis in female germ cells...
November 20, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158164/lmo7-exerts-an-effect-on-mitosis-progression-and-the-spindle-assembly-checkpoint
#7
Yao-Wei Tzeng, Dai-Yu Li, Yvan Chen, Cheng-Hsiu Yang, Chih-Yun Chang, Yue-Li Juang
LMO7 (LIM domain only 7) is a transcription regulator for expression of many Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy-relevant genes, and binds to α-actinin and AF6/afadin at adherens junctions for epithelial cell-cell adhesion. In this study, we found that human LMO7 interacted with the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) protein MAD1. LMO7 colocalized with actin filaments at the cell membrane but did not colocalize with MAD1 at kinetochores in prometaphase. Our observations reveal that overexpression but not depletion of LMO7 caused a SAC defect, and that the LIM domain of LMO7 was a determinant of its ability to interfere with kinetochore localization of the SAC proteins MAD2 and BUBR1 and cause a SAC defect though the LIM peptide itself did neither bind to MAD1, MAD2 and BUBR1 nor localize to the actin filaments...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157894/selective-inhibition-reveals-cyclin-dependent-kinase-2-as-another-kinase-that-phosphorylates-the-androgen-receptor-at-serine-81
#8
Radek Jorda, Zuzana Bučková, Eva Řezníčková, Jan Bouchal, Vladimír Kryštof
Several studies have revealed that cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) can mediate phosphorylation of steroid receptors at multiple sites, including serine 81 of the androgen receptor (AR). Phosphorylation of S81 is required for AR nuclear translocation in association with chromatin and also regulates endogenous AR-regulated transcription in response to hormones. Up to date, S81-phosphorylation has been studied using different CDK inhibitors. Nevertheless, most inhibitors are non-selective or have unknown selectivity...
November 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155761/advanced-confocal-microscopy-techniques-to-study-protein-protein-interactions-and-kinetics-at-dna-lesions
#9
Soňa Legartová, Jana Suchánková, Jana Krejčí, Alena Kovaříková, Eva Bártová
Local microirradiation with lasers represents a useful tool for studies of DNA-repair-related processes in live cells. Here, we describe a methodological approach to analyzing protein kinetics at DNA lesions over time or protein-protein interactions on locally microirradiated chromatin. We also show how to recognize individual phases of the cell cycle using the Fucci cellular system to study cell-cycle-dependent protein kinetics at DNA lesions. A methodological description of the use of two UV lasers (355 nm and 405 nm) to induce different types of DNA damage is also presented...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155091/dynamic-molecular-events-associated-to-plasmodium-berghei-gametogenesis-through-proteomic-approach
#10
Carlos H S Garcia, Delphine Depoix, Rayner M L Queiroz, Jaques M F Souza, Wagner Fontes, Marcelo V de Sousa, Marlon D M Santos, Paulo C Carvalho, Philippe Grellier, Sébastien Charneau
Plasmodium mature sexual cycle occurs in the vector mosquitoes and ensures the transmission to a new host. Gametogenesis takes place within minutes in the vector midgut. Gametocytes have to complete a deep nuclear reorganization, quick differentiation, and in the case of male gametocytes, intracytoplasmic flagellum assembly that results in free-swimming microgametes required for macrogamete fertilization. In efforts to improve our knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in gamete morphogenesis, we carried out a nanoLC/MSMS based quantitative proteomic analysis throughout the xanthurenic acid-induced gametogenesis of the rodent parasite P...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155028/chitosan-oligosaccharides-with-degree-of-polymerization-2-6-induces-apoptosis-in-human-colon-carcinoma-hct116%C3%A2-cells
#11
Pan Zou, Shoujun Yuan, Xin Yang, Xingchen Zhai, Jing Wang
Colon cancer is the third most common cancer, and yet there is a lack of effective therapeutic methods with low side effects. Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) is derived from chitosan after chitin deacetylation, and attracts more interests due to smaller molecular weight and soluble property. Previously, COS, mainly absorbed through intestinal epithelia, has been reported to exhibit many bioactivities, especially its anti-tumor effect. Recent references pay little attention to molecular weight distribution which is crucial for understanding its biological behavior...
November 16, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154753/cyclin-a-cdk1-modulates-plk1-activity-in-prometaphase-to-regulate-kinetochore-microtubule-attachment-stability
#12
Ana Maria G Dumitru, Scott F Rusin, Amber E M Clark, Arminja N Kettenbach, Duane A Compton
The fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis is safeguarded by the precise regulation of kinetochore microtubule (k-MT) attachment stability. Previously, we demonstrated that Cyclin A/Cdk1 destabilizes k-MT attachments to promote faithful chromosome segregation. Here, we use quantitative phosphoproteomics to identify 156 Cyclin A/Cdk1 substrates in prometaphase. One Cyclin A/Cdk1 substrate is myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1), and we show that MYPT1 localization to kinetochores depends on Cyclin A/Cdk1 activity and that MYPT1 destabilizes k-MT attachments by negatively regulating Plk1 at kinetochores...
November 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153393/protein-based-inheritance-epigenetics-beyond-the-chromosome
#13
REVIEW
Zachary H Harvey, Yiwen Chen, Daniel F Jarosz
Epigenetics refers to changes in phenotype that are not rooted in DNA sequence. This phenomenon has largely been studied in the context of chromatin modification. Yet many epigenetic traits are instead linked to self-perpetuating changes in the individual or collective activity of proteins. Most such proteins are prions (e.g., [PSI(+)], [URE3], [SWI(+)], [MOT3(+)], [MPH1(+)], [LSB(+)], and [GAR(+)]), which have the capacity to adopt at least one conformation that self-templates over long biological timescales...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152657/dihydroartemisinin-treatment-exhibits-antitumor-effects-in-glioma-cells-through-induction-of-apoptosis
#14
Chun-Hua Xu, Yue Liu, Li-Min Xiao, Chang-Gui Guo, Su-Yue Zheng, Er-Ming Zeng, Dong-Hai Li
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dihydroartemisinin on the proliferation of chemotherapy‑resistant C6 rat glioma cells. The results revealed that incubation of C6 glioma cells with a range of dihydroartemisinin concentrations for 48 h led to a significant (P<0.02) reduction in the cell number. There was a ‑0.8-fold reduction in the cell count following treatment with 20 µM dihydroartemisinin when compared with the control cultures. Analysis of DNA synthesis using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) staining demonstrated a reduction in the BrdU‑labeling index (LI) following treatment with 20 µM dihydroartemisinin...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150431/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-apc-c-c-dh1-degrades-mcph1-after-mcph1-%C3%AE-trcp2-cdc25a-mediated-mitotic-entry-to-ensure-neurogenesis
#15
Xiaoqian Liu, Wen Zong, Tangliang Li, Yujun Wang, Xingzhi Xu, Zhong-Wei Zhou, Zhao-Qi Wang
Mutations of microcephalin (MCPH1) can cause the neurodevelopmental disorder primary microcephaly type 1. We previously showed that MCPH1 deletion in neural stem cells results in early mitotic entry that distracts cell division mode, leading to exhaustion of the progenitor pool. Here, we show that MCPH1 interacts with and promotes the E3 ligase βTrCP2 to degrade Cdc25A independent of DNA damage. Overexpression of βTrCP2 or the knockdown of Cdc25A remedies the high mitotic index and rescues the premature differentiation of Mcph1-deficient neuroprogenitors in vivo MCPH1 itself is degraded by APC/C(C)(dh1), but not APC/C(C)(dc20), in late mitosis and G1 phase...
November 17, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149026/non-catalytic-roles-of-the-topoisomerase-ii%C3%AE-c-terminal-domain
#16
REVIEW
Duncan J Clarke, Yoshiaki Azuma
DNA Topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα) is a ubiquitous enzyme in eukaryotes that performs the strand passage reaction where a double helix of DNA is passed through a second double helix. This unique reaction is critical for numerous cellular processes. However, the enzyme also possesses a C-terminal domain (CTD) that is largely dispensable for the strand passage reaction but is nevertheless important for the fidelity of cell division. Recent studies have expanded our understanding of the roles of the Topo IIα CTD, in particular in mitotic mechanisms where the CTD is modified by Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO), which in turn provides binding sites for key regulators of mitosis...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147439/uterine-smooth-muscle-tumor-of-uncertain-malignant-potential-clinicopathologic-sonographic-characteristics-follow-up-and-recurrence
#17
Besim Haluk Bacanakgil, Mustafa Deveci, Emine Karabuk, Zeynep Soyman
Background: Uterine smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is rare tumor, and regarded as sub-classification in uterine smooth muscle tumors between benign and malignant criteria. In this study, we evaluated characteristics of cases with STUMP diagnosis in a 10-year period. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated medical records of patients with histopathological STUMP diagnosis in Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, a tertiary center. We analyzed preoperative demographic, clinical features and postoperative follow-up...
June 2017: World Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146531/specific-oxygenation-of-plasma-membrane-phospholipids-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lipoxygenase-induces-structural-and-functional-alterations-in-mammalian-cells
#18
Maceler Aldrovandi, Swathi Banthiya, Sven Meckelmann, You Zhou, Dagmar Heydeck, Valerie B O'Donnell, Hartmut Kuhn
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative pathogen, which causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromized patients. These bacteria express a secreted lipoxygenase (PA-LOX), which oxygenates free arachidonic acid to 15S-hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid. It binds phospholipids at its active site and physically interacts with lipid vesicles. When incubated with red blood cells membrane lipids are oxidized and hemolysis is induced but the structures of the oxygenated membrane lipids have not been determined...
November 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145950/a-combination-of-allogeneic-stem-cells-promotes-cardiac-regeneration
#19
Makoto Natsumeda, Victoria Florea, Angela C Rieger, Bryon A Tompkins, Monisha N Banerjee, Samuel Golpanian, Julia Fritsch, Ana Marie Landin, Nilesh D Kashikar, Vasileios Karantalis, Viky Y Loescher, Kostas E Hatzistergos, Luiza Bagno, Cristina Sanina, Muzammil Mushtaq, Jose Rodriguez, Marcos Rosado, Ariel Wolf, Kevin Collon, Louis Vincent, Anthony J Kanelidis, Ivonne H Schulman, Raul Mitrani, Alan W Heldman, Wayne Balkan, Joshua M Hare
BACKGROUND: The combination of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cardiac stem cells (CSCs) synergistically reduces scar size and improves cardiac function in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Whereas allogeneic (allo-)MSCs are immunoevasive, the capacity of CSCs to similarly elude the immune system remains controversial, potentially limiting the success of allogeneic cell combination therapy (ACCT). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to test the hypothesis that ACCT synergistically promotes cardiac regeneration without provoking immunologic reactions...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142109/the-ndc80-complex-targets-bod1-to-human-mitotic-kinetochores
#20
Katharina Schleicher, Michael Porter, Sara Ten Have, Ramasubramanian Sundaramoorthy, Iain M Porter, Jason R Swedlow
Regulation of protein phosphatase activity by endogenous protein inhibitors is an important mechanism to control protein phosphorylation in cells. We recently identified Biorientation defective 1 (Bod1) as a small protein inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A containing the B56 regulatory subunit (PP2A-B56). This phosphatase controls the amount of phosphorylation of several kinetochore proteins and thus the establishment of load-bearing chromosome-spindle attachments in time for accurate separation of sister chromatids in mitosis...
November 2017: Open Biology
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