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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647901/in-vivo-visualization-of-the-locus-coeruleus-in-humans-quantifying-the-test-retest-reliability
#1
Klodiana-Daphne Tona, Max C Keuken, Mischa de Rover, Egbert Lakke, Birte U Forstmann, Sander Nieuwenhuis, Matthias J P van Osch
The locus coeruleus (LC) is a brainstem nucleus involved in important cognitive functions. Recent developments in neuroimaging methods and scanning protocols have made it possible to visualize the human LC in vivo by utilizing a T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) scan. Despite its frequent use and its application as a biomarker for tracking the progress of monoaminergic-related neurodegenerative diseases, no study to date has investigated the reproducibility and inter-observer variability of LC identification using this TSE scan sequence...
June 24, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647415/restrictive-arteriopathy-in-late-onset-pompe-disease-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Konark Malhotra, David C Carrington, David S Liebeskind
Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is an adult type of classical Pompe disease and presents without cardiomyopathy. Neuroimaging in LOPD is typically limited to posterior circulation and involves dilative arteriopathy, especially dolichoectasia and intracranial aneurysms. We report an interesting case of an established diagnosis of asymptomatic LOPD in a young man with a restrictive-variant pattern in posterior vasculature. We discuss the clinical presentation, neuroimaging, existing literature, and prognosis in vascular variants of LOPD...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646692/specific-subcortical-structures-are-activated-during-seizure-induced-death-in-a-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-a-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#3
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Marcus E Randall, Thomas J Brozoski, Boris M Odintsov, Carl L Faingold
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major concern for patients with epilepsy. In most witnessed cases of SUDEP generalized seizures and respiratory failure preceded death, and pre-mortem neuroimaging studies in SUDEP patients observed changes in specific subcortical structures. Our study examined the role of subcortical structures in the DBA/1 mouse model of SUDEP using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). These mice exhibit acoustically-evoked generalized seizures leading to seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) that results in sudden death unless resuscitation is rapidly instituted...
May 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646566/structural-neuroimaging-correlates-of-alcohol-and-cannabis-use-in-adolescents-and-adults
#4
Rachel E Thayer, Sophie YorkWilliams, Hollis C Karoly, Amithrupa Sabbineni, Sarah Feldstein Ewing, Angela D Bryan, Kent E Hutchison
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic alcohol use is associated with lower gray matter volume, and we recently reported that alcohol use showed negative associations with widespread gray matter (GM) volume even among young adults. The current study aimed to test the strength of association between (1) alcohol use and GM volume; (2) alcohol use and white matter (WM) integrity; (3) cannabis use and GM volume; and (4) cannabis use and WM integrity among adults and adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: General linear models within large pooled cross-sectional samples of adolescents and adults who had participated in studies collecting substance use and neuroimaging data in the southwestern United States...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646563/cohesive-network-reconfiguration-accompanies-extended-training
#5
Qawi K Telesford, Arian Ashourvan, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Jean M Vettel, Danielle S Bassett
Human behavior is supported by flexible neurophysiological processes that enable the fine-scale manipulation of information across distributed neural circuits. Yet, approaches for understanding the dynamics of these circuit interactions have been limited. One promising avenue for quantifying and describing these dynamics lies in multilayer network models. Here, networks are composed of nodes (which represent brain regions) and time-dependent edges (which represent statistical similarities in activity time series)...
June 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646252/childhood-brain-tumors-a-systematic-review-of-the-structural-neuroimaging-literature
#6
REVIEW
Alyssa S Ailion, Kyle Hortman, Tricia Z King
Due to medical advances, a large portion of children survive brain tumor diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is important to identify the neuroanatomical and neurocognitive outcomes associated with survivorship. This review summarizes the specific regional structural neuroimaging findings, the broad structural findings, as well as the corresponding neurocognitive domains affected in brain tumor populations. Across studies, damage is commonly reported near the cerebellum, brain stem, and subcortical regions, as well as the frontal lobes...
June 23, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646240/delineating-function-and-connectivity-of-optokinetic-hubs-in-the-cerebellum-and-the-brainstem
#7
Ria Maxine Ruehl, Carolin Hinkel, Thomas Bauermann, Peter Zu Eulenburg
Optokinetic eye movements are crucial for keeping a stable image on the retina during movements of the head. These eye movements can be differentiated into a cortically generated response (optokinetic look nystagmus) and the highly reflexive optokinetic stare nystagmus, which is controlled by circuits in the brainstem and cerebellum. The contributions of these infratentorial networks and their functional connectivity with the cortical eye fields are still poorly understood in humans. To map ocular motor centres in the cerebellum and brainstem, we studied stare nystagmus using small-field optokinetic stimuli in the horizontal and vertical directions in 22 healthy subjects...
June 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645967/the-bipolar-illness-onset-study-research-protocol-for-the-bio-cohort-study
#8
Lars Vedel Kessing, Klaus Munkholm, Maria Faurholt-Jepsen, Kamilla Woznica Miskowiak, Lars Bo Nielsen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Claus Ekstrøm, Ole Winther, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Roger S McIntyre, Flavio Kapczinski, Wagner F Gattaz, Jakob Bardram, Mads Frost, Oscar Mayora, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Mary Phillips, Maj Vinberg
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is an often disabling mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of 1%-2%, a high risk of recurrence of manic and depressive episodes, a lifelong elevated risk of suicide and a substantial heritability. The course of illness is frequently characterised by progressive shortening of interepisode intervals with each recurrence and increasing cognitive dysfunction in a subset of individuals with this condition. Clinically, diagnostic boundaries between bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders such as unipolar depression are unclear although pharmacological and psychological treatment strategies differ substantially...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645845/the-feature-weighted-receptive-field-an-interpretable-encoding-model-for-complex-feature-spaces
#9
REVIEW
Ghislain St-Yves, Thomas Naselaris
We introduce the feature-weighted receptive field (fwRF), an encoding model designed to balance expressiveness, interpretability and scalability. The fwRFis organized around the notion of a feature map-a transformation of visual stimuli into visual features that preserves the topology of visual space (but not necessarily the native resolution of the stimulus). The key assumption of the fwRFmodel is that activity in each voxel encodes variation in a spatially localized region across multiple feature maps. This region is fixed for all feature maps; however, the contribution of each feature map to voxel activity is weighted...
June 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645745/dna-methylation-of-dlg4-and-gja-1-of-human-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-in-major-depression-is-unchanged-in-comparison-to-healthy-individuals
#10
Oliver Kaut, Amit Sharma, Ina Schmitt, René Hurlemann, Ullrich Wüllner
Epigenetic alterations provide a potential mechanism to account for the numerous gene-environment interactions that have been reported in association with neuropsychiatric phenotypes. In context to major depression disorder (MDD), where postmortem and neuroimaging studies provide insights into dysfunctional brain regions, involvement of genetic heterogeneity also revealed the complexity of this disorder. Despite intensive research during the past several decades and information from genome wide studies, pathophysiology of depressive disorders remained elusive...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645536/imaging-genetics-of-schizophrenia-in-the-post-gwas-era
#11
REVIEW
Ayla Arslan
Imaging genetics is a research methodology studying the effect of genetic variation on brain structure, function, behavior, and risk for psychopathology. Since the early 2000s, imaging genetics has been increasingly used in the research of schizophrenia (SZ). SZ is a severe mental disorder with no precise knowledge of its underlying neurobiology, however, new genetic and neurobiological data generate a climate for new avenues. The accumulating data of genome wide association studies (GWAS) continuously decode SZ risk genes...
June 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644997/first-episode-psychosis-moderates-the-effect-of-gray-matter-volume-on-cognition
#12
Luis F S Castro-de-Araujo, Richard A A Kanaan
Patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) present with cognitive deficits and volume differences in certain brain areas. Brain volumetric information further correlates with cognitive testing, and multiple brain areas shows different strengths of correlation with the cognitive functions being tested. Traditionally, these cognitive functions are independently related to volumetric differences, but these functions share variance. Failing to account for this aspect of cognition hinders the proper representation of cognition in neuroimaging studies...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644979/intraoperative-fast-ripples-independently-predict-postsurgical-epilepsy-outcome-comparison-with-other-electrocorticographic-phenomena
#13
Shaun A Hussain, Gary W Mathern, Phoebe Hung, Julius Weng, Raman Sankar, Joyce Y Wu
In the surgical management of epilepsy, the resection of cortex exhibiting interictal fast ripples (250-500Hz) on electrocorticography has been linked to postoperative seizure-freedom. Although fast ripples appear to accurately identify the epileptogenic zone-the minimum tissue that must be removed at surgery to achieve seizure-freedom-it has not been established that fast ripples are a superior biomarker in comparison with multimodal presurgical neuroimaging and other electrocorticography abnormalities. Hence, in the prediction of postoperative seizure-freedom, we compared the value of fast ripples with other intraoperative electocorticography abnormalities including focal slowing, paroxysmal fast activity, intermittent spike discharges, continuous epileptiform discharges, focal attenuation, and intraoperative seizures, as well as complete resection of the lesion defined by MRI and other neuroimaging...
June 16, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644256/cluster-like-headache-secondary-to-focal-cervical-myelitis
#14
Dong-Eun Kim, Ji-Yun Park, Hyeonuk Ha, Geum-Jin Yoon, Bang-Hoon Cho, Seung-Han Lee
BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH) is characterized by attacks of severe periorbital pain associated with autonomic symptoms. As with other forms of primary headache, structural lesions should be excluded, particularly if the headache presents with an atypical pattern. CASE: We report a 41-year-old woman who had no previous history of primary headache and showed a poor response to medication for CH. The patient was finally diagnosed as secondary headache with CH feature due to focal myelitis at the cervical level of the spinal cord...
July 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644199/structure-and-function-of-the-human-insula
#15
Lucina Q Uddin, Jason S Nomi, Benjamin Hébert-Seropian, Jimmy Ghaziri, Olivier Boucher
The insular cortex, or "Island of Reil," is hidden deep within the lateral sulcus of the brain. Subdivisions within the insula have been identified on the basis of cytoarchitectonics, sulcal landmarks, and connectivity. Depending on the parcellation technique used, the insula can be divided into anywhere between 2 and 13 distinct subdivisions. The insula subserves a wide variety of functions in humans ranging from sensory and affective processing to high-level cognition. Here, we provide a concise summary of known structural and functional features of the human insular cortex with a focus on lesion case studies and recent neuroimaging evidence for considerable functional heterogeneity of this brain region...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644061/diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-assessment-of-choroid-plexus-aging
#16
Banu Alicioglu, Guliz Yilmaz, Ozgur Tosun, Nail Bulakbasi
Recent studies have pointed out dysfunction and histopathological changes of the choroid plexuses (CPs) with aging. This paper reviews apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the CPs for age-related changes. All the brain MR images of the patients between January 2013 and June 2014 in our Radiology Department were retrospectively investigated. Patients with major cranial abnormalities (brain tumors, hyperacute or acute ischemia, developmental anomalies, hemorrhage, hydrocephaly) were excluded. Diffusion-weighted images were obtained at the parameter values of b = 1000 s/mm(2) in the axial plane...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643983/-an-underestimated-cause-of-seizure-in-europe
#17
Chloé Godoffe, Pierrick Le Borgne, Claire Kam, Mihaela Mihalcea-Danciu, Pascal Bilbault, Philippe Kauffmann
Seizures are very common in the Emergency Department (ED). We present here a case of a young woman with neurocysticercosis ; a worldwide and nearly endemic cause of seizure in the southern hemisphere. Clinical manifestations are very different between patients from asymptomatic to life-threatening hydrocephalus. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical presentation, neuroimaging (CT and MRI) findings, history of exposure, and serologic testing.
June 14, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643686/-pachymeningitis-associated-with-igg4-disease
#18
Dan Zimelewicz Oberman, Carolina Cuello Oderiz, Matteo Baccanelli, Silvia Christiansen, María Cristina Zurrú
Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is an infrequent disorder. It can be idiopathic or secondary to infectious, autoimmune or neoplastic disease. The recently described 〈IgG4-related disease〉 could be the origin of many cases considered cryptogenic. We present the case of a 60-year-old man, with a history of headache and episcleritis in both eyes, with partial response to corticoid therapy. The brain MR study with gadolinium showed enhancement and thickening of the dura mater, extending from lateral wall of left temporal and occipital lobes to ipsilateral tentorium...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643616/advanced-neuroimaging-of-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#19
Marco Varrassi, Alessandra Di Sibio, Camilla Gianneramo, Marco Perri, Giorgia Saltelli, Alessandra Splendiani, Carlo Masciocchi
Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is nowadays the most common cause of fatal poisoning worldwide. CO binds to haemoglobin 230-270 times more avidly than oxygen, thus leading to formation of carboxyhaemoglobin with subsequent reduction of tissue oxygenation. Brain is mainly affected due to its high oxygen requirement. Up to two-thirds of patients who survive the acute phase of this pathology present a delayed leukoencephalopathy, usually in a period ranging from two to 40 days. White matter damage closely relates to long-term prognosis of these patients...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642699/cerebral-blood-flow-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-interact-to-affect-memory-performance-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults
#20
Katherine J Bangen, Alexandra L Clark, Emily C Edmonds, Nicole D Evangelista, Madeleine L Werhane, Kelsey R Thomas, Lyzette E Locano, My Tran, Zvinka Z Zlatar, Daniel A Nation, Mark W Bondi, Lisa Delano-Wood
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations and amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation have been independently linked to cognitive deficits in older adults at risk for dementia. Less is known about how CBF and Aβ may interact to affect cognition in cognitively normal older adults. Therefore, we examined potential statistical interactions between CBF and Aβ status in regions typically affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) within a sample of older adults from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. Sixty-two cognitively normal participants (mean age = 72 years) underwent neuroimaging and memory testing...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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