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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629725/relationship-between-histopathological-status-of-the-helicobacter-pylori-infected-patients-and-proteases-of-h-pylori-in-isolates-carrying-diverse-virulence-genotypes
#1
Somayyeh Gharibi, Tahereh Falsafi, Masoud Alebouyeh, Nastaran Farzi, Farzam Vaziri, Mohamad Reza Zali
Helicobacter pylori is the main cause of several gastroduodenal diseases in Humans. Among various virulence factors of H. pylori, proteases may also be involved in its pathogenicity. In this study, relationship between proteolytic activity of H. pylori strains and histopathological changes of the stomach was investigated in the patients infected with strains carrying diverse virulence factors. H. pylori strains were isolated from the biopsies of 116 patients who referred to hospital for their gastroduodenal disorders, in Tehran, Iran...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625996/natural-dna-transformation-is-functional-in-lactococcus-lactis-ssp-cremoris-kw2
#2
Blandine David, Amandine Radziejwoski, Frédéric Toussaint, Laetitia Fontaine, Marie Henry de Frahan, Cédric Patout, Sabine van Dillen, Patrick Boyaval, Philippe Horvath, Christophe Fremaux, Pascal Hols
Lactococcus lactis is one of the most commonly used lactic acid bacteria in the dairy industry. Activation of competence for natural DNA transformation in this species would greatly improve the selection of novel strains with desired genetic traits. Here, we investigated the activation of natural transformation in L. lactis ssp. cremoris KW2, a strain of plant origin whose genome encodes the master competence regulator ComX and the complete set of proteins usually required for natural transformation. In the absence of knowledge about competence regulation in this species, we constitutively overproduced ComX in a reporter strain of late competence phase activation and showed, by transcriptomic analyses, a ComX-dependent induction of all key competence genes...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619145/thymol-kills-bacteria-reduces-biofilm-formation-and-protects-mice-against-a-fatal-infection-of-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-strain-l20
#3
Lei Wang, Xueqin Zhao, Chunling Zhu, Xiaojing Xia, Wanhai Qin, Mei Li, Tongzhao Wang, Shijun Chen, Yanzhao Xu, Bolin Hang, Yawei Sun, Jinqing Jiang, Langford Paul Richard, Liancheng Lei, Gaiping Zhang, Jianhe Hu
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of the highly contagious and deadly respiratory infection porcine pleuropneumonia, resulting in serious losses to the pig industry worldwide. Alternative to antibiotics are urgently needed due to the serious increase in antimicrobial resistance. Thymol is a monoterpene phenol and efficiently kills a variety of bacteria. This study found that thymol has strong bactericidal effects on the A. pleuropneumoniae 5b serotype strain, an epidemic strain in China...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617867/complete-chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-common-bermudagrass-cynodon-dactylon-l-pers-and-comparative-analysis-within-the-family-poaceae
#4
Ya-Yi Huang, Shu-Ting Cho, Mindia Haryono, Chih-Horng Kuo
Common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) belongs to the subfamily Chloridoideae of the Poaceae family, one of the most important plant families ecologically and economically. This grass has a long connection with human culture but its systematics is relatively understudied. In this study, we sequenced and investigated the chloroplast genome of common bermudagrass, which is 134,297 bp in length with two single copy regions (LSC: 79,732 bp; SSC: 12,521 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (21,022 bp)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585016/ecotoxicological-assessment-of-pesticides-and-their-combination-on-rhizospheric-microbial-community-structure-and-function-of-vigna-radiata
#5
Varsha Ashok Walvekar, Swati Bajaj, Dileep K Singh, Shilpi Sharma
India is one of the leading countries in production and indiscriminate consumption of pesticides. Owing to their xenobiotic nature, pesticides affect soil microorganisms that serve as mediators in plant growth promotion. Our study aimed to deliver a comprehensive picture, by comparing the effects of synthetic pesticides (chlorpyriphos, cypermethrin, and a combination of both) with a biopesticide (azadirachtin) at their recommended field application level (L), and three times the recommended dosage (H) on structure and function of microbial community in rhizosphere of Vigna radiata...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555174/the-atp-dependent-protease-clpp-inhibits-biofilm-formation-by-regulating-agr-and-cell-wall-hydrolase-sle1-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Qian Liu, Xing Wang, Juanxiu Qin, Sen Cheng, Won-Sik Yeo, Lei He, Xiaowei Ma, Xiaoyun Liu, Min Li, Taeok Bae
Biofilm causes hospital-associated infections on indwelling medical devices. In Staphylococcus aureus, Biofilm formation is controlled by intricately coordinated network of regulating systems, of which the ATP-dependent protease ClpP shows an inhibitory effect. Here, we demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of ClpP on biofilm formation is through Agr and the cell wall hydrolase Sle1. Biofilm formed by clpP mutant consists of proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA). The increase of the protein was, at least in part, due to the reduced protease activity of the mutant, which was caused by the decreased activity of agr...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536693/the-essential-role-of-clpxp-in-caulobacter-crescentus-requires-species-constrained-substrate-specificity
#7
Robert H Vass, Jacob Nascembeni, Peter Chien
The ClpXP protease is a highly conserved AAA+ degradation machine that is present throughout bacteria and in eukaryotic organelles. ClpXP is essential in some bacteria, such as Caulobacter crescentus, but dispensible in others, such as Escherichia coli. In Caulobacter, ClpXP normally degrades the SocB toxin and increased levels of SocB result in cell death. ClpX can be deleted in cells lacking this toxin, but these ΔclpX strains are still profoundly deficient in morphology and growth supporting the existence of additional important functions for ClpXP...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523271/the-protein-chaperone-clpx-targets-native-and-non-native-aggregated-substrates-for-remodeling-disassembly-and-degradation-with-clpp
#8
Christopher J LaBreck, Shannon May, Marissa G Viola, Joseph Conti, Jodi L Camberg
ClpX is a member of the Clp/Hsp100 family of ATP-dependent chaperones and partners with ClpP, a compartmentalized protease, to degrade protein substrates bearing specific recognition signals. ClpX targets specific proteins for degradation directly or with substrate-specific adaptor proteins. Native substrates of ClpXP include proteins that form large oligomeric assemblies, such as MuA, FtsZ, and Dps in Escherichia coli. To remodel large oligomeric substrates, ClpX utilizes multivalent targeting strategies and discriminates between assembled and unassembled substrate conformations...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522861/comparative-analysis-of-dendrobium-plastomes-and-utility-of-plastomic-mutational-hotspots
#9
Niu Zhitao, Zhu Shuying, Pan Jiajia, Li Ludan, Sun Jing, Ding Xiaoyu
Dendrobium is one of the largest genera in Orchidaceae, comprising about 800-1500 species mainly distributed in tropical Asia, Australasia, and Australia. There are 74 species and two varieties of this genus in China. Because of their ornamental and commercial value, Dendrobium orchids have been studied at low taxonomic levels. However, structural changes and effective mutational hotspots of Dendrobium plastomes have rarely been documented. Here, 30 Dendrobium plastomes were compared, comprising 25 newly sequenced in this study and five previously published...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515737/the-complete-plastome-sequences-of-four-orchid-species-insights-into-the-evolution-of-the-orchidaceae-and-the-utility-of-plastomic-mutational-hotspots
#10
Zhitao Niu, Qingyun Xue, Shuying Zhu, Jing Sun, Wei Liu, Xiaoyu Ding
Orchidaceae (orchids) is the largest family in the monocots, including about 25,000 species in 880 genera and five subfamilies. Many orchids are highly valued for their beautiful and long-lasting flowers. However, the phylogenetic relationships among the five orchid subfamilies remain unresolved. The major dispute centers on whether the three one-stamened subfamilies, Epidendroideae, Orchidoideae, and Vanilloideae, are monophyletic or paraphyletic. Moreover, structural changes in the plastid genome (plastome) and the effective genetic loci at the species-level phylogenetics of orchids have rarely been documented...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490437/high-throughput-crispri-phenotyping-identifies-new-essential-genes-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#11
Xue Liu, Clement Gallay, Morten Kjos, Arnau Domenech, Jelle Slager, Sebastiaan P van Kessel, Kèvin Knoops, Robin A Sorg, Jing-Ren Zhang, Jan-Willem Veening
Genome-wide screens have discovered a large set of essential genes in the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae However, the functions of many essential genes are still unknown, hampering vaccine development and drug discovery. Based on results from transposon sequencing (Tn-seq), we refined the list of essential genes in S. pneumoniae serotype 2 strain D39. Next, we created a knockdown library targeting 348 potentially essential genes by CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) and show a growth phenotype for 254 of them (73%)...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455142/a-fish-oil-diet-induces-mitochondrial-uncoupling-and-mitochondrial-unfolded-protein-response-in-epididymal-white-adipose-tissue-of-mice
#12
Shylesh Bhaskaran, Archana Unnikrishnan, Rojina Ranjit, Rizwan Qaisar, Gavin Pharaoh, Stephanie Matyi, Michael Kinter, Sathyaseelan S Deepa
White adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of obesity driven insulin resistance. Dietary conditions that alter fat mass are known to affect white adipocyte mitochondrial function, however, the impact of high calorie diets on white adipocyte mitochondria is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of a diet rich in saturated or polyunsaturated fat on mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), a retrograde signaling response that maintains mitochondrial homeostasis, in epididymal WAT (eWAT)...
April 26, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451288/insights-into-clpxp-proteolysis-heterooligomerization-and-partial-deactivation-enhance-chaperone-affinity-and-substrate-turnover-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#13
Dóra Balogh, Maria Dahmen, Matthias Stahl, Marcin Poreba, Malte Gersch, Marcin Drag, Stephan A Sieber
Caseinolytic proteases (ClpP) are important for recognition and controlled degradation of damaged proteins. While the majority of bacterial organisms utilize only a single ClpP, Listeria monocytogenes expresses two isoforms (LmClpP1 and LmClpP2). LmClpPs assemble into either a LmClpP2 homocomplex or a LmClpP1/2 heterooligomeric complex. The heterocomplex in association with the chaperone ClpX, exhibits a boost in proteolytic activity for unknown reasons. Here, we use a combined chemical and biochemical strategy to unravel two activation principles of LmClpPs...
February 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419231/antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus-current-status-and-future-prospects
#14
Timothy J Foster
The major targets for antibiotics in staphylococci are (i) the cell envelope, (ii) the ribosome and (iii) nucleic acids. Several novel targets emerged from recent targeted drug discovery programmes including the ClpP protease and FtsZ from the cell division machinery. Resistance can either develop by horizontal transfer of resistance determinants encoded by mobile genetic elements viz plasmids, transposons and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome or by mutations in chromosomal genes. Horizontally acquired resistance can occur by one of the following mechanisms: (i) enzymatic drug modification and inactivation, (ii) enzymatic modification of the drug binding site, (iii) drug efflux, (iv) bypass mechanisms involving acquisition of a novel drug-resistant target, (v) displacement of the drug to protect the target...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333276/genetic-evidence-that-multiple-proteases-are-involved-in-modulation-of-heat-induced-activation-of-the-sigma-factor-sigi-in-bacillus-subtilis
#15
Tai-Yen Liu, Shu-Hung Chu, Yi-Nei Hu, Jyun-Jhih Wang, Gwo-Chyuan Shaw
The Bacillus subtilis sigI-rsgI operon encodes the heat-inducible sigma factor SigI and its cognate anti-sigma factor RsgI. The heat-activated SigI positively regulates expression of sigI itself and genes involved in cell wall homeostasis and heat resistance. It remains unknown which protease(s) may contribute to degradation of RsgI and heat-induced activation of SigI. In this study, we found that transcription of sigI from its σI-dependent promoter under heat stress was downregulated in a strain lacking the heat-inducible sigma factor SigB...
April 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263850/laser-capture-micro-dissection-combined-with-next-generation-sequencing-analysis-of-cell-type-specific-deafness-gene-expression-in-the-mouse-cochlea
#16
Shin-Ya Nishio, Yutaka Takumi, Shin-Ichi Usami
Cochlear implantation (CI), which directly stimulates the cochlear nerves, is the most effective and widely used medical intervention for patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The etiology of the hearing loss is speculated to have a major influence of CI outcomes, particularly in cases resulting from mutations in genes preferentially expressed in the spiral ganglion region. To elucidate precise gene expression levels in each part of the cochlea, we performed laser-capture micro dissection in combination with next-generation sequencing analysis and determined the expression levels of all known deafness-associated genes in the organ of Corti, spiral ganglion, lateral wall, and spiral limbs...
May 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186774/quantitative-map-of-%C3%AE-lactone-induced-virulence-regulation
#17
Joanna Krysiak, Matthias Stahl, Jan Vomacka, Christian Fetzer, Markus Lakemeyer, Anja Fux, Stephan A Sieber
β-Lactones have recently been introduced as the first selective ClpP inhibitors that attenuate virulence of both sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant strains (MRSA). Although previous knockout studies showed that ClpP is essential for S. aureus alpha-toxin production, a link between β-lactone inhibition and molecular virulence mechanisms has been lacking so far. We here perform a chemical-proteomic approach to elucidate antivirulence pathways. First, we demonstrate by gel-free activity-based protein profiling that ClpP is the predominant target of β-lactones...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178980/novel-neuro-audiological-findings-and-further-evidence-for-twnk-involvement-in-perrault-syndrome
#18
Monika Ołdak, Dominika Oziębło, Agnieszka Pollak, Iwona Stępniak, Michal Lazniewski, Urszula Lechowicz, Krzysztof Kochanek, Mariusz Furmanek, Grażyna Tacikowska, Dariusz Plewczynski, Tomasz Wolak, Rafał Płoski, Henryk Skarżyński
BACKGROUND: Hearing loss and ovarian dysfunction are key features of Perrault syndrome (PRLTS) but the clinical and pathophysiological features of hearing impairment in PRLTS individuals have not been addressed. Mutations in one of five different genes HSD17B4, HARS2, LARS2, CLPP or TWNK (previous symbol C10orf2) cause the autosomal recessive disorder but they are found only in about half of the patients. METHODS: We report on two siblings with a clinical picture resembling a severe, neurological type of PRLTS...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178222/complete-chloroplast-genome-of-medicinal-plant-lonicera-japonica-genome-rearrangement-intron-gain-and-loss-and-implications-for-phylogenetic-studies
#19
Liu He, Jun Qian, Xiwen Li, Zhiying Sun, Xiaolan Xu, Shilin Chen
The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Lonicera japonica, a common ornamental and medicinal plant in North America and East Asia, was sequenced and analyzed. The length of the L. japonica cp genome is 155,078 bp, contains a pair of inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), of 23,774 bp each, as well as large (LSC, 88,858 bp) and small (SSC, 18,672 bp) single-copy regions. A total of 129 genes were identified in the cp genome, 16 of which were duplicated within the IR regions. Relative to other plant cp genomes, the L...
February 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170446/community-level-physiological-profiling-analyses-show-potential-to-identify-the-copiotrophic-bacteria-present-in-soil-environments
#20
Salvador Lladó, Petr Baldrian
Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) analyses from very diverse environments are frequently used with the aim of characterizing the metabolic versatility of whole environmental bacterial communities. While the limitations of the methodology for the characterization of whole communities are well known, we propose that CLPP combined with high-throughput sequencing and qPCR can be utilized to identify the copiotrophic, fast-growing fraction of the bacterial community of soil environments, where oligotrophic taxa are usually dominant...
2017: PloS One
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