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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926989/targeting-gm-csf-in-epithelial-and-vascular-remodeling-in-experimental-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#1
Eóin N McNamee, Kathryn A Biette, Juliet Hammer, Rachel Harris, Heather Miyazawa, James J Lee, Glenn T Furuta, Joanne C Masterson
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic antigen-mediated clinicopathologic disease of the esophagus characterized by an eosinophil-predominant inflammatory infiltrate. A clinical hallmark is extensive tissue remodeling including basal zone hyperplasia, fibrosis and angiogenesis. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for these processes are not fully defined. We hypothesized that targeting GM-CSF (an agonist cytokine linked with eosinophil survival and activation) would be protective in a pre-clinical model of EoE...
December 7, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920441/nanotechnology-for-environmentally-sustainable-electromobility
#2
Linda Ager-Wick Ellingsen, Christine Roxanne Hung, Guillaume Majeau-Bettez, Bhawna Singh, Zhongwei Chen, M Stanley Whittingham, Anders Hammer Strømman
Electric vehicles (EVs) powered by lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) or proton exchange membrane hydrogen fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer important potential climate change mitigation effects when combined with clean energy sources. The development of novel nanomaterials may bring about the next wave of technical improvements for LIBs and PEMFCs. If the next generation of EVs is to lead to not only reduced emissions during use but also environmentally sustainable production chains, the research on nanomaterials for LIBs and PEMFCs should be guided by a life-cycle perspective...
December 6, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914355/characterisation-of-fine-grained-tailings-from-a-marble-processing-plant-and-their-acute-effects-on-the-copepod-calanus-finmarchicus
#3
Julia Farkas, Dag Altin, Karen M Hammer, Kaja C Hellstrøm, Andy M Booth, Bjørn Henrik Hansen
Submarine tailing disposal (STD) of mining waste is practiced as an alternative to land fill disposal in several countries. Knowledge regarding the environmental implications of STD on fjord and other marine ecosystems, including the pelagic environment, is scarce. In this study, we characterised the particle shape, size and metal content of the fine-grained fraction of tailings (FGT) from a Norwegian marble processing plant and investigated their acute toxicity and impact on feeding rate in adult Calanus finmarchicus...
November 30, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910685/measuring-20-100-t-b-fields-using-zeeman-splitting-of-sodium-emission-lines-on-a-500-ka-pulsed-power-machine
#4
J T Banasek, J T Engelbrecht, S A Pikuz, T A Shelkovenko, D A Hammer
We have shown that Zeeman splitting of the sodium (Na) D-lines at 5890 and 5896 Å can be used to measure the magnetic field (B-field) produced in high current pulsed power experiments. We have measured the B-field next to a return current conductor in a hybrid X-pinch experiment near a peak current of about 500 kA. Na is deposited on the conductor and then is desorbed and excited by radiation from the hybrid X-pinch. The D-line emission spectrum implies B-fields of about 20 T with a return current post of 4 mm diameter or up to 120 T with a return current wire of 0...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909000/distinct-contributions-of-dorsal-and-ventral-streams-to-imitation-of-tool-use-and-communicative-gestures
#5
Andrea Dressing, Kai Nitschke, Dorothee Kümmerer, Tobias Bormann, Lena Beume, Charlotte S M Schmidt, Vera M Ludwig, Irina Mader, Klaus Willmes, Michel Rijntjes, Christoph P Kaller, Cornelius Weiller, Markus Martin
Imitation of tool-use gestures (transitive; e.g., hammering) and communicative emblems (intransitive; e.g., waving goodbye) is frequently impaired after left-hemispheric lesions. We aimed 1) to identify lesions related to deficient transitive or intransitive gestures, 2) to delineate regions associated with distinct error types (e.g., hand configuration, kinematics), and 3) to compare imitation to previous data on pantomimed and actual tool use. Of note, 156 patients (64.3 ± 14.6 years; 56 female) with first-ever left-hemispheric ischemic stroke were prospectively examined 4...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908056/reconstruction-of-piano-hammer-force-from-string-velocity
#6
Antoine Chaigne
A method is presented for reconstructing piano hammer forces through appropriate filtering of the measured string velocity. The filter design is based on the analysis of the pulses generated by the hammer blow and propagating along the string. In the five lowest octaves, the hammer force is reconstructed by considering two waves only: the incoming wave from the hammer and its first reflection at the front end. For the higher notes, four- or eight-wave schemes must be considered. The theory is validated on simulated string velocities by comparing imposed and reconstructed forces...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903468/pseudoaneurysms-after-ankle-sprain-report-of-three-cases-successfully-cured-by-non-surgical-treatment
#7
J Malghem, M Abdalkader, F Lecouvet, P Goffette, F Hammer, B Vande Berg
Pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of ankle sprain, with 18 case reports published in the current literature. In the vast majority of the cases, they were treated surgically. We present three cases of pseudoaneurysm following ankle sprain, treated by non-surgical methods in two cases, and spontaneously healed in another. The diagnosis was made between two and four weeks after the traumatism, by ultrasonography and arteriography in two cases, and only by ultrasonography in a third case. The pseudoaneurysms originated respectively from the perforating fibular artery, the dorsal pedis artery, and a lateral malleolar artery...
November 26, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896951/hydrogen-peroxide-modulates-energy-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress-in-cultures-of-permanent-human-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-mio-m1
#8
Sven Peters, Max Griebsch, Matthias Klemm, Jens Haueisen, Martin Hammer
In this study the influence of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) on the redox state, NADH protein binding, and mitochondrial membrane potential in Müller cells is investigated. Cultures of permanent human Müller cells MIO-M1 were exposed to H2 O2 in 75 µM and 150 µM concentration for two hours. Fluorescence emission spectra and lifetimes were measured by two-photon microscopy (excitation wavelength: 740 nm) at the mitochondria which were identified in the microscopic images by their fluorescence properties (spectra and intensity)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893757/assessing-the-acetabular-cup-implant-primary-stability-by-impact-analyses-a-cadaveric-study
#9
Adrien Michel, Romain Bosc, Jean-Paul Meningaud, Philippe Hernigou, Guillaume Haiat
BACKGROUND: The primary stability of the acetabular cup (AC) implant is an important determinant for the long term success of cementless hip surgery. However, it remains difficult to assess the AC implant stability due to the complex nature of the bone-implant interface. A compromise should be found when inserting the AC implant in order to obtain a sufficient implant stability without risking bone fracture. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of impact signals analyses to assess the primary stability of AC implants inserted in cadaveric specimens...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891227/society-for-immunotherapy-of-cancer-consensus-statement-on-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Brian I Rini, David F McDermott, Hans Hammers, William Bro, Ronald M Bukowski, Bernard Faba, Jo Faba, Robert A Figlin, Thomas Hutson, Eric Jonasch, Richard W Joseph, Bradley C Leibovich, Thomas Olencki, Allan J Pantuck, David I Quinn, Virginia Seery, Martin H Voss, Christopher G Wood, Laura S Wood, Michael B Atkins
Immunotherapy has produced durable clinical benefit in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC). In the past, patients treated with interferon-alpha (IFN) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) have achieved complete responses, many of which have lasted for multiple decades. More recently, a large number of new agents have been approved for RCC, several of which attack tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and VEGF receptors (VEGFR), as well as tumor metabolism, inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887922/obesity-foot-pain-and-foot-disorders-in-older-men-and-women
#11
Alyssa B Dufour, Elena Losina, Hylton B Menz, Michael P LaValley, Marian T Hannan
OBJECTIVE: We investigated obesity, foot pain and selected foot disorders, and determined if associations differed by foot posture or dynamic foot function. METHODS: We included 2445 men and women (4888 feet) from the Framingham Foot Study (2002-2008). A foot examination assessed presence of disorders and pain on each foot. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) was categorized as normal (<25), overweight (25-29.99), moderate-obesity (30-34.99) severe-obesity (35+). Foot posture (normal, cavus, planus) and dynamic foot function (normal, supinated, pronated) were defined using plantar pressure measurement system...
November 22, 2016: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883103/-gout-new-approaches-to-diagnostics-and-treatment
#12
Till Uhlig, Tron Eskild, Hilde Berner Hammer
An attack of gout is extremely painful. Recurrent attacks of arthritis in one or more joints or tendon sheaths accompanied by intense pain are typical of this commonly occurring condition. As these symptoms indicate acute inflammation due to uric acid crystal deposition, good diagnostics are essential to enable initiation of drug treatment which removes the crystals deposited in tissue.
November 2016: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880881/learning-language-from-within-children-use-semantic-generalizations-to-infer-word-meanings
#13
Mahesh Srinivasan, Sara Al-Mughairy, Ruthe Foushee, David Barner
One reason that word learning presents a challenge for children is because pairings between word forms and meanings are arbitrary conventions that children must learn via observation - e.g., the fact that "shovel" labels shovels. The present studies explore cases in which children might bypass observational learning and spontaneously infer new word meanings: By exploiting the fact that many words are flexible and systematically encode multiple, related meanings. For example, words like shovel and hammer are nouns for instruments, and verbs for activities involving those instruments...
November 20, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876805/landscape-genetics-informs-mesohabitat-preference-and-conservation-priorities-for-a-surrogate-indicator-species-in-a-highly-fragmented-river-system
#14
J Lean, M P Hammer, P J Unmack, M Adams, L B Beheregaray
Poor dispersal species represent conservative benchmarks for biodiversity management because they provide insights into ecological processes influenced by habitat fragmentation that are less evident in more dispersive organisms. Here we used the poorly dispersive and threatened river blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) as a surrogate indicator system for assessing the effects of fragmentation in highly modified river basins and for prioritizing basin-wide management strategies. We combined individual, population and landscape-based approaches to analyze genetic variation in samples spanning the distribution of the species in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, one of the world's most degraded freshwater systems...
November 23, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872279/role-of-the-receptor-mas-in-macrophage-mediated-inflammation-in-vivo
#15
Anna Hammer, Guang Yang, Juliane Friedrich, Agnes Kovacs, De-Hyung Lee, Katharina Grave, Stefanie Jörg, Natalia Alenina, Janina Grosch, Jürgen Winkler, Ralf Gold, Michael Bader, Arndt Manzel, Lars C Rump, Dominik N Müller, Ralf A Linker, Johannes Stegbauer
Recently, an alternative renin-angiotensin system pathway has been described, which involves binding of angiotensin-(1-7) to its receptor Mas. The Mas axis may counterbalance angiotensin-II-mediated proinflammatory effects, likely by affecting macrophage function. Here we investigate the role of Mas in murine models of autoimmune neuroinflammation and atherosclerosis, which both involve macrophage-driven pathomechanisms. Mas signaling affected macrophage polarization, migration, and macrophage-mediated T-cell activation...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870893/activin-receptor-type-iib-inhibition-improves-muscle-phenotype-and-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#16
Min Liu, David W Hammers, Elisabeth R Barton, H Lee Sweeney
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive muscle atrophy and weakness. Using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer, we evaluated the potential to improve skeletal muscle weakness via systemic, postnatal inhibition of either myostatin or all signaling via the activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB). After demonstrating elevated p-SMAD3 content and differential content of ActRIIB ligands, 4-week-old male C/C SMA model mice were treated intraperitoneally with 1x1012 genome copies of pseudotype 2/8 virus encoding a soluble form of the ActRIIB extracellular domain (sActRIIB) or protease-resistant myostatin propeptide (dnMstn) driven by a liver specific promoter...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867313/tool-specific-performance-of-vibration-reducing-gloves-for-attenuating-fingers-transmitted-vibration
#17
Daniel E Welcome, Ren G Dong, Xueyan S Xu, Christopher Warren, Thomas W McDowell
BACKGROUND: Fingers-transmitted vibration can cause vibration-induced white finger. The effectiveness of vibration-reducing (VR) gloves for reducing hand transmitted vibration to the fingers has not been sufficiently examined. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine tool-specific performance of VR gloves for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations in three orthogonal directions (3D) from powered hand tools. METHODS: A transfer function method was used to estimate the tool-specific effectiveness of four typical VR gloves...
2016: Occupational Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867253/drosophila-ezoana-uses-an-hour-glass-or-highly-damped-circadian-clock-for-measuring-night-length-and-inducing-diapause
#18
Koustubh M Vaze, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Insects inhabiting the temperate zones measure seasonal changes in day or night length to enter the overwintering diapause. Diapause induction occurs after the duration of the night exceeds a critical night length (CNL). Our understanding of the time measurement mechanisms is continuously evolving subsequent to Bünning's proposal that circadian systems play the clock role in photoperiodic time measurement (Bünning, 1936). Initially, the photoperiodic clocks were considered to be either based on circadian oscillators or on simple hour-glasses, depending on 'positive' or 'negative' responses in Nanda-Hamner and Bünsow experiments (Nanda & Hammer, 1958; Bünsow, 1960)...
December 2016: Physiological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861705/the-temporal-and-age-dependent-patterns-of-hysterectomy-corrected-cervical-cancer-incidence-rates-in-denmark-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Anne Hammer, Johnny Kahlert, Anne Rositch, Lars Pedersen, Patti Gravitt, Jan Blaakaer, Mette Soegaard
INTRODUCTION: Hysterectomy is a common gynecological procedure, however, the incidence of total and subtotal hysterectomy varies across countries, by age, and over time. Since only women with an intact cervix are at risk of cervical cancer, failing to remove hysterectomized women from the denominator may underestimate the cervical cancer incidence. We aimed to describe the temporal and age-dependent patterns of cervical cancer incidence in Denmark before and after correction for hysterectomy...
November 14, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858997/a-novel-assay-to-assess-the-effect-of-pharmaceutical-compounds-on-the-differentiation-of-podocytes
#20
Frances Kindt, Elke Hammer, Stefan Kemnitz, Antje Blumenthal, Paul Klemm, Rabea Schlüter, Susan E Quaggin, Jens van den Brandt, Georg Fuellen, Uwe Völker, Karlhans Endlich, Nicole Endlich
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Therapeutic options to treat glomerulopathies, the main cause of chronic kidney disease, are limited. Podocyte dedifferentiation is a major event in the pathogenesis of glomerulopathies. The goal of the present study was therefore to develop an assay to monitor podocyte differentiation suited for compound screening. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We isolated and cultured glomeruli from transgenic mice, expressing cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) under control of the promoter of nephrin, a marker of podocyte differentiation...
November 14, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
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