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Nano technology

Graca Bożena, Danuta Zakrzewska, Beata Szymczycha
In this study, the role of nanoparticles in complex aqueous matrices such as the Baltic Sea was investigated in batch-mode experiments in which titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) were tested for their ability to remove heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Co) from multicomponent spiked and non-spiked Baltic Sea water. The experimental data were analyzed using different isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR)) and models (pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models, the double-exponential model, and the Weber-Morris model)...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Divya Rani Bijukumar, Abhijith Segu, Júlio Cesar Matias de Souza, XueJun Li, Mark Barba, Louis Mercuri, Joshua Jacobs, Mathew Thoppil Mathew
Despite the technological improvements in orthopedic joint replacement implants, wear and corrosion products associated with the metal components of these implants may result in adverse local tissue and perhaps systemic reactions and toxicities. The current review encompasses a literature review of the local and systemic toxicity studies concerning the effect of CoCrMo wear particles released from wear and corrosion of orthopedic implants and prostheses. Release of metallic debris is mainly in the form of micro- and nano-particles, ions of different valences, and oxides composed of Co and Cr...
January 12, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Seora Han, Won Jong Rhee
Animal cell culture technology for therapeutic protein production has shown significant improvement over the last few decades. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been widely adapted for the production of biopharmaceutical drugs. In the biopharmaceutical industry, it is crucial to develop cell culture media and culturing conditions to achieve the highest productivity and quality. However, CHO cells are significantly affected by apoptosis in the bioreactors, resulting in a substantial decrease in product quantity and quality...
January 16, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Jooyeon Park, Brenda Andrade, Yongbeom Seo, Myung-Joo Kim, Steven C Zimmerman, Hyunjoon Kong
Biological cells are complex living machines that have garnered significant attention for their potential to serve as a new generation of therapeutic and delivery agents. Because of their secretion, differentiation, and homing activities, therapeutic cells have tremendous potential to treat or even cure various diseases and injuries that have defied conventional therapeutic strategies. Therapeutic cells can be systemically or locally transplanted. In addition, with their ability to express receptors that bind specific tissue markers, cells are being studied as nano- or microsized drug carriers capable of targeted transport...
January 16, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Roberta Pennati, Raoul Manenti, Antonella Stillitano, Gentile Francesco Ficetola, Giorgio Scarì, Silvia Mercurio, Elena Menegola
Nano-encapsulation is a technology used to pack substances in order to enhance their stability and bioavailability, but this packing may interact with living systems, causing unexpected toxicity. Vitamin A (vit A) is a substance that has received attention, because in developed countries, the increasing availability of supplements is leading to its excessive intake. This study aims to compare teratogenic effects caused by exposure to the traditional formulation of vit A versus nano-encapsulated vit A. We used ascidian embryos as an alternative model...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Adam Mullis, Benjamin William Schlichtmann, Balaji Narasimhan, Rebecca Cademartiri, Surya K Mallapragada
Neurodegenerative diseases are a debilitating set of conditions that affect a significant fraction of the world's population, and this fraction is expected to increase as the population ages. Many therapeutic strategies have been explored to treat the pathological mechanisms of neurodegenerative disease, but multiple sequential hurdles to central nervous system delivery, including the blood-brain barrier, diseased neuronal membranes, and the organelle barrier, make drug delivery challenging and necessitate the use of innovative strategies to target and cross each barrier...
January 15, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Célio J C Fernandes, Fábio Bezerra, Marcel R Ferreira, Amanda F C Andrade, Thais Silva Pinto, Willian F Zambuzzi
Over the last several years, we have focused on the importance of intracellular signaling pathways in dynamically governing the biointerface between pre-osteoblast and surface of biomaterial. Thus, this study investigates the molecular hallmarks involved in the pre-osteoblast relationship with different topography considering Machined (Mc), Dual Acid-Etching (DAE), and nano hydroxyapatite-blasted (nHA) groups. There was substantial differences in topography of titanium surface, considering Atomic Force Microscopy and water contact angle (Mc = 81...
December 28, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Hui-Jiuan Chen, Tian Hang, Chengduan Yang, Guishi Liu, Di-An Lin, Jiangming Wu, Shuolin Pan, Bo-Ru Yang, Jun Tao, Xi Xie
In situ effective separation of oil pollutants including oil spills and oil emulsions from water is an emerging technology yet remains challenging. Hydrophobic micro- or nano-materials with ferromagnetism have been explored for oil removal, yet the separation efficiency of an oil emulsion was compromised due to the limited dispersion of hydrophobic materials in water. A surfactant coating on microparticles prevented particle aggregation, but reduced oil absorption and emulsion cleaning ability. Recently, polystyrene microbeads covered with nanospikes have been reported to display anomalous dispersion in phobic media without surfactants...
January 10, 2018: Nanoscale
Mohammad-Reza Ahmadian-Yazdi, Morteza Eslamian
In this "nano idea" paper, three concepts for the preparation of methylammonium lead halide perovskite particles are proposed, discussed, and tested. The first idea is based on the wet chemistry preparation of the perovskite particles, through the addition of the perovskite precursor solution to an anti-solvent to facilitate the precipitation of the perovskite particles in the solution. The second idea is based on the milling of a blend of the perovskite precursors in the dry form, in order to allow for the conversion of the precursors to the perovskite particles...
January 10, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Leonardo Midolo, Albert Schliesser, Andrea Fiore
A new class of hybrid systems that couple optical, electrical and mechanical degrees of freedom in nanoscale devices is under development in laboratories worldwide. These nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems (NOEMS) offer unprecedented opportunities to control the flow of light in nanophotonic structures, at high speed and low power consumption. Drawing on conceptual and technological advances from the field of optomechanics, they also bear the potential for highly efficient, low-noise transducers between microwave and optical signals, in both the classical and the quantum domains...
January 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
N Gui, W Xu, D E Myers, R Shukla, H P Tang, M Qian
Implant surfaces play important roles in regulating protein adsorption and determining subsequent cell responses, including cell attachment, proliferation, migration and differentiation. With rapid developments in micro- and nano-fabrication methods and additive manufacturing (3D printing) technologies, precisely controlled patterns such as partially ordered or ordered patterns can now be generated on bone implant surfaces, rather than restricted to randomly roughened surfaces. Over the last two decades, much effort has been dedicated to manipulating cell responses through surface topographical modifications...
January 9, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Alexander Eberle, Thomas Markert, Frank Trixler
Supramolecular self-assembly at the solid-solid interface enables the deposition and monolayer formation of insolu-ble organic semiconductors under ambient conditions. The underlying process, termed as the Organic Solid-Solid Wetting Deposition (OSWD), generates two-dimensional adsorbates directly from dispersed three-dimensional or-ganic crystals. This straightforward process has important implications in various fields of research and technology, such as in the domains of low-dimensional crystal engineering, the chemical doping and band-gap engineering of gra-phene, and in the area of field-effect transistor fabrication...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Antonio Garcia-Guerra, Thomas L Dunwell, Sonia Trigueros
Within the different applications of nanomedicine currently being developed, nano-gene delivery is appearing as an exciting new technique with the possibility to overcome recognised hurdles and fulfill several biological and medical needs. The central component of all delivery systems is the requirement for the delivery of genetic material into cells, and for them to eventually reside in the nucleus where their desired function will be exposed. However, genetic material does not passively enter cells; thus, a delivery system is necessary...
January 7, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
I Delcheva, D A Beattie, J Ralston, M Krasowska
Many of the applications of ionic liquids rely on their bulk properties or their solvation abilities. However, it is their interactions with solid surfaces that underpin many of their potential applications in advanced technologies. Whether it is as lubricants for wind turbines or as electrolytes in supercapacitors, there are many areas where ionic liquids can provide an improvement in performance relative to more commonplace liquids. However, there are some barriers to their implementation in such applications...
January 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Denis Scaini, Laura Ballerini
Interfacing the nervous system with devices able to efficiently record or modulate the electrical activity of neuronal cells represents the underlying foundation of future theranostic applications in neurology and of current openings in neuroscience research. These devices, usually sensing cell activity via microelectrodes, should be characterized by safe working conditions in the biological milieu together with a well-controlled operation-life. The stable device/neuronal electrical coupling at the interface requires tight interactions between the electrode surface and the cell membrane...
December 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
W Pilz, P Laufer, M Tajmar, R Böttger, L Bischoff
High current liquid metal ion sources are well known and found their first application as field emission electric propulsion thrusters in space technology. The aim of this work is the adaption of such kind of sources in broad ion beam technology. Surface patterning based on self-organized nano-structures on, e.g., semiconductor materials formed by heavy mono- or polyatomic ion irradiation from liquid metal (alloy) ion sources (LMAISs) is a very promising technique. LMAISs are nearly the only type of sources delivering polyatomic ions from about half of the periodic table elements...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Christian Fella, Andreas Balles, Randolf Hanke, Arndt Last, Simon Zabler
With increasing miniaturization in industry and medical technology, non-destructive testing techniques are an area of ever-increasing importance. In this framework, X-ray microscopy offers an efficient tool for the analysis, understanding, and quality assurance of microscopic samples, in particular as it allows reconstructing three-dimensional data sets of the whole sample's volume via computed tomography (CT). The following article describes a compact X-ray microscope in the hard X-ray regime around 9 keV, based on a highly brilliant liquid-metal-jet source...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jacob Atsmon, Irina Cherniakov, Dvora Izgelov, Amnon Hoffman, Abraham J Domb, Lisa Deutsch, Frederic Deutsch, Daphna Heffetz, Hagit Sacks
There is growing clinical interest in developing and commercializing pharmaceutical-grade cannabinoid products, containing primarily tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The oral bioavailability of THC and CBD is very low due to extensive "first pass" metabolism. A novel oral THC and CBD formulation, PTL401, utilizing an advanced self-emulsifying oral drug delivery system, was designed to circumvent the "first pass" effect. In this study, the bioavailability of THC and CBD from the PTL401 capsule was compared with similar doses from a marketed reference oromucosal spray (Sativex®)...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jinhui Li, Koji Inukai, Yosuke Takahashi, Akihiro Tsuruta, Woosuck Shin
Nano-sized tetragonal BaTiO₃ (BT) particles that are well dispersed in solution are essential for the dielectric layer in multilayer ceramic capacitor technology. A hydrothermal process using TiCl₄ and BaCl₂, as source of Ti and Ba, respectively, or the precursor TiO₂ as seed for the formation of BT, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) as a surfactant, was employed in this study to enhance both the dispersibility and tetragonality (c/a) simultaneously in a single reaction process. The process parameters, i...
December 29, 2017: Materials
Sharoon Griffin, Muhammad Irfan Masood, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Muhammad Sarfraz, Azubuike Peter Ebokaiwe, Karl-Herbert Schäfer, Cornelia M Keck, Claus Jacob
During the last couple of decades, the rapidly advancing field of nanotechnology has produced a wide palette of nanomaterials, most of which are considered as "synthetic" and, among the wider public, are often met with a certain suspicion. Despite the technological sophistication behind many of these materials, "nano" does not always equate with "artificial". Indeed, nature itself is an excellent nanotechnologist. It provides us with a range of fine particles, from inorganic ash, soot, sulfur and mineral particles found in the air or in wells, to sulfur and selenium nanoparticles produced by many bacteria and yeasts...
December 29, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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