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Nano technology

J J Wang, Y Y Xue, M Tang
With the rapid development of modern science and technology, the application of nanomaterial is ubiquitous in our daily life and medical field, in which the application related to nano-silver is more extensive. On one hand, it can make positive effects, such as anti-bacteria, anti-virus, anti-fungi, anti-parasitic infection and anti-tumor. In particular, its anti-bacterial activity in some acute or chronic treatment of infected wounds is more prominent. The application in diseases of gynecology, orthopedics, cardiovascular system, oral cavity, and ophthalmology is increasing...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Pablo Arturo Fernández Garrillo, Lukasz Borowik, Florent Caffy, Renaud Demadrille, Benjamin Grevin
Investigating the photo-carrier dynamics in nanostructured and heterogeneous energy materials is of crucial importance from both fundamental and technological points of view. Here, we demonstrate how non-contact atomic force microscopy combined with Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy under frequency modulated illumination can be used to simultaneously image the surface photo-potential dynamics at different timescales with a sub-10 nm lateral resolution. The basic principle of the method consists in the acquisition of spectroscopic curves of the surface potential as a function of the illumination frequency modulation on a two dimensional grid...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Laura Bouché, Maria Panico, Paul Hitchen, Daniel Binet, Federico Sastre, Alexandra Faulds-Pain, Esmeralda Valiente, Evgeny Vinogradov, Annie Aubry, Kelly Fulton, Susan Twine, Susan M Logan, Brendan W Wren, Anne Dell, Howard R Morris
Glycosylation of flagellins is a well recognized property of many bacterial species. In this study we describe the structural characterization of novel flagellar glycans from a number of hypervirulent strains of C. difficile. We used mass spectrometry (nano LC- MS and MS/MS analysis) to identify a number of putative glycopeptides which carried a variety of glycoform substitutions each of which was linked through an initial HexNAc residue to Ser or Thr. Detailed analysis of a LLDGSSTEIR glycopeptide released by tryptic digestion, which carried two variant structures, revealed that the glycopeptide contained, in addition to carbohydrate moieties, a novel structural entity...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bernard Omolo, Mingli Yang, Fang Yin Lo, Michael J Schell, Sharon Austin, Kellie Howard, Anup Madan, Timothy J Yeatman
BACKGROUND: The KRAS gene is mutated in about 40 % of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, which has been clinically validated as a predictive mutational marker of intrinsic resistance to anti-EGFR inhibitor (EGFRi) therapy. Since nearly 60 % of patients with a wild type KRAS fail to respond to EGFRi combination therapies, there is a need to develop more reliable molecular signatures to better predict response. Here we address the challenge of adapting a gene expression signature predictive of RAS pathway activation, created using fresh frozen (FF) tissues, for use with more widely available formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
Yanping Cheng, Masahiko Shibuya, Jenn McGregor, Gerard B Conditt, Geng-Hua Yi, Greg L Kaluza, William Gray, Manish Doshi, Prakash Sojitra, Juan F Granada
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological efficacy of a novel lower-dose (2.5 µg/mm2) encapsulated paclitaxel nanocrystal-coated balloon (Nano-PCB) in the familial hypercholesterolaemic swine (FHS) model of iliofemoral in-stent restenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nano-PCB pharmacokinetics were assessed in 20 femoral arteries (domestic swine). Biological efficacy was evaluated in ten FHS: 14 days following bare metal stent implantation each stent segment was randomised to a clinically available PCB (IN...
October 20, 2016: EuroIntervention
Junshan Liu, Licheng He, Liang Wang, Yuncheng Man, Luyi Huang, Zheng Xu, Dan Ge, Jingmin Li, Chong Liu, Liding Wang
Polymer metallization is extensively used in a variety of micro and nano system technologies. However, the deposited metal film exhibits poor adhesion to polymer substrates, which may cause difficulties in many applications. In this work, ultraviolet (UV)-ozone surface modification is for the first time put forward to enhance the adhesion between metal films and polymer substrates. The adhesion of sputtered Cu films on UV-ozone modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates is enhanced by a factor of 6, and that of Au films is improved by a factor of 10...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Assiya Yermukhambetova, Chun Tan, Sohrab R Daemi, Zhumabay Bakenov, Jawwad A Darr, Daniel J L Brett, Paul R Shearing
Lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries offer higher theoretical specific capacity, lower cost and enhanced safety compared to current Li-ion battery technology. However, the multiple reactions and phase changes in the sulfur conversion cathode result in highly complex phenomena that significantly impact cycling life. For the first time to the authors' knowledge, a multi-scale 3D in-situ tomography approach is used to characterize morphological parameters and track microstructural evolution of the sulfur cathode across multiple charge cycles...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stefano Perni, Polina Prokopovich
The efficient delivery of therapeutic molecules to the cartilage of joints is major obstacle in developing useful therapeutic interventions; hence, a targeted drug delivery system for this tissue is critical. We have overcome the challenge by developing a system that employs electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged constituents of cartilage and a positively charged polymer, Poly-beta amino esters (PBAEs). We have demonstrated cartilage uptake of Dexamethasone (DEX) covalently bound to the PBAE was doubled and retention in tissues prolonged compared to the equivalent dose of the commercial drug formulation...
October 13, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Tong Chen, Min Zhang, Bhesh Bhandari, Zaixing Yang
Size reduction to micron to nano-size range is rapidly developing technology applied to foods in the recent decades. This article reviews the particle size reducing technologies for solid particulate and liquid materials. For solid particulate materials, the jet milling, ball milling and colloid milling are mainly used. For liquid materials, primarily the high pressure homogenization, ultrasonic homogenization and microfluidisation technologies are used. Due to the reduction in particle size, micron- and nanotechnology significantly enhance the physico-chemical and functional characteristics of food materials, resulting in the improvement of food quality...
October 14, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Ping Li, Hua Chun Zeng
In recent years, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been employed as heterogeneous catalysts or utilized as solid precursors for synthesis of catalytic materials. However, conventional MOFs and their derivatives, which normally have relatively large particle sizes, exhibit limited mass transfer and modest catalytic activities owing to lengthy diffusion path and less exposed active sites. On the other hand, it has been generally conceived that nanoscale MOFs will be beneficial to materials utilization as well as to mass diffusion, but the instability of nano-MOFs poses a serious issue on their practical applications...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sophie Braga-Lagache, Natasha Buchs, Mircea-Ioan Iacovache, Benoit Zuber, Christopher Benjamin Jackson, Manfred Heller
BACKGROUND: Cells of the vascular system release spherical vesicles, called microparticles, in the size range of 0.1-1μm induced by a variety of stress factors resulting in variable concentrations between health and disease. Furthermore, microparticles have intercellular communication/signaling properties and interfere with inflammation and coagulation pathways. Today's most used analytical technology for mecroparticle characterization, flow cytometry, is lacking sensitivity and specificity, which might have led to the publication of contradicting results in the past...
October 12, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Katrin Niegelhell, Michael Suessenbacher, Katrin Jammernegg, Thomas Ganner, Daniel Schwendenwein, Helmut Schwab, Franz Stelzer, Harald Plank, Stefan Spirk
The creation of nano- and micropatterned polymer films is a crucial step for innumerous applications in science and technology. However, there are several problems associated with environmental aspects concerning the polymer synthesis itself, crosslinkers to induce the patterns as well as toxic solvents used for the preparation and even more important development of the films (e.g. chlorobenzene). In this paper, we present a facile method to produce micro- and nanopatterned biopolymer thin films using enzymes as so called biodevelopers...
October 13, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Pierre Wijdenes, Hasan Ali, Ryden Armstrong, Wali Zaidi, Colin Dalton, Naweed I Syed
Our inability to accurately monitor individual neurons and their synaptic activity precludes fundamental understanding of brain function under normal and various pathological conditions. However, recent breakthroughs in micro- and nano-scale fabrication processes have advanced the development of neuro-electronic hybrid technology. Among such devices are three-dimensional and planar electrodes, offering the advantages of either high fidelity or longer-term recordings respectively. Here, we present the next generation of planar microelectrode arrays with "nano-edges" that enable long-term (≥1 month) and high fidelity recordings at a resolution 15 times higher than traditional planar electrodes...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhishan Luo, Sara Martí-Sànchez, Raquel Nafria, Gihan S Joshua, María de la Mata, Pablo Guardia, Cristina Flox, Carlos Martinez-Boubeta, Konstantinos Simeonidis, Jordi Llorca, Joan Ramon Morante, Jordi Arbiol, Maria Ibáñez, Andreu Cabot
The design and engineering of earth-abundant catalysts that are both cost-effective and highly active for water splitting is a crucial challenge in a number of energy conversion and storage technologies. In this direction, herein we report the synthesis of Fe3O4@NiFexOy core-shell nano-heterostructures and the characterization of their electrocatalytic performance toward the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Such nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by a two-step synthesis procedure involving the colloidal synthesis of Fe3O4 nanocubes with a defective shell and the posterior diffusion of nickel cations within this defective shell...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ka Hei Chan, Rahul Krishnan, Michael Alexander, Jonathan Rt Lakey
The islets of Langerhans are endocrine tissue clusters that secrete hormones that regulate the body's glucose, carbohydrate and fat metabolism, the most important of which is insulin, a hormone secreted by β cells within the islets. In certain instances, a person's own immune system attacks and destroys them leading to the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D), a lifelong condition that needs daily insulin administration to maintain health and prolong survival. Islet transplantation is a surgical procedure that has demonstrated the ability to normalize blood sugar levels for up to a few years, but the need for chronic immunosuppression relegates it to a last resort that is often only used sparingly, and in seriously-ill patients...
October 10, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Paria Pashazadeh, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Maryam Hejazi, Maryam Hashemi, Miguel de la Guardia
Salmonella infectious diseases spreading every day through food have become a life-threatening problem for millions of people and growing menace to society. Health expert's estimate that the yearly cost of all the food borne diseases is approximately $5-6 billion. Traditional methodologies for salmonella analysis provide high reliability and very low limits of detection. Among them immunoassays and Nucleic acid-based assays provide results within 24h, but they are expensive, tedious and time consuming. So, there is an urgent need for development of rapid, robust and cost-effective alternative technologies for real-time monitoring of salmonella...
August 4, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Leonardo Triggiani, Ana B Muñoz-García, Angela Agostiano, Michele Pavone
Strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO) is a prototypical perovskite oxide, widely exploited in many technological applications, from catalysis to energy conversion devices. In the context of solid-oxide fuel cells, STO has been recently applied as an epitaxial substrate for nano-sized layers of mixed ion-electron conductive catalysts with enhanced electrochemical performances. To extend the applications of such heterogeneous nano-cathodes in real devices, also the STO support should be active for both electron transport and oxide diffusion...
October 11, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Stefan T Bromley, Juan Carlos Gómez Martín, John M C Plane
Silicon monoxide (SiO) is a structurally complex compound exhibiting differentiated oxide-rich and silicon-rich nano-phases at length scales covering nanoclusters to the bulk. Although nano-sized and nano-segregated SiO has great technological potential (e.g. nano-silicon for optical applications) and is of enormous astronomical interest (e.g. formation of silicate cosmic dust) an accurate general description of SiO nucleation is lacking. Avoiding the deficiencies of a bulk-averaged approach typified by classical nucleation theory (CNT) we employ a bottom-up kinetic model which fully takes into account the atomistic details involved in segregation...
September 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yasuhiro Hayasaki, Takashi Hasumura, Takahiro Fukuda, Yutaka Nagaoka, Tomofumi Ukai, Seiki Iwai, Takashi Uchida, Toru Maekawa
Magnetic nanoparticles are of great importance particularly in the field of biomedicine as well as nanotechnology and nano materials science and technology. Here, we synthesise magnetic alloy-filling carbon nanoparticles (MA@C NPs) via the following two-step procedure; (1) Irradiation of a laser beam of 266 nm wavelength into super-critical benzene, in which both ferrocene and cobaltocene are dissolved, at 290 °C; and (2) annealing of the particles at 600 and 800 °C. We find that the core particles are composed of cobalt (Co), iron (Fe) and oxygen (O) and covered with carbon layers...
September 2016: Heliyon
Kevin M Koo, Eugene J H Wee, Paul N Mainwaring, Yuling Wang, Matt Trau
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease which manifests as different molecular subtypes due to the complex nature of tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The concept of precision medicine aims to exploit this cancer heterogeneity by incorporating diagnostic technology to characterize each cancer patient's molecular subtype for tailored treatments. To characterize cancer molecular subtypes accurately, a suite of multiplexed bioassays have currently been developed to detect multiple oncogenic biomarkers. Despite the reliability of current multiplexed detection techniques, novel strategies are still needed to resolve limitations such as long assay time, complex protocols, and difficulty in interpreting broad overlapping spectral peaks of conventional fluorescence readouts...
September 26, 2016: Small
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