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Nano technology

Ofer Bar-On, Philipp Brenner, Tobias Siegle, Raz Gvishi, Heinz Kalt, Uli Lemmer, Jacob Scheuer
A method for the realization of low-loss integrated optical components is proposed and demonstrated. This approach is simple, fast, inexpensive, scalable for mass production, and compatible with both 2D and 3D geometries. The process is based on a novel dual-step soft nano imprint lithography process for producing devices with smooth surfaces, combined with fast sol-gel technology providing highly transparent materials. As a concrete example, this approach is demonstrated on a micro ring resonator made by direct laser writing (DLW) to achieve a quality factor improvement from one hundred thousand to more than 3 million...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria Aznar, Sergi Roca-Bonet, David Reguera
One of the most important components of a virus is the protein shell or capsid 
 that encloses its genetic material. The main role of the capsid is to protect 
 the viral genome against external aggressions, facilitating its safe and 
 efficient encapsulation and delivery. As a consequence, viral capsids have 
 developed astonishing mechanical properties that are crucial for viral function. 
 These remarkable properties have started to be unveiled in single-virus 
 nanoindentation experiments, and are opening the door to the use of 
 viral-derived artificial nanocages for promising bio- and nano-technological 
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Weihong Gao, Zhenyou Wang, Jin Huang, Zihang Liu
Thermoelectric conversion from low-grade heat to electricity is regarded as the highly reliable and environmentally friendly technology in energy harvesting area. However, how to develop efficient thermoelectric materials using a simple fabrication method is still a critical challenge in thermoelectric community. Here we first fabricate the high thermoelectric performance of Ca doped AgSbSe2 with hierarchical microstructure using a facile approach, namely mechanical alloying (for only 30 minutes) and quick hot pressing method...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
E Mitsai, A Kuchmizhak, E Pustovalov, A Sergeev, A Mironenko, S Bratskaya, D P Linklater, A Balčytis, E Ivanova, S Juodkazis
All-dielectric resonant micro- and nano-structures made of high-index dielectrics have recently emerged as a promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform which can complement or potentially replace the metal-based counterparts in routine sensing measurements. These unique structures combine the highly-tunable optical response and high field enhancement with the non-invasiveness, i.e. chemically non-perturbing the analyte, simple chemical modification and recyclability. Meanwhile, commercially competitive fabrication technologies for mass production of such structures are still missing...
May 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Jörn Bonse, Sabrina V Kirner, Michael Griepentrog, Dirk Spaltmann, Jörg Krüger
Laser texturing is an emerging technology for generating surface functionalities on basis of optical, mechanical, or chemical properties. Taking benefit of laser sources with ultrashort (fs) pulse durations features outstanding precision of machining and negligible rims or burrs surrounding the laser-irradiation zone. Consequently, additional mechanical or chemical post-processing steps are usually not required for fs-laser surface texturing (fs-LST). This work aimed to provide a bridge between research in the field of tribology and laser materials processing...
May 15, 2018: Materials
Lindsay A Smith, Dolores Remedios Serrano, Marion Mauger, Francisco Bolás-Fernández, Maria Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela, Aikaterini Lalatsa
Nano-enabled lipid based drug delivery systems offer a platform to overcome challenges encountered with current failed leads in the treatment of parasitic and infectious diseases. When prepared with FDA or EMA approved excipients, they can be readily translated without the need for further toxicological studies, while they remain affordable and amenable to scale-up. Buparvaquone (BPQ), a hydroxynapthoquinone with in vitro activity in the nanomolar range, failed to clinically translate as a viable treatment for visceral leishmaniasis due to its poor oral bioavailability limited by its poor aqueous solubility (BCS Class II drug)...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Mei Sun, Zhibo Yang, Boris Wawrik
Traditional approaches for the assessment of physiological responses of microbes in the environment rely on bulk filtration techniques that obscure differences among populations as well as among individual cells. Here, were report on the development on a novel micro-scale sampling device, referred to as the "Single-probe," which allows direct extraction of metabolites from living, individual phytoplankton cells for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The Single-probe is composed of dual-bore quartz tubing which is pulled using a laser pipette puller and fused to a silica capillary and a nano-ESI...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kun An, Xuechen Jin, Jiang Meng, Xiao Li, Yifeng Ren
Micro-electromechanical systems comprising antiferroelectric layers can offer both actuation and transduction to integrated technologies. Micro-cantilevers based on the (Pb0.97 La0.02 )(Zr0.95 Ti0.05 )O₃ (PLZT) antiferroelectric thick film are fabricated by the micro-nano manufacturing process, to utilize the effect of phase transition induced strain and sharp phase switch of antiferroelectric materials. When micro-cantilevers made of antiferroelectric thick films were driven by sweep voltages, there were two resonant peaks corresponding to the natural frequency shift from 27...
May 13, 2018: Sensors
Günter Oberdörster, Uschi Graham
Inhalation exposure to elongated cleavage fragments occurring at mineral and rock mining and crushing operations raises important questions regarding potential health effects given their resemblance to fibers with known adverse health effects like amphibole asbestos. Thus, a major goal for establishing a toxicity profile for elongate mineral particles (EMPs) is to identify and characterize a suspected hazard and characterize a risk by examining together results of hazard and exposure assessment. This will require not only knowledge about biokinetics of inhaled EMPs but also about underlying mechanisms of effects induced by retained EMPs...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Kyung-Hoon Han, Young-Sam Park, Doo-Hee Cho, Yoonjay Han, Jonghee Lee, Byoung-Gon Yu, Nam Sung Cho, Jeong-Ik Lee, Jang-Joo Kim
Recently, we have addressed that a formation mechanism of a nano-lens array (NLA) fabricated by using a maskless vacuum deposition is explained as the increase in surface tension of organic molecules induced by their crystallization. Here, as another research using finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, not electric field intensities but transmitted energies of electromagnetic waves inside and outside top-emitting blue organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs), without and with NLAs, are obtained, to easily grasp the effect of NLA formation on the light extraction of TOLEDs...
May 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Taisiia Berestok, Pablo Guardia, Javier Blanco Portals, Sonia Estrade, Jordi Llorca, Francesca Peiró, Andreu Cabot, Stephanie L Brock
Colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) compete with molecular catalysts in the field of homogenous catalysis, offering an easier recyclability and a number of potentially advantageous functionalities, such as tunable band gaps, plasmonic properties or a magnetic moment. Using high throughput printing technologies, colloidal NCs can be also supported onto substrates to produce cost-effective electronic, optoelectronic, electrocatalytic and sensing devices. For both catalytic and technological application, NCs surface chemistry and supracrystal organization are key parameters determining final performance...
May 11, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yue Suo Yang, Chen Wang, Xue Mei Yuan, Chang Wei An, Xin Yao Yang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as one of the most widely used metal nanomaterials can enter soil and water environment via various pathways, exert toxicity on water-borne organisms and deteriorate the aquatic eco-environment. With complex composition of natural water, the physicochemical property of AgNPs as nano materials makes their transformation process more complicated in water system. Therefore, understanding of the fate and transport of AgNPs in aqueous environment is extremely important for water quality management and protection of the eco-environment...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Vedat Karakas, Aisha Gokce, Ali Taha Habiboglu, Sevdenur Arpaci, Kaan Ozbozduman, Ibrahim Cinar, Cenk Yanik, Riccardo Tomasello, Silvia Tacchi, Giulio Siracusano, Mario Carpentieri, Giovanni Finocchio, Thomas Hauet, Ozhan Ozatay
Recently discovered exotic magnetic configurations, namely magnetic solitons appearing in the presence of bulk or interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction (i-DMI), have excited scientists to explore their potential applications in emerging spintronic technologies such as race-track magnetic memory, spin logic, radio frequency nano-oscillators and sensors. Such studies are motivated by their foreseeable advantages over conventional micro-magnetic structures due to their small size, topological stability and easy spin-torque driven manipulation with much lower threshold current densities giving way to improved storage capacity, and faster operation with efficient use of energy...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dongfang Wang, Guilong Zhang, Zhangyu Dai, Linglin Zhou, Po Bian, Kang Zheng, Zhengyan Wu, Dongqing Cai
In this work, a novel nano-system with sandwich-like structure was synthesized via face-to-face combination of two pieces of waste cotton fabrics (CFs) carrying ferrous sulfide (FeS) and carboxyl-functionalized ferroferric oxide (CFFM) respectively, and the obtained nano system was named as FeS/CFFM/CF. Therein, FeS has high reduction and adsorption capabilities for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), CFFM possesses a high adsorption ability on cadmium ion (Cd(II)) through electrostatics attraction and chelation, and CF displays high immobilization ability for FeS and CFFM and adsorption performance on Cd(II)...
May 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
You Meng, Ao Liu, Zidong Guo, Guoxia Liu, Byoungchul Shin, Yong-Young Noh, Elvira Fortunato, Rodrigo Martins, Fukai Shan
The technical development for thin-film fabrication is essential for emerging metal-oxide (MO) electronics. Although impressive progresses have been achieved in fabricating MO thin films, the challenges still remain. Here we report a versatile and general thermal-induced nano-melting technique for fabricating the MO thin films from the fibers networks, briefly called fibers-to-film (FTF) process. The high quality of the FTF-processed MO thin films was confirmed by various investigations. The FTF process is generally applicable to numerous technologically relevant MO thin films, including the semiconducting thin films (e...
May 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nelia Jurado, Tosin Somorin, Athanasios J Kolios, Stuart Wagland, Kumar Patchigolla, Beatriz Fidalgo, Alison Parker, Ewan McAdam, Leon Williams, Sean Tyrrel
This article describes the design and commissioning of a micro-combustor for energy recovery from human faeces, which can operate both in updraft and downdraft modes. Energy recovery from faecal matter via thermochemical conversion has recently been identified as a feasible solution for sanitation problems in low income countries and locations of high income countries where access to sewage infrastructures is difficult or not possible. This technology can be applied to waterless toilets with the additional outcome of generating heat and power that can be used to pre-treat the faeces before their combustion and to ensure that the entire system is self-sustaining...
May 1, 2018: Energy Conversion and Management
Siyu He, Hongyuan Li, Carmen L Gomes, Dmitri V Voronine
Optical detection and conformational mapping of aptamers are important for improving medical and biosensing technologies and for better understanding of biological processes at the molecular level. The authors investigate the vibrational signals of deoxyribonucleic acid aptamers specific to Listeria monocytogenes immobilized on gold substrates using tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) spectroscopy and nanoscale imaging. The authors compare topographic and nano-optical signals and investigate the fluctuations of the position-dependent TERS spectra...
May 3, 2018: Biointerphases
Chengzhi Zhu, Rongyi Yao, Yanjun Chen, Mengran Feng, Shuai Ma, Chaocan Zhang
HYPOTHESIS: The microfluidic technology can drive molecules to organize into aggregates with nano-structures, and gives a possibility to control aggregate morphologies by adjusting hydrodynamic parameters of microfluidics. COMSOL Multiphysics is a useful software to simulate the mixing situation of solutions in microfluidic. Here, experiments and simulation are combined to study the self-assembly of gradient copolymers in the microfluidic device. EXPERIMENTS: Fluorinated gradient copolymers self-assembled in a three-dimensional co-flow focusing microfluidic device (3D CFMD)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ziyue Li, Yilin Song, Guihua Xiao, Fei Gao, Shengwei Xu, Mixia Wang, Yu Zhang, Fengru Guo, Jie Liu, Yang Xia, Xinxia Cai
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic neurological disorder, characterized by sudden, repeated and transient central nervous system dysfunction. For better understanding of TLE, bio-nanomodified microelectrode arrays (MEA) are designed, for the achievement of high-quality simultaneous detection of glutamate signals (Glu) and multi-channel electrophysiological signals including action potentials (spikes) and local field potentials (LFPs). The MEA was fabricated by Micro-Electro-Mechanical System fabrication technology and all recording sites were modified with platinum black nano-particles, the average impedance decreased by nearly 90 times...
April 30, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Natalina Damanik, Hwai Chyuan Ong, Chong Wen Tong, Teuku Meurah Indra Mahlia, Arridina Susan Silitonga
Biodiesels have gained much popularity because they are cleaner alternative fuels and they can be used directly in diesel engines without modifications. In this paper, a brief review of the key studies pertaining to the engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with biodiesel blends, exhaust aftertreatment systems, and low-temperature combustion technology is presented. In general, most biodiesel blends result in a significant decrease in carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbon emissions...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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