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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453937/trajectory-classes-of-cannabis-use-and-heavy-drinking-among-rural-african-american-adolescents-multilevel-predictors-of-class-membership
#1
Allen W Barton, Gene H Brody, Tamika C B Zapolski, Trenette C Goings, Steven M Kogan, Michael Windle, Tianyi Yu
AIMS: To inform research on the etiology and prevention of substance use among rural African American youth by (a) identifying developmental trajectory classes of cannabis use and heavy drinking across adolescence and young adulthood, and (b) examining associations between trajectory class membership and multi-level assessments of risk factors. DESIGN: A prospective study spanning nine years with assessments of cannabis use and heavy drinking, the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, perceived stress, and psychosocial risk factors...
February 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452750/-consequences-of-chronic-pain-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#2
Rocío Cáceres-Matos, Eugenia Gil-García, Sergio Barrientos-Trigo, Esther Molina, Ana María Porcel-Gálvez
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine and map the consequences of chronic pain in children and adolescents. METHOD: A scoping review was carried out in the international databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, WOS and CINAHL, Cochrane Library) and gray literature. We included documents that addressed psychosocial aspects that influence chronic pain, published in English between 2010 and 2016. We excluded the documents that dealt with pharmacological treatments, chronic pain derived from surgical interventions or where there was no access to full text...
February 13, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452067/alcohol-and-drug-use-among-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-individuals-a-secondary-analysis-of-nhanes-2013-2014
#3
Melissa L Anderson, Bei-Hung Chang, Nisha Kini
BACKGROUND: Within the field of behavioral health research, one of the most understudied populations is the U.S. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) population - a diverse group of individuals with hearing loss that have varied language and communication preferences, community affiliations, and sociocultural norms. Recent research identified concerning behavioral health disparities experienced by the D/HH population; yet, little research has been conducted to extend these findings to the topic of substance use disorder...
February 16, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450250/association-between-drug-use-and-urban-violence-data-from-the-ii-brazilian-national-alcohol-and-drugs-survey-bnads
#4
Renata Rigacci Abdalla, Luciana Massaro, André de Queiroz Constantino Miguel, Ronaldo Laranjeira, Raul Caetano, Clarice S Madruga
Objective: To investigate the association of alcohol and cocaine use with urban violence (both as victim and as perpetrator) in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Method: The Second Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS) interviewed 4607 individuals aged 14 years and older from the Brazilian household population including an oversample of 1157 adolescents (14 to 18 years old). The survey gathered information on alcohol, tobacco and illegal substances use as well as on risk factors for abuse and dependence, behaviors associated with the use of substances and the possible consequences, as urban violence indicators...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446217/clinical-staging-model-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Aigli Raouna, Cemre Su Osam, Angus MacBeth
OBJECTIVE: We sought to systematically review the literature on the psychiatric risk of offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OPBD) using a developmental psychopathology framework. The review also sought to establish the utility of clinical stage modelling as a framework for identifying precursor disorders to later onset of bipolar disorder (BD) in OPBD. METHODS: A systematic search was performed using EMBASE, PsychINFO and Medline. Reference lists of included studies and previous reviews were also searched...
February 15, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446116/does-integrated-academic-and-health-education-prevent-substance-use-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#6
REVIEW
G J Melendez-Torres, T Tancred, A Fletcher, J Thomas, R Campbell, C Bonell
BACKGROUND: Prevention of substance (alcohol, tobacco, illegal/legal drug) use in adolescents is a public health priority. As the scope for school-based health education is constrained in school timetables, interventions integrating academic and health education have gained traction in the UK and elsewhere, though evidence for their effectiveness remains unclear. We sought to synthesize the effectiveness of interventions integrating academic and health education for the prevention of substance use...
February 15, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445049/prevalence-and-predictors-of-internet-addiction-among-college-students-in-sousse-tunisia
#7
Menel Mellouli, Nawel Zammit, Manel Limam, Meriam Elghardallou, Ali Mtiraoui, Thouraya Ajmi, Chekib Zedini
BACKGROUND: Internet represents a revolution in the world of technology and communication all over the world including Tunisia. However, this technology has also introduced problematic use, especially among students. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among college students and its predictors in the region of Sousse, Tunisia. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: The current study was conducted in the colleges of Sousse, Tunisia in 2012-2013...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438874/gender-differences-in-pathways-from-child-physical-and-sexual-abuse-to-adolescent-risky-sexual-behavior-among-high-risk-youth
#8
Susan Yoon, Laura A Voith, Julia M Kobulsky
This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435591/effect-of-including-alcohol-and-cannabis-content-in-a-sexual-risk-reduction-intervention-on-the-incidence-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-adolescents-a-cluster-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Angela D Bryan, Renee E Magnan, Arielle S Gillman, Elizabeth A Yeater, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Alberta S Kong, Sarah J Schmiege
Importance: Adolescents in the juvenile justice system are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Concurrent use of alcohol and cannabis increase this risk. Objective: To determine whether a theory-based sexual risk-reduction intervention that included alcohol- and cannabis-focused content resulted in greater reductions in STIs than an intervention that included alcohol-related content only and an intervention that did not include substance use content...
February 12, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434543/altered-functional-connectivity-of-fronto-cingulo-striatal-circuits-during-error-monitoring-in-adolescents-with-a-history-of-childhood-abuse
#10
Heledd Hart, Lena Lim, Mitul A Mehta, Charles Curtis, Xiaohui Xu, Gerome Breen, Andrew Simmons, Kah Mirza, Katya Rubia
Childhood maltreatment is associated with error hypersensitivity. We examined the effect of childhood abuse and abuse-by-gene ( 5-HTTLPR, MAOA ) interaction on functional brain connectivity during error processing in medication/drug-free adolescents. Functional connectivity was compared, using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, between 22 age- and gender-matched medication-naïve and substance abuse-free adolescents exposed to severe childhood abuse and 27 healthy controls, while they performed an individually adjusted tracking stop-signal task, designed to elicit 50% inhibition failures...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431974/childhood-bullying-implications-for-physicians
#11
Mary M Stephens, Hazel T Cook-Fasano, Katherine Sibbaluca
Childhood bullying is common and can lead to serious adverse physical and mental health effects for both the victim and the bully. In teenagers, risk factors for becoming a victim of bullying include being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender; having a disability or medical condition such as asthma, diabetes mellitus, a skin condition, or food allergy; or being an outlier in weight and stature. An estimated 20% of youth have been bullied on school property, and 16% have been bullied electronically in the past year...
February 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431454/a-test-of-the-psychometric-characteristics-of-the-bis-brief-among-three-groups-of-youth
#12
Charles W Mathias, Matthew S Stanford, Yuanyuan Liang, Martin Goros, Nora E Charles, Arielle H Sheftall, Jillian Mullen, Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, Ashley Acheson, Rene L Olvera, Donald M Dougherty
The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) is the most widely administered trait impulsiveness questionnaire. Recently a shorter, unidimensional version of the instrument was developed for adults (BIS-Brief). While psychometric characteristics of the BIS-Brief support its use among adults, it also may be more appropriate for youth samples than the complete BIS-11 because it less burdensome and omits items about activities not usually encountered by children and adolescents. This article describes a test of psychometric characteristics of the BIS-Brief among youth...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431405/hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-state
#13
Gregg D Stoner
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a life-threatening emergency manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose and hyperosmolarity with little or no ketosis. Although there are multiple precipitating causes, underlying infections are the most common. Other causes include certain medications, nonadherence to therapy, undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, substance abuse, and coexisting disease. In children and adolescents, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is often present when type 2 diabetes is diagnosed. Physical findings include profound dehydration and neurologic symptoms ranging from lethargy to coma...
December 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429419/altered-fear-processing-in-adolescents-with-a-history-of-severe-childhood-maltreatment-an-fmri-study
#14
H Hart, L Lim, M A Mehta, A Simmons, K A H Mirza, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Children with a history of maltreatment suffer from altered emotion processing but the neural basis of this phenomenon is unknown. This pioneering functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of severe childhood maltreatment on emotion processing while controlling for psychiatric conditions, medication and substance abuse. METHOD: Twenty medication-naive, substance abuse-free adolescents with a history of childhood abuse, 20 psychiatric control adolescents matched on psychiatric diagnoses but with no maltreatment and 27 healthy controls underwent a fMRI emotion discrimination task comprising fearful, angry, sad happy and neutral dynamic facial expressions...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428881/childhood-adversity-increases-the-risk-of-onward-transmission-from-perinatal-hiv-infected-adolescents-and-youth-in-south-africa
#15
Rachel Kidman, Sharon Nachman, Janan Dietrich, Afaaf Liberty, Avy Violari
Repeated exposure to childhood adversity (abuse, neglect and other traumas experienced before age 18) can have lifelong impacts on health. For HIV-infected adolescents and youth, such impacts may include onward transmission of HIV. To evaluate this possibility, the current study measured the burden of childhood adversity and its influence on risky health behaviors among perinatally-infected adolescents and youth. We surveyed 250 perinatally-infected adolescents and youth (13-24 years) receiving care in Soweto, South Africa...
February 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426128/intake-estimates-of-dioxins-and-dioxin-like-polychlorobiphenyls-in-the-italian-general-population-from-the-2013-2016-results-of-official-monitoring-plans-in-food
#16
Gianfranco Diletti, Giampiero Scortichini, Maria Cesarina Abete, Giovanni Binato, Luca Candeloro, Roberta Ceci, Giannina Chessa, Annamaria Conte, Alessandra Di Sandro, Mauro Esposito, Giorgio Fedrizzi, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Enrica Ferretti, Simonetta Menotta, Valeria Nardelli, Bruno Neri, Arianna Piersanti, Francesca Roberti, Alessandro Ubaldi, Gianfranco Brambilla
The implementation of the European Union strategy for polychlorodibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs) is determining a general reduction of their presence in the environment and in the food chain. The most important route for human exposure to these substances is food consumption and, as a consequence, a progressive decrease of their dietary intake has been observed in the last decades. In this context, it seemed worth updating the PCDD/F and DL-PCB intake estimation for the Italian population...
January 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424802/predictors-of-topiramate-tolerability-in-heavy-cannabis-using-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
Joshua C Gray, Hayley Treloar Padovano, Stephanie E Wemm, Robert Miranda
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most commonly abused illicit drug and accounts for the greatest number of adolescent substance abuse treatment admissions. Despite urgent need for effective interventions, the best available psychosocial treatment options yield only modest effects. Topiramate showed promise as an adjunctive pharmacotherapy to a psychosocial intervention for cannabis misuse among adolescents and young adults in a recent clinical trial, but it was not well tolerated. This study investigated associations between clinical characteristics and side effects and dropout among adolescents and young adults randomized to topiramate...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424608/relations-between-positive-temperament-substance-use-and-internalizing-problems-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-and-without-medical-conditions
#18
Molly Davis, Cyd K Eaton, Ana M Gutierrez-Colina, Assaf Oshri, Ronald Blount, Cynthia Suveg
BACKGROUND: Substance use problems are prevalent during emerging adulthood and may be particularly harmful for individuals with medical conditions. Understanding the role of positive temperament in substance use for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) may facilitate the identification of intervention and prevention targets given the complex relations between positive emotions and substance use. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether components of positive temperament differentially relate to substance use in a sample of AYAs with and without medical conditions...
February 9, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421347/the-emerging-marijuana-retail-environment-key-lessons-learned-from-tobacco-and-alcohol-retail-research
#19
REVIEW
Carla J Berg, Lisa Henriksen, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg, Regine Haardoerfer, Bridget Freisthler
The emerging retail market for recreational marijuana use warrants research and surveillance as such markets are established in more US states. This research can be informed by the existing literature regarding tobacco and alcohol, which highlights the impact of spatial access to tobacco and alcohol retailers and exposure to tobacco and alcohol marketing on smoking and drinking among youth and young adults. Prior research indicates that tobacco and alcohol retailers, as well as medical marijuana dispensaries, are disproportionately located in neighborhoods characterized by socioeconomic disadvantage and by higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities and young adults...
February 1, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420772/purchased-behavioral-health-care-received-by-military-health-system-beneficiaries-in-civilian-medical-facilities-2000-2014
#20
Nikki R Wooten, Jordan A Brittingham, Ronald O Pitner, Abbas S Tavakoli, Diana D Jeffery, K Sue Haddock
Introduction: Behavioral health conditions are a significant concern for the U.S. military and the Military Health System (MHS) because of decreased military readiness and increased health care utilization. Although MHS beneficiaries receive direct care in military treatment facilities, a disproportionate majority of behavioral health treatment is purchased care received in civilian facilities. Yet, limited evidence exists about purchased behavioral health care received by MHS beneficiaries...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
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