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Adolescent substance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053377/substance-use-among-bi-multiracial-youth-in-the-united-states-profiles-of-psychosocial-risk-and-protection
#1
Trenette Clark Goings, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Matthew O Howard, Michael G Vaughn
BACKGROUND: Bi/multiracial youth face higher risk of engaging in substance use than most monoracial youth. OBJECTIVES: This study contrasts the prevalence of substance use among bi/multiracial youth with that of youth from other racial/ethnic groups, and identifies distinct profiles of bi/multiracial youth by examining their substance use risk. METHODS: Using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (collected between 2002 and 2014), we analyze data for 9,339 bi/multiracial youth ages 12-17 living in the United States...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052118/challenging-conventions-of-bullying-thresholds-exploring-differences-between-low-and-high-levels-of-bully-only-victim-only-and-bully-victim-roles
#2
Jeremy T Goldbach, Paul R Sterzing, Marla J Stuart
Using a commonly accepted threshold of 2 to 3 times per month as a marker of bullying-involvement from noninvolvement, approximately 30% of U.S. students report being a bully, victim, or both. Although variation in the frequency of involvement exists, infrequent engagement (less than 2 to 3 times a month) is generally considered noninvolved. However, the question remains: Do these differences have implications for behavioral health patterns, including substance use, depression and school connectedness? The present study used a district-wide random cluster sample of 66 middle and high schools in a mid-size city...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051027/the-conception-of-the-abcd-study-from-substance-use-to-a-broad-nih-collaboration
#3
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, George F Koob, Robert T Croyle, Diana W Bianchi, Joshua A Gordon, Walter J Koroshetz, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable, William T Riley, Michele H Bloch, Kevin Conway, Bethany G Deesds, Gayathri J Dowling, Steven Grant, Katia D Howlett, John A Matochik, Glen D Morgan, Margaret M Murray, Antonio Noronha, Catherine Y Spong, Eric M Wargo, Kenneth R Warren, Susan R B Weiss
Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes in brain structure and function, and the adolescent brain is highly susceptible to being altered by experiences like substance use. However, there is much we have yet to learn about how these experiences influence brain development, how they promote or interfere with later health outcomes, or even what healthy brain development looks like. A large longitudinal study beginning in early adolescence could help us understand the normal variability in adolescent brain and cognitive development and tease apart the many factors that influence it...
October 10, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050505/late-onset-adhd-reconsidered-with-comprehensive-repeated-assessments-between-ages-10-and-25
#4
Margaret H Sibley, Luis A Rohde, James M Swanson, Lily T Hechtman, Brooke S G Molina, John T Mitchell, L Eugene Arnold, Arthur Caye, Traci M Kennedy, Arunima Roy, Annamarie Stehli
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents and young adults without childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often present to clinics seeking stimulant medication for late-onset ADHD symptoms. Recent birth-cohort studies support the notion of late-onset ADHD, but these investigations are limited by relying on screening instruments to assess ADHD, not considering alternative causes of symptoms, or failing to obtain complete psychiatric histories. The authors address these limitations by examining psychiatric assessments administered longitudinally to the local normative comparison group of the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038777/the-abcd-study-of-neurodevelopment-identifying-neurocircuit-targets-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-adolescent-substance-abuse
#5
James M Bjork, Lisa K Straub, Rosellen G Provost, Michael C Neale
Substance use disorders (SUD) can be considered developmental disorders in light of their frequent origins in substance initiation during adolescence. Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adolescent substance users or adolescents with SUD have indicated aberrations in brain structures or circuits implicated in motivation, self-control, and mood-regulation. However, attributing these differences to the neurotoxicological effects of chronic substance use has been problematic in that these circuits are also aberrant in at-risk children, such as those with prenatal substance exposure, externalizing disorders (such as conduct disorder), or prodromal internalizing disorders such as depression...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033857/an-update-overview-on-brain-imaging-studies-of-internet-gaming-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Aviv M Weinstein
There are a growing number of studies on structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that IGD adolescents and adults had reduced gray matter volume in regions associated with attention motor coordination executive function and perception. Adolescents with IGD showed lower white matter (WM) integrity measures in several brain regions that are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition, and emotional regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032318/adolescent-substance-use-latent-class-and-transition-analysis
#7
Hye Jeong Choi, Yu Lu, Marya Schulte, Jeff R Temple
BACKGROUND: The prevention and intervention of adolescent substance use is a public health priority. Most adolescents will engage in some form of substance use, and a sizeable minority will transition to using multiple substances. An emerging body of research takes a person-centered approach to model adolescent substance use over time; however, the findings have been equivocal. Our study modeled adolescent substance use transition patterns over three years based on a comprehensive list of substances and examined gender as a moderator...
September 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032186/does-parental-substance-use-always-engender-risk-for-children-comparing-incidence-rate-ratios-of-abusive-and-neglectful-behaviors-across-substance-use-behavior-patterns
#8
Nancy J Kepple
Parental substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with an added risk for child abuse and neglect, but less is understood about how a range of parental use behaviors is associated with differential maltreatment frequencies. This study used the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW I) to create categories for parental substance use behaviors that are conceptually associated with varying levels of substance-related impairments. The study sample was composed of 2100 parents of children ages 2-17 years from Wave 4 data collection...
October 12, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028562/common-and-differential-factors-associated-with-abstinence-and-poly-drug-use-among-australian-adolescents
#9
Simone Pettigrew, Michelle Jongenelis, David Lawrence, Wavne Rikkers
BACKGROUND: Social norms relating to youth substance use are changing. In Australia, alcohol use among adolescents has fallen dramatically and tobacco and cannabis use have also reduced, albeit more moderately. The aim of the present study was to identify (i) factors associated with compliance with recommendations for zero intake of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and (ii) factors associated with poly drug use (intake of all three substances). METHODS: As part of the Young Minds Matter Study, a self-report survey was administered to 1661 Australian adolescents aged 15-17 years...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023835/school-based-health-centers-and-adolescent-substance-use-moderating-effects-of-race-ethnicity-and-socioeconomic-status
#10
Melina Bersamin, Mallie J Paschall, Deborah A Fisher
BACKGROUND: School-based health centers (SBHCs) have been associated with many positive health and academic outcomes. The current study extends previous research and examines possible differences in the association between SBHC exposure and adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use by race/ethnicity, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: California Healthy Kids Survey data from 504 traditional high schools in California were linked with publicly available data on SBHCs and school demographics...
November 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022520/prevalence-of-suicidal-behaviour-and-associated-factors-in-a-large-sample-of-chinese-adolescents
#11
X C Liu, H Chen, Z Z Liu, J Y Wang, C X Jia
AIMS: Suicidal behaviour is prevalent among adolescents and is a significant predictor of future suicide attempts (SAs) and suicide death. Data on the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of suicidal behaviour in Chinese adolescents are limited. This study was aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors of suicidal behaviour, including suicidal thought (ST), suicide plan (SP) and SA, in a large sample of Chinese adolescents. METHOD: This report represents the first wave data of an ongoing longitudinal study, Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort...
October 12, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021115/specialty-addiction-and-psychiatry-treatment-initiation-and-engagement-results-from-an-sbirt-randomized-trial-in-pediatrics
#12
Stacy Sterling, Andrea H Kline-Simon, Ashley Jones, Derek D Satre, Sujaya Parthasarathy, Constance Weisner
OBJECTIVE: Many adolescents needing specialty addiction or psychiatry treatment never access care. We examined initiation and engagement with addiction and/or psychiatry treatment among adolescents referred to treatment from a trial comparing two different modalities of delivering Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) to Usual Care in pediatric primary care. We hypothesized that both intervention arms would have higher initiation and engagement rates than usual care...
November 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020756/using-focus-group-interviews-to-analyze-the-behavior-of-users-of-new-types-of-tobacco-products
#13
Jinyoung Kim, Sungkyu Lee
Objectives: To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs) to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. Methods: We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups...
September 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017108/sexual-orientation-disparities-in-prescription-drug-misuse-among-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-adolescents-prevalence-and-correlates
#14
Dennis H Li, Blair C Turner, Brian Mustanski, Gregory L Phillips
OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) may be at disproportionate risk for misusing prescription psychotropic medications compared to their heterosexual peers. However, generalizable studies specific to this age group are lacking. The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of sexual orientation disparities in prescription drug misuse among a nationally representative sample of adolescents as well as to examine key correlates of misuse. METHOD: Using data from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, we conducted stepwise multivariable weighted logistic regressions, sequentially controlling for demographics, experiences of victimization, mental health, and other illicit substance use...
September 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994767/effects-of-exposure-of-formaldehyde-to-a-rat-model-of-atopic-dermatitis-induced-by-neonatal-capsaicin-treatment
#15
Rafael Taeho Han, Seung Keun Back, JaeHee Lee, Hye Young Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Heung Sik Na
Atopic dermatitis is chronically relapsing pruritic eczema and prevails around the world especially in developed countries. Complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors are known to play an important role in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis. However, we still lack a detailed picture of the pathogenesis of this disease. Thus, it is of importance to develop appropriate animal models for elucidating the progression of atopic dermatitis. Moreover, investigating the effect of environmental factors such as air pollutants on atopic dermatitis expands understanding of the disease...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993126/per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-in-sera-from-children-3-to-11-years-of-age-participating-in-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2013-2014
#16
Xiaoyun Ye, Kayoko Kato, Lee-Yang Wong, Tao Jia, Akil Kalathil, John Latremouille, Antonia M Calafat
Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured in U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants 12 years of age and older since 1999-2000, but PFAS data using NHANES individual samples among children younger than 12 years do not exist. To obtain the first nationally representative PFAS exposure data in U.S. children, we quantified serum concentrations of 14 PFAS including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), in a nationally representative subsample of 639 3-11year old participants in NHANES 2013-2014...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991884/hiv-continuum-of-care-for-youth-in-the-united-states
#17
Michelle A Lally, Jacob J van den Berg, Andrew O Westfall, Bret J Rudy, Sybil G Hosek, J Dennis Fortenberry, Dina Monte, Mary R Tanney, Elizabeth J McFarland, Jiahong Xu, Bill G Kapogiannis, Craig M Wilson
BACKGROUND: Beneficial HIV treatment outcomes require success at multiple steps along the HIV Continuum of Care. Youth living with HIV are a key population, and sites in the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) are known for modeling optimum HIV adolescent care. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study conducted at 14 network sites across the United States assessed how the later steps of the Continuum of Care were achieved among youth: engagement, treatment and viral load suppression...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986209/effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-a-prospective-sample-of-young-adults-mental-health-substance-use-and-difficulties-with-the-legal-system
#18
Mary Ellen Lynch, Julie A Kable, Claire D Coles
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have focused on the transition to adulthood in adults with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). In this study, we examine the occurrence of problem behavior at this transition, including mental health problems, substance use, and difficulties with the legal system. The sample is prospective and provides an opportunity to examine effects of a wide range of prenatal exposure. Adults with PAE were expected to show more problem behavior; the impact of level of exposure was examined as well...
October 3, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985919/contributing-factors-of-teenage-pregnancy-among-african-american-females-living-in-economically-disadvantaged-communities
#19
Lauren Summers, Young-Me Lee, Hyeonkyeong Lee
AIM: To identify contributing factors that increased the risk of pregnancy among African-American adolescent females living in economically disadvantaged communities and to evaluate the current pregnancy prevention programs addressing these factors in order to provide suggestions for the development of tailored pregnancy prevention programs for this target population. BACKGROUND: Pregnancy rates among adolescents in the United States have declined over the past several years...
October 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984477/pediatric-pharmacoepidemiology-safety-and-effectiveness-of-medicines-for-adhd
#20
Antonio Clavenna, Maurizio Bonati
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder in children and adolescents that comprises core symptoms of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. Stimulant (methylphenidate, amphetamines) and non stimulant (atomoxetine, clonidine and guanfacine) are the treatment usually prescribed for ADHD. Area covered: This review covers the safety of ADHD medications in children and adolescents. MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched with the aim to retrieve prospective studies that monitored the incidence of adverse events (AEs) in children receiving drug therapy for ADHD...
October 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
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