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Adolescent substance

Shaniece Criss, Dahiana Rodriguez, Roberta E Goldman
Our qualitative study examined how stresses of daily life affected substance use and perceived risk among Black and Hispanic adolescents. We conducted 11 focus groups with students aged 13-25 in public and alternative schools in Providence, Rhode Island, using Bourdieu's Social Practice theoretical approach to guide questioning and data analysis. Despite participants' frequent marijuana use, they perceived the emphasis society places on substance use as misguided, obfuscating the persistence of more critical problems such as stress and reduced opportunity resulting from neighborhood violence, poor schools, financial difficulties, and home troubles...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Jeremy T Goldbach, Ethan H Mereish, Claire Burgess
BACKGROUND: Prescription drug, e-cigarette, smokeless tobacco, and synthetic marijuana use has risen dramatically in the United States over the past decade. OBJECTIVES: This paper investigates the use of risky substances among adolescents, and examines disparities between sexual minority (i.e., mostly heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual; LGB) and heterosexual adolescents in use of novel and emerging substances. Given the public health risk and the imminence of these substances in the media, emerging drug use was examined in a county wide sample of adolescents in a Southern state...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
David R Hodge, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Michael G Vaughn
BACKGROUND: The homeschool population continues to grow in size and now accounts for 3.4% of all students in the United States. OBJECTIVE: Given the heterogeneous nature of the population, this study examines the relationship between different types of homeschoolers and a number of substance use related outcomes. METHODS: To conduct this study, we used pooled data (2002-2013) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Respondents aged 12-17 who reported they had been homeschooled at any time during the previous 12 months were classified as homeschoolers (N = 1,321)...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Jacinta L Johnson, Femke T A Buisman-Pijlman
The endogenous oxytocin system plays a vital role in facilitating parturition, lactation and social interaction in humans and other mammals. It also impacts on a number of important endocrine, immune and neurotransmitter systems. A well-regulated oxytocin system has been proposed to increase resilience, and therefore reduce the likelihood of an individual developing mental illness or substance dependence. This review discusses the adverse external influences that can modulate oxytocin receptor and protein levels and impact on substance use and mental health...
October 14, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Richard W Handel
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent-Restructured Form (MMPI-A-RF; Archer, Handel, Ben-Porath, & Tellegen, 2016) is a new broadband measure of adolescent psychopathology and personality. The MMPI-A-RF is the adolescent counterpart of the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011). The goal of the MMPI-2-RF development project was to capture the clinically significant substance of the MMPI-2 item pool with a psychometrically sound measure linked to contemporary models of personality and psychopathology (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Venu Duddu, Abdulhakim Rhouma, Masood Qureshi, Imran Bashir Chaudhry, Terry Drake, Altaf Sumra, Nusrat Husain
Aims and method The need for an age-appropriate in-patient service for 16- to 17-year-olds led to the development of a 6-bed acute admissions unit in a non-metropolitan county in the UK. We provide a descriptive evaluation of the first 2 years of its operation. All admissions from April 2010 to March 2012 were reviewed, clinical details systematically recorded and descriptively analysed. Results Ninety-seven young people were admitted during this period (a third were compulsorily detained under the Mental Health Act 1983)...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Sonja E Siennick, Alex O Widdowson, Mathew K Woessner, Mark E Feinberg, Richard L Spoth
PURPOSE: Depressive symptoms during adolescence are positively associated with peer-related beliefs, perceptions, and experiences that are known risk factors for substance misuse. These same risk factors are targeted by many universal substance misuse prevention programs. This study examined whether a multicomponent universal substance misuse intervention for middle schoolers reduced the associations between depressive symptoms, these risk factors, and substance misuse. METHODS: The study used data from a place-randomized trial of the Promoting School-Community-University Partnerships to Enhance Resilience model for delivery of evidence-based substance misuse programs for middle schoolers...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Jeremy W Luk, Matthew J Worley, Evan Winiger, Ryan S Trim, Christian J Hopfer, John K Hewitt, Sandra A Brown, Tamara L Wall
PURPOSE: To examine the associations between substance use and antisocial behavior trajectories and seven risky behaviors over time. METHOD: Data were collected from a high-risk sample of adolescents followed into young adulthood. Five trajectory classes, identified based on dual development of substance use and antisocial behavior symptoms, were used to predict three risky driving and four risky sexual behaviors. RESULTS: In this high-risk sample (n=530), participants reported notably high overall rates of reckless driving (55...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kristi E Gamarel, Larry Brown, Christopher W Kahler, M Isabel Fernandez, Douglas Bruce, Sharon Nichols
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to better understand the prevalence and correlates of substance use behaviors among HIV-infected adolescents in HIV care settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 2216 youth living with HIV (YLWH; ages 12-26) were recruited through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions. Participants completed a one-time survey on sociodemographic factors, substance use and health behaviors. We used logistic regression models to understand the correlates of substance use outcomes...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Sara García-Sánchez, Josep Lluís Matalí, María Martín-Fernández, Marta Pardo, Maria Lleras, Carmina Castellano-Tejedor, Josep Maria Haro
Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced...
October 6, 2016: Adicciones
Lucie D Cluver, F Mark Orkin, Franziska Meinck, Mark E Boyes, Alexa R Yakubovich, Lorraine Sherr
BACKGROUND: The first policy action outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is the implementation of national social protection systems. This study assesses whether social protection provision can impact 17 indicators of five key health-related SDG goals amongst adolescents in South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal survey of adolescents (10-18 years) between 2009 and 2012. Census areas were randomly selected in two urban and two rural health districts in two South African provinces, including all homes with a resident adolescent...
2016: PloS One
Lara Gerassi, Melissa Jonson-Reid, Brett Drake
Little is known about whether there are specific subpopulations of youth with known problem behaviors that are more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors. This study's sample (n=4,117) was drawn from a larger longitudinal administrative data, consisting of young adults with child abuse and/or poverty histories and records of some form of high-risk behavior or mental health diagnosis during adolescence. A cluster-controlled, logistic regression resulted in eleven statistically significant relationships. Youth treated for a mental health disorder and experienced multiple forms of abuse were more likely to be treated for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)...
September 2016: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
Ola Ståhlberg, Sofia Boman, Christina Robertsson, Nóra Kerekes, Henrik Anckarsäter, Thomas Nilsson
This 3-year follow-up study compares background variables, extent of criminality and criminal recidivism in the form of all court convictions, the use of inpatient care, and number of early deaths in Swedish institutionalized adolescents (N=100) with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (n=25) versus those with SUD but no ADHD (n=30), and those without SUD (n=45). In addition it aims to identify whether potential risk factors related to these groups are associated with persistence in violent criminality...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Dennis E Reidy, Joanne P Smith-Darden, Poco D Kernsmith
INTRODUCTION: Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jane Dimmitt Champion, Carol F Roye
: Immigration from the Dominican Republic to the United States has grown rapidly. Yet, although adolescent pregnancy and obesity are common concerns among Hispanics, little is known specifically about Dominican adolescent health. This study was undertaken to assess Dominican-American adolescents' health concerns and their perceptions about their health promotion needs. DESIGN AND METHODS: Dominican-American adolescents (N=25) were recruited in a pediatric clinic in New York City which primarily serves a Dominican population...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
T Y Brumback, Matthew Worley, Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Lindsay M Squeglia, Joanna Jacobus, Susan F Tapert
Adolescence is a period marked by increases in risk taking, sensation seeking, and emotion dysregulation. Neurobiological models of adolescent development propose that lagging development in brain regions associated with affect and behavior control compared to regions associated with reward and emotion processing may underlie these behavioral manifestations. Cross-sectional studies have identified several functional brain networks that may contribute to risk for substance use and psychopathology in adolescents...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Mona Taouk, Bettina Meiser, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Michael Dudley, Philip B Mitchell
OBJECTIVES: Few adolescent-specific depression screening instruments have been developed in recent years using multi-method approaches (qualitative and quantitative), and some of those available have limitations with an adolescent audience. We describe the development of a potential measure - the Taouk Scale for Adolescent Depression. METHODS: Draft items were informed by findings from focus groups and reviews by adolescents and healthcare professionals, resulting in a provisional 97-item scale...
October 12, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Megan E Patrick, Deborah D Kloska, Sara A Vasilenko, Stephanie T Lanza
Perceived social norms of substance use are commonly identified as a risk factor for use. How the strength of association between perceived friends' use and substance use may change across development has not yet been documented. The current analysis considers how the associations between perceived friends' marijuana use and participants' own use of any marijuana in the past year changes from ages 18 to 30 using longitudinal data from the United States national Monitoring the Future study from 1976 to 2014 (N = 30,794 people)...
October 13, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Marita Campos-Melady, Jane Ellen Smith, Robert J Meyers, Susan H Godley, Mark D Godley
Central to the debate over the implementation of empirically supported treatments is whether therapist skill has a measurable, positive relationship with client outcome. The fidelity and skill with which therapists deliver treatments have been studied under the constructs of adherence and competence. Evidence for a relationship between adherence and competence and client outcomes has been mixed, possibly due to small sample sizes, potentially inadequate measures for rating therapists' skill, and limited statistical methods...
October 13, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
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