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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931225/persistent-herpesvirus-infections-and-telomere-attrition-over-3-years-in-the-whitehall-ii-cohort
#1
Jennifer B Dowd, Jos A Bosch, Andrew Steptoe, Bamini Jayabalasingham, Jue Lin, Robert Yolken, Allison E Aiello
The determinants of telomere attrition, a potential marker of cellular aging, are not well understood. Persistent herpesvirus infections including cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may be particularly important for telomere dynamics via mechanisms such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and their impact on peripheral blood lymphocyte composition. This study examined the association of 4 human herpesviruses (CMV, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpesvirus type 6, and Epstein-Barr virus) with change in leukocyte telomere length (LTL) over 3 years in 400 healthy individuals (aged 53-76 years) from the Whitehall II cohort...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930984/high-fat-diet-feeding-and-high-throughput-triacylglyceride-assay-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Soda Balla Diop, Ryan T Birse, Rolf Bodmer
Heart disease is the number one cause of human death worldwide. Numerous studies have shown strong connections between obesity and cardiac malfunction in humans, but more tools and research efforts are needed to better elucidate the mechanisms involved. For over a century, the genetically highly tractable model of Drosophila has been instrumental in the discovery of key genes and molecular pathways that proved to be highly conserved across species. Many biological processes and disease mechanisms are functionally conserved in the fly, such as development (e...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930963/role-of-autophagy-and-its-molecular-mechanisms-in-mice-intestinal-tract-after-severe-burn
#3
Duan Y Zhang, Wei Qiu, PeiS Jin, Peng Wang, Yong Sun
BACKGROUND: Severe burn can lead to hypoxia/ischemia of intestinal mucosa. Autophagy is the process of intracellular degradation, which is essential for cell survival under stresses, such as hypoxia/ischemia and nutrient deprivation. The present study was designed to investigate whether there were changes in intestinal autophagy after severe burn in mice and further to explore the effect and molecular mechanisms of autophagy on intestinal injury. METHODS: This study includes three experiments...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930870/hamstring-myoelectrical-activity-during-three-different-kettlebell-swing-exercises
#4
Michael J Del Monte, David A Opar, Ryan G Timmins, James Ross, Justin Wl Keogh, Christian Lorenzen
Kettlebell exercises have become an increasingly popular form of resistance training and component of lower body rehabilitative training programs; despite a lack of scientific literature illustrating internal mechanisms and effectiveness of these approaches. Participants (n=14) performed three different styles of kettlebell swings (hip hinge, squat and double knee extension) and were assessed for medial hamstrings (MH) and biceps femoris (BF) myoelectrical activity via surface electromyography (sEMG). Bipolar pre-gelled Ag/AgCl surface electromyography (sEMG) electrodes (10mm diameter, 20mm inter-electrode distance) were placed on the participant's dominant limb after correct skin preparation...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930815/variability-in-usual-care-mechanical-ventilation-for-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-time-for-a-decision-support-protocol
#5
Christopher J L Newth, Katherine A Sward, Robinder G Khemani, Kent Page, Kathleen L Meert, Joseph A Carcillo, Thomas P Shanley, Frank W Moler, Murray M Pollack, Heidi J Dalton, David L Wessel, John T Berger, Robert A Berg, Rick E Harrison, Richard Holubkov, Allan Doctor, J Michael Dean, Tammara L Jenkins, Carol E Nicholson
OBJECTIVES: Although pediatric intensivists philosophically embrace lung protective ventilation for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, we hypothesized that ventilator management varies. We assessed ventilator management by evaluating changes to ventilator settings in response to blood gases, pulse oximetry, or end-tidal CO2. We also assessed the potential impact that a pediatric mechanical ventilation protocol adapted from National Heart Lung and Blood Institute acute respiratory distress syndrome network protocols could have on reducing variability by comparing actual changes in ventilator settings to those recommended by the protocol...
September 19, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930639/50-years-of-research-in-ards-tidal-volume-selection-in-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#6
Sarina K Sahetya, Jordi Mancebo, Roy G Brower
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is critical in the management of many patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, MV can also cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The selection of an appropriate tidal volume is an essential part of a lung-protective MV strategy. Since the publication of a large randomized clinical trial demonstrating the benefit of lower tidal volumes, the use of tidal volumes of 6 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW, based on sex and height) has been recommended in clinical practice guidelines...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930620/effects-and-mechanisms-of-actions-of-phytochemicals-on-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathology
#7
Richard E Hartman, David M Ross
Alzheimer's disease affects millions of people, yet, there are only a limited number approaches for it pharmacological treatment. Thus, identifying factors that decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease is of paramount importance. A growing body of epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that dietary fruits and vegetables have neuroprotective effects against the harmful effects of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and aging. These effects are mediated by various phytochemical compounds found in plants that exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other beneficial properties...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930610/rps6ka4-mir1237-and-aurkc-promoter-regions-are-differentially-methylated-in-wilms-tumor
#8
Hanna S Pereira, Sheila C Soares Lima, Paulo S de Faria, Leila Ca Cardoso, Hector N Seuanez
Wilms' tumor (WT) is the most frequent renal cancer in childhood, the occurrence of which is characterized by a relatively low frequency of associated mutations. While epigenetic alterations have been postulated to play a relevant role in the emergence of this tumor, the mechanisms involved in WT development remain largely unknown. In this study, the DNA methylation profile of WT was characterized with Beadchip array. Comparisons between WT with normal kidney identified 827 differentially methylated regions, most of which were attributable in hypermethylation in CpG islands...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930566/homeostatic-regulation-of-plasma-amino-acid-concentrations
#9
Shengfa F Liao, Naresh Regmi, Guoyao Wu
One major goal of nutrition is to maximize the rate of muscle protein gain via provision of amino acids (AAs) through blood plasma. Comparing the plasma AA concentrations with the growth performance data can help to elucidate the metabolic mechanisms regulating plasma AA homeostasis, nutrient utilization, and intracellular protein turnover. Knowledge about the homeostatic regulation of plasma AA profile can aid in predicting dietary AA availabilities, the order of limiting AAs, and the whole body protein metabolism...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930162/lean-body-mass-harbors-sensing-mechanisms-that-allow-safeguarding-of-methionine-homeostasis
#10
REVIEW
Yves Ingenbleek
Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy) in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHTM) activity or from components of lean body mass (LBM) submitted to any inflammatory disorder. LBM comprises a composite agglomeration of extrarenal tissues characterized by naturally occurring BHTM inactivity...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930071/dynamics-of-the-ift-machinery-at-the-ciliary-tip
#11
Alexander Chien, Sheng Min Shih, Raqual Bower, Douglass Tritschler, Mary E Porter, Ahmet Yildiz
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is essential for the elongation and maintenance of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Due to the traffic jam of multiple trains at the ciliary tip, how IFT trains are remodeled in these turnaround zones cannot be determined by conventional imaging. Using Photogate, we visualized the full range of movement of single IFT trains and motors in Chlamydomonas flagella. Anterograde trains split apart and IFT complexes mix with each other at the tip to assemble retrograde trains. Dynein-1b is carried to the tip by kinesin-II as inactive cargo on anterograde trains...
September 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929823/-i-ve-got-a-very-dichotomous-difference-in-the-way-that-i-perceive-myself-positive-and-negative-constructions-of-body-image-following-cancer-treatment
#12
Sarah Grogan, Jayne Mechan, Sofia Persson, Sive Finlay, Matthew Hall
This study investigated how women constructed body image following cancer. Four women, aged 32-67 years, who had experienced breast or bowel cancer took part in a 2-hour, in-depth focus group. Discourse analysis revealed that women orientated to positive aspects of the post-treatment body (silhouette, trust, acceptance) while acknowledging that their experiences were also traumatic (hair loss, scarring, sickness, swelling). Bodies and illness were concealed from public judgment, and women developed new trust in their bodies due to overcoming cancer; post-cancer bodies were accepted despite opportunities for normalisation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929768/protein-corona-analysis-of-silver-nanoparticles-links-to-their-cellular-effects
#13
Sabine Juling, Alicia Niedzwiecka, Linda Böhmert, Dajana Lichtenstein, Soeren Selve, Albert Braeuning, Andreas F Thünemann, Eberhard Krause, Alfonso Lampen
The breadth of applications of nanoparticles and the access to food-associated consumer products containing nano-sized materials lead to oral human exposure to such particles. In biological fluids nanoparticles dynamically interact with biomolecules and form a protein corona. Knowledge about the protein corona is of great interest for understanding the molecular effects of particles as well as their fate inside the human body. We used a mass spectrometry-based toxicoproteomics approach to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity of silver nanoparticles and to comprehensively characterize the protein corona formed around silver nanoparticles in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929755/nanowires-of-geobacter-sulfurreducens-require-redox-cofactors-to-reduce-metals-in-pore-spaces-too-small-for-cell-passage
#14
Kyle Michelson, Robert A Sanford, Albert J Valocchi, Charles J Werth
Members of the Geobacteraceae family are ubiquitous metal reducers that utilize conductive 'nanowires' to reduce Mn(IV) and Fe(III) oxides in anaerobic sediments. However, it is not currently known if and to what extent the Mn(IV) and Fe(III) oxides in soil grains and low permeability sediments that are sequestered in pore spaces too small for cell passage can be reduced by long-range extracellular electron transport via Geobacter nanowires, and what mechanisms control this reduction. We developed a microfluidic reactor that physically separates Geobacter sulfurreducens from the Mn(IV) mineral birnessite by a 1...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929462/can-body-temperature-dysregulation-explain-the-co-occurrence-between-overweight-obesity-sleep-impairment-late-night-eating-and-a-sedentary-lifestyle
#15
REVIEW
Rhonda F Brown, Einar B Thorsteinsson, Michael Smithson, C Laird Birmingham, Hessah Aljarallah, Christopher Nolan
PURPOSE: Overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance, night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle are common co-occurring problems. There is a tendency for them to co-occur together more often than they occur alone. In some cases, there is clarity as to the time course and evolution of the phenomena. However, specific mechanism(s) that are proposed to explain a single co-occurrence cannot fully explain the more generalized tendency to develop concurrent symptoms and/or disorders after developing one of the phenomena...
September 19, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929391/redefining-approaches-to-asthma-bridging-the-gap-between-heparin-and-its-anti-inflammatory-activities
#16
REVIEW
Madhur D Shastri, Gregory M Peterson, Rahul P Patel
Heparin is widely used as an anticoagulant. Currently, this macromolecule is at the forefront in the field of glycobiology because of the recognition of its therapeutic potential in a wide range of medical conditions including inflammation. Heparin is composed of anticoagulant and non-anticoagulant molecules. A large body of evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory activities of heparin are attributed to its non-anticoagulant molecules and are therefore independent to its anticoagulant effect. However, the potential therapeutic use of heparin in inflammatory conditions is hindered by the presence of anticoagulant molecules causing the risk of bleeding...
October 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929278/effect-and-mechanisms-of-diabetes-resolution-according-to-the-range-of-gastric-resection-and-the-length-of-anastomosis-in-animal-models-implication-for-gastric-cancer-surgery-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Yeon-Ju Huh, Young-Gil Son, Tae-Han Kim, Ji-Ho Park, Tae-Jung Oh, Boram Choi, Jimin Min, Young Min Cho, Han-Kwang Yang, Hyuk-Joon Lee
BACKGROUND: To examine the effect and mechanism of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on the improvement of diabetes according to the length of anastomosis and the gastric pouch volume in an animal model. METHODS: Glucose intolerance was induced with a high-fat diet for 3 months in Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were subjected to conventional RYGB (cRYGB; 5% gastric pouch with 15-cm Roux limb, 40-cm biliopancreatic limb; n = 9), short-limb RYGB (sRYGB; 5%, 8, 4 cm; n = 9), fundus-sparing RYGB (fRYGB; 30%, 8, 4 cm; n = 9), or sham operation (n = 9)...
September 19, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929189/-hyponatremia-in-emergency-admissions-often-dangerous
#18
REVIEW
W Fenske
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in clinical practice and associated with increased morbidity and mortality, independent of underlying disease. Untreated acute hyponatremia can cause substantial morbidity and mortality as a result of osmotically induced cerebral edema whilst over rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia can cause serious neurologic impairment and death resulting from osmotic demyelination. Still hyponatremia is often neglected and insufficiently addressed, most likely due to limited understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms...
September 19, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929088/microbial-invasion-vs-tick-immune-regulation
#19
REVIEW
Daniel E Sonenshine, Kevin R Macaluso
Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents that cause disease in humans and animals than any other haematophagous arthropod, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean Congo haemorhagic fever, and many others (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Although diverse explanations have been proposed to explain their remarkable vectorial capacity, among the most important are their blood feeding habit, their long term off-host survival, the diverse array of bioactive molecules that disrupt the host's natural hemostatic mechanisms, facilitate blood flow, pain inhibitors, and minimize inflammation to prevent immune rejection (Hajdušek et al...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929027/the-role-of-polycarbonate-monomer-bisphenol-a-in-insulin-resistance
#20
Milos Pjanic
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic unit of polycarbonate polymers and epoxy resins, the types of plastics that could be found in essentially every human population and incorporated into almost every aspect of the modern human society. BPA polymers appear in a wide range of products, from liquid storages (plastic bottles, can and glass linings, water pipes and tanks) and food storages (plastics wraps and containers), to medical and dental devices. BPA polymers could be hydrolyzed spontaneously or in a photo- or temperature-catalyzed process, providing widespread environmental distribution and chronic exposure to the BPA monomer in contemporary human populations...
2017: PeerJ
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