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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930973/intracortical-inhibition-within-the-primary-motor-cortex-can-be-modulated-by-changing-the-focus-of-attention
#1
Yves-Alain Kuhn, Martin Keller, Jan Ruffieux, Wolfgang Taube
It is well recognized that an external focus (EF) compared with an internal focus (IF) of attention improves motor learning and performance. Studies have indicated benefits in accuracy, balance, force production, jumping performance, movement speed, oxygen consumption, and fatiguing task. Although behavioral outcomes of using an EF strategy are well explored, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. A recent TMS study compared the activity of the primary motor cortex (M1) between an EF and an IF. More precisely, this study showed that, when adopting an EF, the activity of intracortical inhibitory circuits is enhanced...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929471/-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-cannabidiol-in-the-treatment-of-spasticity-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-a-clinical-experience
#2
C Grao-Castellote, F Torralba-Collados, L M Gonzalez, M Giner-Pascual
INTRODUCTION: Spasticity in chronic spinal cord injury is a condition that can have negative repercussions on the patient's quality of life. Its treatment is complex and sometimes the outcome is insufficient. Cannabinoids have recently been used in multiple sclerosis to successfully treat spasticity that is refractory to other therapies. AIM: To quantify the clinical response of a group of patients with spastic chronic spinal cord injury to the orally administered drug delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-cannabidiol (Sativex ®) as medication for use in special situations...
October 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928636/smn-deficiency-increases-the-intrinsic-excitability-of-motoneurons
#3
Saravanan Arumugam, Ana Garcera, Rosa M Soler, Lucía Tabares
During development, motoneurons experience significant changes in their size and in the number and strength of connections that they receive, which requires adaptive changes in their passive and active electrical properties. Even after reaching maturity, motoneurons continue to adjust their intrinsic excitability and synaptic activity for proper functioning of the sensorimotor circuit in accordance with physiological demands. Likewise, if some elements of the circuit become dysfunctional, the system tries to compensate for the alterations to maintain appropriate function...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927908/the-impact-of-the-standard-american-diet-in-rats-effects-on-behavior-physiology-and-recovery-from-inflammatory-injury
#4
Stacie K Totsch, Tammie L Quinn, Larissa J Strath, Laura J McMeekin, Rita M Cowell, Barbara A Gower, Robert E Sorge
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is a significant health concern in the Western world and the presence of comorbid conditions suggests an interaction. The overlapping distributions of chronic pain populations and obesity suggests that an interaction may exist. Poor quality diet (high carbohydrates, saturated fats, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) can lead to increased adiposity which can activate immune cells independent of the activating effect of the diet components themselves. This dual action can contribute to chronic inflammation that may alter susceptibility to chronic pain and prolong recovery from injury...
September 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926777/experience-as-knowledge-disability-distillation-and-reprogenetic-decision-making
#5
Felicity K Boardman
'Experiential knowledge' is increasingly recognised as an important influence on reproductive decision-making. 'Experiential knowledge of disability' in particular is a significant resource within prenatal testing/screening contexts, enabling prospective parents to imagine and appraise future lives affected by disability. However, the concept of 'experiential knowledge' has been widely critiqued for its idiosyncrasy, its impermanence and consequently its perceived inferiority to (medical) knowledge. This paper explores some of these key critiques of experiential knowledge through an analysis of its constitution and uses in the context of reproductive decision-making...
September 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923686/high-speed-video-analysis-improves-the-accuracy-of-spinal-cord-compression-measurement-in-a-mouse-contusion-model
#6
Marion Fournely, Yvan Petit, Éric Wagnac, Jérôme Laurin, Virginie Callot, Pierre-Jean Arnoux
BACKGROUND: Animal models of spinal cord injuries aim to utilize controlled and reproducible conditions. However, a literature review reveals that mouse contusion studies using equivalent protocols may show large disparities in the observed impact force vs. cord compression relationship. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate possible sources of bias in these measurements. The specific objective was to improve spinal cord compression measurements using a video-based setup to detect the impactor-spinal cord time-to-contact...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923065/the-heat-shock-response-in-neurons-and-astroglia-and-its-role-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Rebecca San Gil, Lezanne Ooi, Justin J Yerbury, Heath Ecroyd
Protein inclusions are a predominant molecular pathology found in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease. Protein inclusions form in discrete areas of the brain characteristic to the type of neurodegenerative disease, and coincide with the death of neurons in that region (e.g. spinal cord motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). This suggests that the process of protein misfolding leading to inclusion formation is neurotoxic, and that cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms that maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis) can, at times, be insufficient to prevent protein inclusion formation in the central nervous system...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921731/inter-observer-agreement-in-pediatric-cervical-spine-injury-assessment-between-prehospital-and-emergency-department-providers
#8
Lorin R Browne, Hamilton Schwartz, Fahd A Ahmad, Michael Wallendorf, Nathan Kuppermann, E Brooke Lerner, Julie C Leonard
BACKGROUND: Investigators have derived cervical spine injury (CSI) decision support tools from physician observations. There is a need to demonstrate that prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) providers can use these tools to appropriately determine the need for spinal motion restrictions and make field disposition decisions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the inter-observer agreement between EMS and emergency department (ED) providers for CSI risk assessment variables and overall gestalt for CSI in children after blunt trauma...
September 18, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921474/origins-of-phantom-limb-pain
#9
Damien P Kuffler
Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a chronic neuropathic pain occurring in 45-85% of patients who undergo major amputations of the upper and lower extremities. Chronic pain is physically and mentally debilitating, affecting an individual's potential for self-care and the performance of daily living activities essential for personal and economic independence. In addition, chronic pain may lead to depression and feelings of hopelessness. A National Center for Biotechnology Information study found that in the USA alone, the annual cost of dealing with neuropathic pain is more than $600 billion, with an estimated 20 million people in the USA suffering this condition...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921418/coping-with-phantom-limb-pain
#10
Damien P Kuffler
Phantom limb pain is a chronic neuropathic pain that develops in 45-85% of patients who undergo major amputations of the upper and lower extremities and appears predominantly during two time frames following an amputation: the first month and later about 1 year. Although in most patients the frequency and intensity of pain diminish over time, severe pain persists in about 5-10%. It has been proposed that factors in both the peripheral and central nervous systems play major roles in triggering the development and maintenance of pain associated with extremity amputations...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920932/a-pathway-from-midcingulate-cortex-to-posterior-insula-gates-nociceptive-hypersensitivity
#11
Linette Liqi Tan, Patric Pelzer, Céline Heinl, Wannan Tang, Vijayan Gangadharan, Herta Flor, Rolf Sprengel, Thomas Kuner, Rohini Kuner
The identity of cortical circuits mediating nociception and pain is largely unclear. The cingulate cortex is consistently activated during pain, but the functional specificity of cingulate divisions, the roles at distinct temporal phases of central plasticity and the underlying circuitry are unknown. Here we show in mice that the midcingulate division of the cingulate cortex (MCC) does not mediate acute pain sensation and pain affect, but gates sensory hypersensitivity by acting in a wide cortical and subcortical network...
September 18, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916199/erk-and-rock-functionally-interact-in-a-signaling-network-that-is-compensationally-upregulated-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#12
Niko Hensel, Svetlana Baskal, Lisa Marie Walter, Hella Brinkmann, Manuela Gernert, Peter Claus
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a motoneuron disease caused by low levels of functional survival of motoneuron protein (SMN). Molecular disease mechanisms downstream of functional SMN loss are still largely unknown. Previous studies suggested an involvement of Rho kinase (ROCK) as well as the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) pathways in the pathomechanism. Both pathways are bi-directionally linked and inhibit each other. Thus, we hypothesize that both pathways regulate SMA pathophysiology in vivo in a combined manner rather than acting separately...
September 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915804/prevalence-and-predictors-of-persistent-pelvic-girdle-pain-12%C3%A2-years-postpartum
#13
Cecilia Bergström, Margareta Persson, Kari-Anne Nergård, Ingrid Mogren
BACKGROUND: Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is not always a self-limiting condition. Women with more pronounced persistent PGP (PPGP) report poorer health status compared to women with less pronounced symptoms. The knowledge concerning the long-term consequences of PPGP is limited, thus more knowledge in this area is needed. The overall aim was to study the prevalence and predictors of PPGP 12 years after delivery. METHODS: This is a long-term follow-up study based on a previous cohort study that commenced in 2002...
September 16, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905370/neuromodulation-and-devices-in-trigeminal-neuralgia
#14
Kevin Weber
PREMISE: Trigeminal neuralgia is a severe facial pain disorder that has been studied for decades. Classical trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is either idiopathic or caused by neurovascular compression. The related painful trigeminal neuropathies are often secondary to other causes, such as multiple sclerosis or trauma. PROBLEM: Therapies for trigeminal neuralgia and neuropathy have often been pharmacologic or surgical. Pharmacologic therapies are not effective in some cases and often cause side effects, some substantial...
September 14, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901946/design-of-semg-assembly-to-detect-external-anal-sphincter-activity-a-proof-of-concept
#15
Arsam Shiraz, Brian Leaker, Charles Alexander Mosse, Eskinder Solomon, Michael Craggs, Andreas Demosthenous
Conditional trans-rectal stimulation of the pudendal nerve could provide a viable solution to treat hyperreflexive bladder in spinal cord injury. A set threshold of the amplitude estimate of the external anal sphincter surface electromyography (sEMG) may be used as the trigger signal. The efficacy of such a device should be tested in a large scale clinical trial. As such a probe should remain in situ for several hours while patients attend to their daily routine, the recording electrodes should be designed to be large enough to maintain good contact while observing design constraints...
September 13, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901182/effects-of-bone-marrow-derived-msc-transplantation-on-functional-recovery-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury-comparisons-of-transplant-locations-and-cell-concentrations
#16
Jessica J Matyas, Andrew N Stewart, Alison Goldsmith, Zhenhong Nan, Reid L Skeel, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a widely disabling condition, constraining those affected by it to wheelchairs and requiring intense daily care and assistance. Cell replacement therapies, targeting regeneration of cells in the injured cord, are currently gaining momentum in the field of SCI research. Previous studies indicate that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can reduce functional deficits through immunomodulation and production of trophic factors in a variety of neurological disorders. The present study assessed the efficacy of transplanted bone marrow-derived MSCs at different concentrations and locations for promoting functional recovery following SCI...
August 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899986/perioperative-spending-on-spinal-fusion-for-scoliosis-for-children-with-medical-complexity
#17
Jay G Berry, Michael Glotzbecker, Jonathan Rodean, Izabela Leahy, Joanne Cox, Sara J Singer, Margaret O'Neill, Matt Hall, Lynne Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Global payment is used with surgeries to optimize health, lower costs, and improve quality. We assessed perioperative spending on spinal fusion for scoliosis to inform how this might apply to children. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 1249 children using Medicaid and aged ≥5 years with a complex chronic condition undergoing spinal fusion in 2013 from 12 states. From perioperative health services measured 6 months before and 3 months after spinal fusion, we simulated a spending reallocation with increased preoperative care and decreased hospital care...
September 12, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899730/a-green-tea-polyphenol-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-enhances-neuroregeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-altering-levels-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#18
Lucia Machova Urdzikova, Jiri Ruzicka, Kristyna Karova, Anna Kloudova, Barbora Svobodova, Anubhav Amin, Jana Dubisova, Meic Schmidt, Sarka Kubinova, Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal, Pavla Jendelova
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition which is characterized by an extended secondary injury due to the presence of inflammatory local milieu. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) appears to possess strong neuroprotective properties. Here, we evaluated the beneficial effect of EGCG on recovery from SCI. Male Wistar rats were given either EGCG or saline directly to the injured spinal cord and thereafter a daily IP injection. Behavior recovery was monitored by BBB, plantar, rotarod and flat-beam tests...
September 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899515/the-water-extract-of-liuwei-dihuang-possesses-multi-protective-properties-on-neurons-and-muscle-tissue-against-deficiency-of-survival-motor-neuron-protein
#19
Yu-Ting Tseng, Yuh-Jyh Jong, Wei-Fang Liang, Fang-Rong Chang, Yi-Ching Lo
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, which is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes, induces widespread splicing defects mainly in spinal motor neurons, and leads to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Currently, there is no effective treatment for SMA. Liuwei dihuang (LWDH), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, possesses multiple therapeutic benefits against various diseases via modulation of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. Previously, we demonstrated water extract of LWDH (LWDH-WE) protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor activity in models of Parkinson's disease...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899286/restless-legs-syndrome-related-to-hemorrhage-of-a-thoracic-spinal-cord-cavernoma
#20
Malik Hamdaoui, Elisabeth Ruppert, Henri Comtet, Ulker Kilic-Huck, Valérie Wolff, Marc Bataillard, Patrice Bourgin
CONTEXT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move the lower limbs often accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the legs, worsened at rest and in the evening. Symptoms are improved by movement. Its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Lesion-related RLS has been reported, mainly in cases of stroke-related RLS involving the brainstem and lenticulostriate nuclei. Only few data of RLS in a context of spinal cord injury have been reported...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
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