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Early Childhood Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793164/childhood-socioeconomic-status-and-longitudinal-patterns-of-alcohol-problems-variation-across-etiological-pathways-in-genetic-risk
#1
Peter B Barr, Judy Silberg, Danielle M Dick, Hermine H Maes
Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is an important aspect of early life environment associated with later life health/health behaviors, including alcohol misuse. However, alcohol misuse is modestly heritable and involves differing etiological pathways. Externalizing disorders show significant genetic overlap with substance use, suggesting an impulsivity pathway to alcohol misuse. Alcohol misuse also overlaps with internalizing disorders, suggesting alcohol is used to cope. These differing pathways could lead to different patterns over time and/or differential susceptibility to environmental conditions, such as childhood SES...
May 14, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791872/gene-expression-in-cord-blood-links-genetic-risk-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders-with-maternal-psychological-distress-and-adverse-childhood-outcomes
#2
Michael S Breen, Aliza P Wingo, Nastassja Koen, Kirsten A Donald, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Kerry J Ressler, Joseph D Buxbaum, Dan J Stein
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress and depression has been identified as a risk factor for adverse behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. However, the molecular mechanisms through which maternal psychopathology shapes offspring development remain poorly understood. We applied transcriptome-wide screens to 149 umbilical cord blood samples from neonates born to mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n=20), depression (n=31) and PTSD with comorbid depression (n=13), compared to carefully matched trauma exposed controls (n=23) and healthy mothers (n=62)...
May 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791743/a-network-for-early-childhood-development
#3
Shekufeh Zonji
Political action and investment are critical to meet the development needs of vulnerable young children today. Early childhood development (ECD) has become a global priority: an ECD target and other ECD-related targets are included in the sustainable development goals, over 75 countries have officially adopted multisectoral ECD policy instruments, and ECD is a programmatic focus in major global institutions (including UNICEF, UNESCO, the WHO, and the World Bank). However, lack of clear and strong ownership of and champions for ECD, operational and communication siloes of constituent sectors that constitute ECD, political pressures for investment in other arenas, and low international investment in ECD inhibit making a compelling and cohesive investment case for ECD...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791742/what-policymakers-need-from-implementation-evaluations-of-early-childhood-development-programs
#4
Joan Lombardi
As early childhood interventions move from small- to large-scale programs, the partnerships among researchers, policymakers, communication experts, practitioners, and local communities become increasingly critical for successful implementation. The results from evaluations of programs need to guide policymakers so that they can make informed administrative and fiscal decisions. This commentary makes five recommendations for researchers to consider when designing early childhood programs for scale.
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791739/what-implementation-evidence-matters-scaling-up-nurturing-interventions-that-promote-early-childhood-development
#5
Pia R Britto, Manpreet Singh, Tarun Dua, Raghbir Kaur, Aisha K Yousafzai
Research in early childhood development (ECD) has established the need for scaling-up multisectoral interventions for nurturing care to promote ECD, for improved socioeconomic outcomes for sustainable societies. However, key elements and processes for implementation and scale-up of such interventions are not well understood. This special series on implementation research and practice for ECD brings together evidence to inform effectiveness, quality, and scale in nurturing care programs; identifies knowledge gaps; and proposes further directions for research and practice...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791737/reporting-guidelines-for-implementation-research-on-nurturing-care-interventions-designed-to-promote-early-childhood-development
#6
Aisha K Yousafzai, Frances E Aboud, Milagros Nores, Raghbir Kaur
Meta-analyses of interventions such as parenting, stimulation, and early childhood education have reported consistent medium-to-high effect sizes on early childhood development (ECD) and early learning outcomes. However, few effective interventions promoting ECD have achieved scale. In order to increase the access to effective or high-quality services, greater focus on implementation research of interventions promoting ECD is necessary. In this paper, we describe the development of reporting guidelines for implementation research of nurturing care interventions designed to promote ECD following an expert consensus-building process...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791735/practical-considerations-for-transitioning-early-childhood-interventions-to-scale-lessons-from-the-saving-brains-portfolio
#7
James M Radner, Marvin J S Ferrer, Dominique McMahon, Anuraj H Shankar, Karlee L Silver
Small pilot studies of young children have frequently shown promise, but very few have been successfully scaled to the regional or national levels. How can we ensure that these promising approaches move from a suite of pilots to full-scale implementation that can deliver sustainable impact for hundreds of millions of children? To elucidate concrete lessons learned and suggestions on accelerating the transition to impact at scale, we reviewed the Saving Brains portfolio to better understand three points: (1) the extent to which useful signals of impact could be extracted from data at the seed phase, (2) the ways in which innovators (project leaders) were approaching human resource challenges critical for scaling, and (3) the multisector diversity of the portfolio and the way innovators entered partnerships...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791733/implementation-research-for-early-childhood-development-programming-in-humanitarian-contexts
#8
Katie Maeve Murphy, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Alice J Wuermli
Young children living in conditions of war, disaster, and displacement are at high risk for developmental difficulties that can follow them throughout their lives. While there is robust evidence supporting the need for early childhood development (ECD) in humanitarian settings, implementation of ECD programming remains sparse, largely due to the lack of evidence of how and why these programs can improve outcomes in humanitarian settings. In order to build the evidence base for ECD in humanitarian settings, we review the current state of implementation research for ECD programming (targeting children 0-8) in humanitarian settings, through a literature review and a series of key informant interviews...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791731/translation-of-evidence-to-practice-to-promote-early-childhood-development-programs
#9
Pablo Stansbery
The 2018 special issue of Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences on implementation research and practice for early childhood development brings together emerging evidence on implementing effective nurturing care programs, addressing issues of quality and scale. Translating evidence to practice requires addressing the barriers perceived by policy makers, which have been highlighted in the published literature. Here, I describe how UNICEF and other global partners are addressing these barriers.
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791729/implementation-of-reach-up-early-childhood-parenting-program-acceptability-appropriateness-and-feasibility-in-brazil-and-zimbabwe
#10
Joanne A Smith, Helen Baker-Henningham, Alexandra Brentani, Rose Mugweni, Susan P Walker
Young children need nurturing care, which includes responsive caregiver-child interactions and opportunities to learn. However, there are few extant large-scale programs that build parents' abilities to provide this. We have developed an early childhood parenting training package, called Reach Up, with the aim of providing an evidence-based, adaptable program that is feasible for low-resource settings. Implementation of Reach Up was evaluated in Brazil and Zimbabwe to inform modifications needed and identify challenges that implementers and delivery agents encountered...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791728/state-of-the-science-on-implementation-research-in-early-child-development-and-future-directions
#11
Frances E Aboud, Aisha K Yousafzai, Milagros Nores
We summarize the state of the field of implementation research and practice for early child development and propose recommendations. First, conclusions are drawn regarding what is generally known about the implementation of early childhood development programs, based on papers and discussions leading to a published series on the topic. Second, recommendations for short-term activities emphasize the use of newly published guidelines for reporting data collection methods and results for implementation processes; knowledge of the guidelines and a menu of measures allows for planning ahead...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791727/measuring-the-cost-of-investing-in-early-childhood-interventions-and-applications-of-a-standardized-costing-tool
#12
Emily Gustafsson-Wright, Izzy Boggild-Jones
In this paper we analyze the need for consistent and accurate cost data on early childhood development (ECD) interventions as a basis for increasing and improving the effectiveness of current spending on ECD. We establish the key components necessary in a costing model and present a new standardized costing tool intended for use across a broad range of stakeholders and contexts. Learnings from piloting the tool in Bangladesh, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, and Mozambique are shared. Providing a standardized methodology for costing ECD is an important contribution to the field and has the potential to improve both the volume and effectiveness of ECD financing...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791726/building-capacity-in-health-and-education-systems-to-deliver-interventions-that-strengthen-early-child-development
#13
Milagros Nores, Camila Fernandez
Building capacity within health and education systems of low- and middle-income countries in order to deliver high-quality early childhood services requires coordinated efforts across sectors, effective governance, sufficient funding, an adequate workforce, reliable data systems, and continuous monitoring, evaluation, and improvement cycles; it also requires partnerships with the private sector, communities, and parents. In addition, building capacity requires leadership, innovation of strategies to fit into existing structures, evidence-based intervention models, and effective partnerships that help make interventions more culturally relevant, help finance them, and help create institutional long-term support and sustainability for them...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791725/measuring-the-implementation-of-early-childhood-development-programs
#14
REVIEW
Frances E Aboud, Elizabeth L Prado
In this paper we describe ways to measure variables of interest when evaluating the implementation of a program to improve early childhood development (ECD). The variables apply to programs delivered to parents in group sessions and home or clinic visits, as well as in early group care for children. Measurements for four categories of variables are included: training and assessment of delivery agents and supervisors; program features such as quality of delivery, reach, and dosage; recipients' acceptance and enactment; and stakeholders' engagement...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790781/relationship-between-severe-early-childhood-caries-and-dental-development
#15
E Hazar Bodrumlu, L Demiriz, S Toprak
AIM: Severe early childhood caries (sECC) is a public health problem that continues to affect infants and preschool children worldwide. Knowledge of the changes in dental development is important for paediatric dentists in order to determine a treatment plan. The aim of this study was to investigate dental development in children with sECC, compared to age and gender-matched controls, by calculating the dental age (DA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 300 children (144 females, 156 males) with sECC aged 5 years were studied and compared with 300 control subjects (caries-free), case-matched for gender and age...
June 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789934/induction-prednisone-dosing-for-childhood-nephrotic-syndrome-how-low-should-we-go
#16
Matthew Sibley, Abishek Roshan, Alanoud Alshami, Marisa Catapang, Jasper J Jöbsis, Trevor Kwok, Nonnie Polderman, Jennifer Sibley, Douglas G Matsell, Cherry Mammen
BACKGROUND: Historically, children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) across British Columbia (BC), Canada have been cared for without formal standardization of induction prednisone dosing. We hypothesized that local historical practice variation in induction dosing was wide and that children treated with lower doses had worse relapsing outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 92 NS patients from BC Children's Hospital (1990-2010). We excluded secondary causes of NS, age < 1 year at diagnosis, steroid resistance, and incomplete induction due to early relapse...
May 22, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789720/change-in-weight-status-from-childhood-to-early-adulthood-and-late-adulthood-risk-of-colon-cancer-in-men-a-population-based-cohort-study
#17
Britt W Jensen, Lise G Bjerregaard, Lars Ängquist, Ismail Gögenur, Andrew G Renehan, Merete Osler, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Jennifer L Baker
BACKGROUND: Although weight gain in mid- to late adult life is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, it is unclear if increases or losses in weight from childhood to early adulthood are differentially associated with risks of adult colon cancer. METHODS: Weight and height were measured at 7 or 13 years and in early adulthood (17-26 years) in 64,675 boys in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register and the Danish Conscription Database. Cases of colon cancer (n = 751) were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789029/pediatric-brain-development-in-down-syndrome-a-field-in-its-infancy
#18
Taralee Hamner, Manisha D Udhnani, Karol Z Osipowicz, Nancy Raitano Lee
OBJECTIVES: As surprisingly little is known about the developing brain studied in vivo in youth with Down syndrome (DS), the current review summarizes the small DS pediatric structural neuroimaging literature and begins to contextualize existing research within a developmental framework. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was completed, effect sizes from published studies were reviewed, and results are presented with respect to the DS cognitive behavioral phenotype and typical brain development...
May 23, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786892/association-between-initial-age-of-exposure-to-childhood-abuse-and-cognitive-control-preliminary-evidence
#19
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
Cognitive control, which relies on the protracted development of frontal-parietal regions into adolescence, is a brain process that may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of childhood abuse. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine associations between the age of onset of childhood abuse and alterations to the neural mechanisms supporting cognitive control in early adulthood, which have not been previously examined. During fMRI scanning, participants completed hybrid block/event-related versions of a classic color-word Stroop task as well as emotional Stroop tasks (threat and positive words)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785961/trajectories-of-childhood-blood-pressure-and-adult-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-the-bogalusa-heart-study
#20
Tao Zhang, Shengxu Li, Lydia Bazzano, Jiang He, Paul Whelton, Wei Chen
This longitudinal study aims to characterize longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood and examine the impact of level-independent childhood BP trajectories on adult left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and remodeling patterns. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 1154 adults (787 whites and 367 blacks) who had repeated measurements of BP 4 to 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years) and assessment of echocardiographic LV dimensions in adulthood. Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BP at childhood age points were calculated in 1-year intervals using the growth curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
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