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Early Childhood Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636007/analysis-of-association-of-gene-variants-with-obesity-traits-in-new-zealand-european-children-at-6-years-of-age
#1
Mohanraj Krishnan, John M D Thompson, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M E McCowan, Andrew N Shelling, G On Behalf Of The Children Of Scope Study Group
Childhood obesity is a public health problem, which is associated with a long-term increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. Several gene variants have previously been identified that have provided novel insights into biological factors that contribute to the development of obesity. As obesity tracks through childhood into adulthood, identification of the genetic factors for obesity in early life is important. The objective of this study was to identify putative associations between genetic variants and obesity traits in children at 6 years of age...
June 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633688/normative-development-of-the-child-behavior-checklist-dysregulation-profile-from-early-childhood-to-adolescence-associations-with-personality-pathology
#2
Marike H F Deutz, Helen G M Vossen, Amaranta D De Haan, Maja Deković, Anneloes L Van Baar, Peter Prinzie
The Dysregulation Profile (DP) is a broad indicator of concurrent affective, behavioral, and cognitive dysregulation, often measured with the anxious/depressed, aggressive behavior, and attention problems syndrome scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Despite an expanding body of research on the DP, knowledge of the normative developmental course of the DP from early childhood to adolescence is lacking. Furthermore, although we know that the DP longitudinally predicts personality pathology, no research yet has examined whether next to the DP in early childhood, the rate of change of the DP across development predicts personality pathology...
June 21, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632934/a-prospective-microbiome-wide-association-study-of-food-sensitization-and-food-allergy-in-early-childhood
#3
Jessica H Savage, Kathleen A Lee-Sarwar, Joanne Sordillo, Supinda Bunyavanich, Yanjiao Zhou, George O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Leonard Bacharier, Robert Zeiger, Erica Sodergren, George M Weinstock, Diane R Gold, Scott T Weiss, Augusto A Litonjua
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the intestinal microbiome are prospectively associated with the development of asthma; less is known regarding the role of microbiome alterations in food allergy development. METHODS: Intestinal microbiome samples were collected at age 3-6 months in children participating in the follow-up phase of an interventional trial of high dose Vitamin D given during pregnancy. At age 3, sensitization to foods (milk, egg, peanut, soy, wheat, walnut) was assessed...
June 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631578/the-journey-to-autism-insights-from-neuroimaging-studies-of-infants-and-toddlers
#4
Jason J Wolff, Suma Jacob, Jed T Elison
By definition, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that emerges during early childhood. It is during this time that infants and toddlers transition from appearing typical across multiple domains to exhibiting the behavioral phenotype of ASD. Neuroimaging studies focused on this period of development have provided crucial knowledge pertaining to this process, including possible mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of the disorder and offering the possibility of prodromal or presymptomatic prediction of risk...
June 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631293/region-dependent-patterns-of-trabecular-bone-growth-in-the-human-proximal-femur-a-study-of-3d-bone-microarchitecture-from-early-postnatal-to-late-childhood-period
#5
Petar Milovanovic, Danijela Djonic, Michael Hahn, Michael Amling, Björn Busse, Marija Djuric
OBJECTIVES: Parallel with body growth and development, bone structure in non-adults is reorganized to achieve the particular design observed in mature individuals. We traced the changes in three-dimensional trabecular microarchitectural design during the phases of locomotor maturation to clarify how human bone adapts to mechanical demands. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Micro-CT was performed on biomechanically-relevant subregions of the proximal femur (medial, intermediate and lateral neck regions, intertrochanteric region, metaphyseal region) from early postnatal period to late childhood...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631023/the-influence-of-perceived-parenting-styles-on-socio-emotional-development-from-pre-puberty-into-puberty
#6
Min Yee Ong, Janna Eilander, Seang Mei Saw, Yuhuan Xie, Michael J Meaney, Birit F P Broekman
The relative impact of parenting on socio-emotional development of children has rarely been examined in a longitudinal context. This study examined the association between perceived parenting styles and socio-emotional functioning from childhood to adolescence. We hypothesized that optimal parenting associated with improvement in socio-emotional functioning from childhood into early adulthood, especially for those with more behavioral problems in childhood. Children between ages 7 and 9 years were recruited for the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM)...
June 19, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630642/infant-and-young-child-feeding-practice-among-mothers-with-0-24%C3%A2-months-old-children-in-slum-areas-of-bahir-dar-city-ethiopia
#7
Yeshalem Mulugeta Demilew, Tadese Ejigu Tafere, Dereje Berhanu Abitew
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the health, growth and development of children. However, infant feeding practice is suboptimal in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. The slum area is a heavily populated urban informal settlement characterized by substandard housing, squalor, with a lack of reliable sanitation services, supply of clean water, reliable electricity, law enforcement and other basic services. Residents of the slum area were poor and less educated...
2017: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629471/improving-child-nutrition-and-development-through-community-based-childcare-centres-in-malawi-the-neep-ie-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Aulo Gelli, Amy Margolies, Marco Santacroce, Katie Sproule, Sophie Theis, Natalie Roschnik, Aisha Twalibu, George Chidalengwa, Amrik Cooper, Tyler Moorhead, Melissa Gladstone, Patricia Kariger, Mangani Kutundu
BACKGROUND: The Nutrition Embedded Evaluation Programme Impact Evaluation (NEEP-IE) study is a cluster randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the impact of a childcare centre-based integrated nutritional and agricultural intervention on the diets, nutrition and development of young children in Malawi. The intervention includes activities to improve nutritious food production and training/behaviour-change communication to improve food intake, care and hygiene practices. This paper presents the rationale and study design for this randomised control trial...
June 19, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629345/prevalence-and-incidence-of-overweight-and-obesity-among-vietnamese-preschool-children-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#9
Loan Minh Do, Toan Khanh Tran, Bo Eriksson, Max Petzold, Henry Ascher
BACKGROUND: A plateau in childhood overweight and obesity has been reported in some developed countries while in almost all developing countries this problem is on the rise. The aim of this paper is to describe the changes in prevalence of overweight and obesity within a cohort of preschool children followed for 3 years, and to estimate and compare the incidences in urban and rural children of Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: A longitudinal study of a cohort of 2677 children aged 3 to 6 years old at the beginning of the study was conducted in urban DodaLab and rural FilaBavi, Hanoi, Vietnam...
June 19, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628773/temperament-and-behavior-in-toddlers-born-preterm-with-related-clinical-problems
#10
Rafaela Guilherme Monte Cassiano, Claudia Maria Gaspardo, Ricardo Augusto de Deus Faciroli, Francisco Eulógio Martinez, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare temperament and behavior profiles among groups of preterm toddlers differentiated by level of prematurity and the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), controlling for neonatal clinical conditions and chronological age. METHOD: The sample comprised 100 preterm toddlers segregated according to level of prematurity (75 very preterm and 25 moderate/late preterm) and presence of BPD (n=36) and ROP (n=63)...
June 16, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627946/-the-connection-between-maltreatment-and-preterm-birth-in-the-light-of-psychomotor-development-at-2-years-old
#11
Anna Szabina Szele, Beáta Erika Nagy
INTRODUCTION: Preterm children' development and harmful affecting factors to development are important aspects of public health, because in our country the number of preterm birth is very high. AIM: Description of psychomotor development of preterm children (Brunet-Lézine; Bayley-III) and connection between psychomotor development and maternal abuse history (own questionnaire). METHOD: Extremely (<1000 g) and very low (1000-1500 g) birth weight preterm children at 23-30 months (n = 35) and their mothers' abuse history were measured...
June 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627911/ethnic-differences-in-mothering-qualities-and-relations-to-academic-achievement
#12
Margaret O'Brien Caughy, Britain Mills, Margaret Tresch Owen, Nazly Dyer, Assaf Oshri
Although qualities of mothering behavior have been consistently linked with children's academic outcomes, mothers from different ethnic groups may emphasize different dimensions with their children. The present investigation aims to evaluate and compare the dimensionality of mothering in low-income African American (n = 151) and Mexican American (n = 182) mothers during early childhood and its predictive utility for children's academic achievement. Video-recorded mother-child interactions with children at 2½ and 3½ years of age were rated using 6 mothering quality items from a widely used global rating system...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627810/development-of-emotional-and-behavioral-problems-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-during-young-childhood
#13
André B Rietman, Rianne Oostenbrink, Kimberley van Noort, Marie-Christine J P Franken, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Femke K Aarsen, Jos G Hendriksen, Pieter F A de Nijs
This retrospective longitudinal study in young children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) aimed to identify if, and how early problems in behavior, intelligence, and language development are associated with later behavioral problems. At the first assessment at preschool age, we evaluated language skills, intelligence, and emotional and behavioral problems as reported by parents. The second assessment at school-age we evaluated intelligence, and emotional and behavioral problems as reported by parents and teachers...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626440/executive-function-in-adolescence-associations-with-child-and-family-risk-factors-and-self-regulation-in-early-childhood
#14
Donna Berthelsen, Nicole Hayes, Sonia L J White, Kate E Williams
Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. These capacities contribute to successful school achievement and lifelong wellbeing. The importance of executive functions to children's education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. This study explores contributions of child and family factors in early childhood to the development of executive function in adolescence. Analyses draw on data from the nationally representative study, Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625767/early-life-stress-perturbs-the-function-of-microglia-in-the-developing-rodent-brain-new-insights-and-future-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Frances K Johnson, Arie Kaffman
The role of the innate immune system in mediating some of the consequences of childhood abuse and neglect has received increasing attention in recent years. Most of the work to date has focused on the role that neuroinflammation plays in the long-term adult psychiatric and medical complications associated with childhood maltreatment. The effects of stress-induced neuroinflammation on neurodevelopment have received little attention because until recently this issue has not been studied systematically in animal models of early life stress...
June 15, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625214/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-associated-with-sexual-assault-among-women-in-the-who-world-mental-health-surveys
#16
K M Scott, K C Koenen, A King, M V Petukhova, J Alonso, E J Bromet, R Bruffaerts, B Bunting, P de Jonge, J M Haro, E G Karam, S Lee, M E Medina-Mora, F Navarro-Mateu, N A Sampson, V Shahly, D J Stein, Y Torres, A M Zaslavsky, R C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Sexual assault is a global concern with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the common sequelae. Early intervention can help prevent PTSD, making identification of those at high risk for the disorder a priority. Lack of representative sampling of both sexual assault survivors and sexual assaults in prior studies might have reduced the ability to develop accurate prediction models for early identification of high-risk sexual assault survivors. METHODS: Data come from 12 face-to-face, cross-sectional surveys of community-dwelling adults conducted in 11 countries...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624884/age-at-menarche-and-lung-function-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#17
Dipender Gill, Nuala A Sheehan, Matthias Wielscher, Nick Shrine, Andre F S Amaral, John R Thompson, Raquel Granell, Bénédicte Leynaert, Francisco Gómez Real, Ian P Hall, Martin D Tobin, Juha Auvinen, Susan M Ring, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Louise V Wain, John Henderson, Deborah Jarvis, Cosetta Minelli
A trend towards earlier menarche in women has been associated with childhood factors (e.g. obesity) and hypothesised environmental exposures (e.g. endocrine disruptors present in household products). Observational evidence has shown detrimental effects of early menarche on various health outcomes including adult lung function, but these might represent spurious associations due to confounding. To address this we used Mendelian randomization where genetic variants are used as proxies for age at menarche, since genetic associations are not affected by classical confounding...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624542/outcome-and-clinical-significance-of-immunophenotypic-markers-expressed-in-different-treatment-protocols-of-pediatric-patients-with-t-all-in-developing-countries
#18
Douaa M Sayed, Heba Abdel Razik Sayed, Heba N Raslan, Amany M Ali, Asmaa Zahran, Reema Al-Hayek, Saad A Daama, Arwa Al-Saber
BACKGROUND: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) accounts for about 15% of pediatric ALL. With wider use of intensive chemotherapy, the prognosis for childhood T-ALL has improved. Further gains in treatment outcome will likely require methods to identify patients who continue to fail on contemporary protocols. This study aimed to evaluate pediatric patients with T-ALL at 2 different Arabic cancer centers regarding their clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic features and outcome...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622538/current-psychiatric-disorders-in-patients-with-epilepsy-are-predicted-by-maltreatment-experiences-during-childhood
#19
Kirsten Labudda, Dominik Illies, Cornelia Herzig, Katharina Schröder, Christian G Bien, Frank Neuner
PURPOSE: Childhood maltreatment has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders. Although the prevalence of psychiatric disorders is high in epilepsy patients, it is unknown if childhood maltreatment experiences are elevated compared to the normal population and if early maltreatment is a risk factor for current psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy patients. This is the main purpose of this study. METHODS: Structured interviews were used to assess current Axis I diagnoses in 120 epilepsy patients from a tertiary Epilepsy Center (34 TLE patients, 86 non-TLE patients)...
June 8, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622028/prefrontal-activation-during-executive-tasks-emerges-over-early-childhood-evidence-from-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#20
Elizabeth Smith, Afrouz Anderson, Audrey Thurm, Philip Shaw, Mika Maeda, Fatima Chowdhry, Victor Chernomordik, Amir Gandjbakhche
Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a brain imaging technique that is well-suited for use in young children, making it particularly useful for investigating the neural bases of the development of executive functions. In the present study, children (ages 4-10) underwent fNIRS while completing response inhibition and working memory tasks. While both tasks were associated with increases in oxyhemoglobin and decreases in deoxyhemoglobin, we found that strength of activation increased with age and with improvements in task performance...
June 16, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
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