Read by QxMD icon Read

Lifecourse Epidemiology

K F Arnold, Gth Ellison, S C Gadd, J Textor, Pwg Tennant, A Heppenstall, M S Gilthorpe
'Unexplained residuals' models have been used within lifecourse epidemiology to model an exposure measured longitudinally at several time points in relation to a distal outcome. It has been claimed that these models have several advantages, including: the ability to estimate multiple total causal effects in a single model, and additional insight into the effect on the outcome of greater-than-expected increases in the exposure compared to traditional regression methods. We evaluate these properties and prove mathematically how adjustment for confounding variables must be made within this modelling framework...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Andrew J Simpkin, Adrian Sayers, Mark S Gilthorpe, Jon Heron, Kate Tilling
BACKGROUND: Controlling for maturational status and timing is crucial in lifecourse epidemiology. One popular non-invasive measure of maturity is the age at peak height velocity (PHV). There are several ways to estimate age at PHV, but it is unclear which of these to use in practice. AIM: To find the optimal approach for estimating age at PHV. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Methods included the Preece & Baines non-linear growth model, multi-level models with fractional polynomials, SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) and functional data analysis...
December 2017: Annals of Human Biology
Felicia V Wheaton, Courtney S Thomas, Carly Roman, Cleopatra M Abdou
Objectives: A lifecourse framework was used to examine the association between major and everyday measures of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among African American men and to evaluate whether these relationships differed for young, middle-aged, and older men. Method: The association between both major and everyday discrimination and depressive symptoms, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, was assessed among 296 African American men in the 2011-2014 Nashville Stress and Health Study (NSAHS) using ordinary least squares regression...
January 11, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
S C Shaw, E M Dennison, C Cooper
Sarcopenia is an age-related syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength; it is a major contributor to the risk of physical frailty, functional impairment in older people, poor health-related quality of life and premature death. Many different definitions have been used to describe sarcopenia and have resulted in varying estimates of prevalence of the condition. The most recent attempts of definitions have tried to integrate information on muscle mass, strength and physical function and provide a definition that is useful in both research and clinical settings...
September 2017: Calcified Tissue International
Peter Nilsson
During more than 50 years the high cardiovascular risk in Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union, now Russia, has been described as very high. This is based on epidemiological findings from countries and regions, for example within the MONICA study as organized by the WHO. One common explanation is that this is influenced by an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile including high prevalence rates of hypertension in many subjects, in combination with unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, diet) and stressful social conditions, including health care gaps...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Dong-Hun Han, Young-Ho Khang
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the association between lifecourse socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators and tooth loss in a large representative sample of the Korean adult population. METHODS: Data from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey on 17,549 Korean adults aged 50 years or older were analyzed. The study design was cross-sectional. Tooth loss was defined as either edentulism (0 teeth) or severe tooth loss (<20 teeth)...
October 10, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Peter Lekkas, Catherine Paquet, Natasha J Howard, Mark Daniel
Place and health are inextricably entwined. Whilst insights have been gained into the associations between places, such as neighbourhoods, and health, the understanding of these relationships remains only partial. One of the reasons for this relates to time and change and the inter-relationships between the dynamic nature of both neighbourhoods and health. This paper argues that the lifecourse of place can be used as a conceptual framework to understand the evolution and ongoing development of neighbourhoods, and their impact on the geographies of health, past, present and future...
March 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Christel M Middeldorp, Anke R Hammerschlag, Klaasjan G Ouwens, Maria M Groen-Blokhuis, Beate St Pourcain, Corina U Greven, Irene Pappa, Carla M T Tiesler, Wei Ang, Ilja M Nolte, Natalia Vilor-Tejedor, Jonas Bacelis, Jane L Ebejer, Huiying Zhao, Gareth E Davies, Erik A Ehli, David M Evans, Iryna O Fedko, Mònica Guxens, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, James J Hudziak, Astanand Jugessur, John P Kemp, Eva Krapohl, Nicholas G Martin, Mario Murcia, Ronny Myhre, Johan Ormel, Susan M Ring, Marie Standl, Evie Stergiakouli, Camilla Stoltenberg, Elisabeth Thiering, Nicholas J Timpson, Maciej Trzaskowski, Peter J van der Most, Carol Wang, Dale R Nyholt, Sarah E Medland, Benjamin Neale, Bo Jacobsson, Jordi Sunyer, Catharina A Hartman, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Craig E Pennell, Joachim Heinrich, Robert Plomin, George Davey Smith, Henning Tiemeier, Danielle Posthuma, Dorret I Boomsma
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to elucidate the influence of common genetic variants on childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, to identify genetic variants that explain its high heritability, and to investigate the genetic overlap of ADHD symptom scores with ADHD diagnosis. METHOD: Within the EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ADHD symptom scores were available for 17,666 children (<13 years of age) from nine population-based cohorts...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Jie Zheng, A Mesut Erzurumluoglu, Benjamin L Elsworth, John P Kemp, Laurence Howe, Philip C Haycock, Gibran Hemani, Katherine Tansey, Charles Laurin, Beate St Pourcain, Nicole M Warrington, Hilary K Finucane, Alkes L Price, Brendan K Bulik-Sullivan, Verneri Anttila, Lavinia Paternoster, Tom R Gaunt, David M Evans, Benjamin M Neale
MOTIVATION: LD score regression is a reliable and efficient method of using genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary-level results data to estimate the SNP heritability of complex traits and diseases, partition this heritability into functional categories, and estimate the genetic correlation between different phenotypes. Because the method relies on summary level results data, LD score regression is computationally tractable even for very large sample sizes. However, publicly available GWAS summary-level data are typically stored in different databases and have different formats, making it difficult to apply LD score regression to estimate genetic correlations across many different traits simultaneously...
January 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
Peter Nilsson
During more than 50 years the high cardiovascular risk in Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union, now Russia, has been described as very high. This is based on epidemiological findings from countries and regions, for example within the MONICA study as organized by the WHO. One common explanation is that this is influenced by an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile including high prevalence rates of hypertension in many subjects, in combination with unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, diet) and stressful social conditions, including health care gaps...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mariona Bustamante, Marie Standl, Quique Bassat, Natalia Vilor-Tejedor, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Carolina Bonilla, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Jonas Bacelis, Jonathan P Bradfield, Carla M T Tiesler, Fernando Rivadeneira, Susan Ring, Nadja H Vissing, Nadia R Fink, Astanand Jugessur, Frank D Mentch, Ferran Ballester, Jennifer Kriebel, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Helene M Wolsk, Sabrina Llop, Elisabeth Thiering, Systke A Beth, Nicholas J Timpson, Josefine Andersen, Holger Schulz, Vincent W V Jaddoe, David M Evans, Johannes Waage, Hakon Hakonarson, Struan F A Grant, Bo Jacobsson, Klaus Bønnelykke, Hans Bisgaard, George Davey Smith, Henriette A Moll, Joachim Heinrich, Xavier Estivill, Jordi Sunyer
More than a million childhood diarrhoeal episodes occur worldwide each year, and in developed countries a considerable part of them are caused by viral infections. In this study, we aimed to search for genetic variants associated with diarrhoeal disease in young children by meta-analyzing genome-wide association studies, and to elucidate plausible biological mechanisms. The study was conducted in the context of the Early Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium. Data about diarrhoeal disease in two time windows (around 1 year of age and around 2 years of age) was obtained via parental questionnaires, doctor interviews or medical records...
September 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Priyakumari Ganesh Parmar, H Rob Taal, Nicholas J Timpson, Elisabeth Thiering, Terho Lehtimäki, Marcella Marinelli, Penelope A Lind, Laura D Howe, Germaine Verwoert, Ville Aalto, Andre G Uitterlinden, Laurent Briollais, Dave M Evans, Margie J Wright, John P Newnham, John B Whitfield, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Fernando Rivadeneira, Dorrett I Boomsma, Jorma Viikari, Matthew W Gillman, Beate St Pourcain, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Grant W Montgomery, Albert Hofman, Mika Kähönen, Nicholas G Martin, Martin D Tobin, Ollie Raitakari, Jesus Vioque, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Marjo-Riita Jarvelin, Lawrence J Beilin, Joachim Heinrich, Cornelia M van Duijn, Craig E Pennell, Debbie A Lawlor, Lyle J Palmer
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to identify genetic variants associated with blood pressure (BP) in childhood and adolescence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genome-wide association study data from participating European ancestry cohorts of the Early Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) Consortium was meta-analyzed across 3 epochs; prepuberty (4-7 years), puberty (8-12 years), and postpuberty (13-20 years). Two novel loci were identified as having genome-wide associations with systolic BP across specific age epochs: rs1563894 (ITGA11, located in active H3K27Ac mark and transcription factor chromatin immunoprecipitation and 5'-C-phosphate-G-3' methylation site) during prepuberty (P=2...
June 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
Marie-Aline Charles, Cyrille Delpierre, Bernadette Bréant
In the 1980s, D. Barker and his team proposed the hypothesis of a fetal origin of adult diseases. The concept subsequently evolved into the developmental origins of health and diseases. Progresses in various domains such as social epidemiology, neuroscience, toxicology have contributed to establish the early years of life as a key period for future health. Finally, epigenetics has provided biological plausibility to long-term programming of health by early exposures. The convergence of all these currents has led to conceptualize human health in a complex and dynamic continuum, the Lifecourse Health Development, beginning in the prenatal period and covering the whole life...
January 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Janine F Felix, Jonathan P Bradfield, Claire Monnereau, Ralf J P van der Valk, Evie Stergiakouli, Alessandra Chesi, Romy Gaillard, Bjarke Feenstra, Elisabeth Thiering, Eskil Kreiner-Møller, Anubha Mahajan, Niina Pitkänen, Raimo Joro, Alana Cavadino, Ville Huikari, Steve Franks, Maria M Groen-Blokhuis, Diana L Cousminer, Julie A Marsh, Terho Lehtimäki, John A Curtin, Jesus Vioque, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Ronny Myhre, Thomas S Price, Natalia Vilor-Tejedor, Loïc Yengo, Niels Grarup, Ioanna Ntalla, Wei Ang, Mustafa Atalay, Hans Bisgaard, Alexandra I Blakemore, Amelie Bonnefond, Lisbeth Carstensen, Johan Eriksson, Claudia Flexeder, Lude Franke, Frank Geller, Mandy Geserick, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Claire M A Haworth, Joel N Hirschhorn, Albert Hofman, Jens-Christian Holm, Momoko Horikoshi, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Jinyan Huang, Haja N Kadarmideen, Mika Kähönen, Wieland Kiess, Hanna-Maaria Lakka, Timo A Lakka, Alexandra M Lewin, Liming Liang, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Baoshan Ma, Per Magnus, Shana E McCormack, George McMahon, Frank D Mentch, Christel M Middeldorp, Clare S Murray, Katja Pahkala, Tune H Pers, Roland Pfäffle, Dirkje S Postma, Christine Power, Angela Simpson, Verena Sengpiel, Carla M T Tiesler, Maties Torrent, André G Uitterlinden, Joyce B van Meurs, Rebecca Vinding, Johannes Waage, Jane Wardle, Eleftheria Zeggini, Babette S Zemel, George V Dedoussis, Oluf Pedersen, Philippe Froguel, Jordi Sunyer, Robert Plomin, Bo Jacobsson, Torben Hansen, Juan R Gonzalez, Adnan Custovic, Olli T Raitakari, Craig E Pennell, Elisabeth Widén, Dorret I Boomsma, Gerard H Koppelman, Sylvain Sebert, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Elina Hyppönen, Mark I McCarthy, Virpi Lindi, Niinikoski Harri, Antje Körner, Klaus Bønnelykke, Joachim Heinrich, Mads Melbye, Fernando Rivadeneira, Hakon Hakonarson, Susan M Ring, George Davey Smith, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Nicholas J Timpson, Struan F A Grant, Vincent W V Jaddoe
A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10(-8)) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity...
January 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Akihiro Nishi, Ichiro Kawachi, Karestan C Koenen, Kana Wu, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
E Bouzigon, R Nadif, E E Thompson, M P Concas, S Kuldanek, G Du, M Brossard, N Lavielle, C Sarnowski, A Vaysse, P Dessen, R J P van der Valk, L Duijts, A J Henderson, V W V Jaddoe, J C de Jongste, S Casula, G Biino, M-H Dizier, I Pin, R Matran, M Lathrop, M Pirastu, F Demenais, C Ober
BACKGROUND: Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker for eosinophilic inflammation in the airways and for responsiveness to corticosteroids in asthmatics. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify in adults the genetic determinants of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels and to assess whether environmental and disease-related factors influence these associations. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study of FeNO through meta-analysis of two independent discovery samples of European ancestry: the outbred EGEA study (French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, N = 610 adults) and the Hutterites (N = 601 adults), a founder population living on communal farms...
April 2015: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
M A Hanson, P D Gluckman
Extensive experimental animal studies and epidemiological observations have shown that environmental influences during early development affect the risk of later pathophysiological processes associated with chronic, especially noncommunicable, disease (NCD). This field is recognized as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). We discuss the extent to which DOHaD represents the result of the physiological processes of developmental plasticity, which may have potential adverse consequences in terms of NCD risk later, or whether it is the manifestation of pathophysiological processes acting in early life but only becoming apparent as disease later...
October 2014: Physiological Reviews
Ralf J P van der Valk, Eskil Kreiner-Møller, Marjolein N Kooijman, Mònica Guxens, Evangelia Stergiakouli, Annika Sääf, Jonathan P Bradfield, Frank Geller, M Geoffrey Hayes, Diana L Cousminer, Antje Körner, Elisabeth Thiering, John A Curtin, Ronny Myhre, Ville Huikari, Raimo Joro, Marjan Kerkhof, Nicole M Warrington, Niina Pitkänen, Ioanna Ntalla, Momoko Horikoshi, Riitta Veijola, Rachel M Freathy, Yik-Ying Teo, Sheila J Barton, David M Evans, John P Kemp, Beate St Pourcain, Susan M Ring, George Davey Smith, Anna Bergström, Inger Kull, Hakon Hakonarson, Frank D Mentch, Hans Bisgaard, Bo Chawes, Jakob Stokholm, Johannes Waage, Patrick Eriksen, Astrid Sevelsted, Mads Melbye, Cornelia M van Duijn, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Albert Hofman, Johan C de Jongste, H Rob Taal, André G Uitterlinden, Loren L Armstrong, Johan Eriksson, Aarno Palotie, Mariona Bustamante, Xavier Estivill, Juan R Gonzalez, Sabrina Llop, Wieland Kiess, Anubha Mahajan, Claudia Flexeder, Carla M T Tiesler, Clare S Murray, Angela Simpson, Per Magnus, Verena Sengpiel, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Sirkka Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Alexandra Lewin, Alexessander Da Silva Couto Alves, Alexandra I Blakemore, Jessica L Buxton, Marika Kaakinen, Alina Rodriguez, Sylvain Sebert, Marja Vaarasmaki, Timo Lakka, Virpi Lindi, Ulrike Gehring, Dirkje S Postma, Wei Ang, John P Newnham, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Katja Pahkala, Olli T Raitakari, Kalliope Panoutsopoulou, Eleftheria Zeggini, Dorret I Boomsma, Maria Groen-Blokhuis, Jorma Ilonen, Lude Franke, Joel N Hirschhorn, Tune H Pers, Liming Liang, Jinyan Huang, Berthold Hocher, Mikael Knip, Seang-Mei Saw, John W Holloway, Erik Melén, Struan F A Grant, Bjarke Feenstra, William L Lowe, Elisabeth Widén, Elena Sergeyev, Harald Grallert, Adnan Custovic, Bo Jacobsson, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Mustafa Atalay, Gerard H Koppelman, Craig E Pennell, Harri Niinikoski, George V Dedoussis, Mark I Mccarthy, Timothy M Frayling, Jordi Sunyer, Nicholas J Timpson, Fernando Rivadeneira, Klaus Bønnelykke, Vincent W V Jaddoe
Common genetic variants have been identified for adult height, but not much is known about the genetics of skeletal growth in early life. To identify common genetic variants that influence fetal skeletal growth, we meta-analyzed 22 genome-wide association studies (Stage 1; N = 28 459). We identified seven independent top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (P < 1 × 10(-6)) for birth length, of which three were novel and four were in or near loci known to be associated with adult height (LCORL, PTCH1, GPR126 and HMGA2)...
February 15, 2015: Human Molecular Genetics
Beate St Pourcain, Rolieke A M Cents, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Claire M A Haworth, Oliver S P Davis, Paul F O'Reilly, Susan Roulstone, Yvonne Wren, Qi W Ang, Fleur P Velders, David M Evans, John P Kemp, Nicole M Warrington, Laura Miller, Nicholas J Timpson, Susan M Ring, Frank C Verhulst, Albert Hofman, Fernando Rivadeneira, Emma L Meaburn, Thomas S Price, Philip S Dale, Demetris Pillas, Anneli Yliherva, Alina Rodriguez, Jean Golding, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Robert Plomin, Craig E Pennell, Henning Tiemeier, George Davey Smith
Twin studies suggest that expressive vocabulary at ~24 months is modestly heritable. However, the genes influencing this early linguistic phenotype are unknown. Here we conduct a genome-wide screen and follow-up study of expressive vocabulary in toddlers of European descent from up to four studies of the EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology consortium, analysing an early (15-18 months, 'one-word stage', N(Total) = 8,889) and a later (24-30 months, 'two-word stage', N(Total)=10,819) phase of language acquisition...
September 16, 2014: Nature Communications
Susanna D Mitro, Rouba Ali-Fehmi, Sudeshna Bandyopadhyay, Baraa Alosh, Bassam Albashiti, Derek C Radisky, Marlene H Frost, Amy C Degnim, Julie J Ruterbusch, Michele L Cote
Benign breast disease (BBD) is a very common condition, diagnosed in approximately half of all American women throughout their lifecourse. White women with BBD are known to be at substantially increased risk of subsequent breast cancer; however, nothing is known about breast cancer characteristics that develop after a BBD diagnosis in African-American women. Here, we compared 109 breast cancers that developed in a population of African-American women with a history of BBD to 10,601 breast cancers that developed in a general population of African-American women whose cancers were recorded by the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS population)...
November 2014: Breast Journal
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"