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Russell S Frautschi, Brianna Halasa, Susan Orra, Karolina Mlynek, Charles P Steiner, Francis A Papay
The sphenopalatine ganglion is an extracranial neural structure within the pterygopalatine fossa. Modulation of this region via implantation of a neuromodulatory device presents a novel therapy for the treatment of facial and head pain. Yet sex, race, and genetic factors contribute to morphological variations between individuals. This study defines the standards and variations of the bony landmarks surrounding the pterygopalatine fossa. One hundred dry skulls were analyzed from the Hamann-Todd osteological collection...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
S K Stell, P Moller
This osteological survey of 249 specimens of Brevimyrus niger ranging in size from 44 to 137 mm standard length (LS ) demonstrated that developmental changes in anal-fin morphology can serve as a predictor of sexual maturity in this species. Anal-fin ray bases begin to expand when fish reach c. 90 mm LS at which size and above there were roughly equal numbers of individuals observed with expanded and unmodified anal-fin bases, reflecting a 1:1 sex ratio.
October 14, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Natalie R Langley, Sandra Cridlin
Secular changes refer to short-term biological changes ostensibly due to environmental factors. Two well-documented secular trends in many populations are earlier age of menarche and increasing stature. This study synthesizes data on maximum clavicle length and fusion of the medial epiphysis in 1840-1980 American birth cohorts to provide a comprehensive assessment of developmental and morphological change in the clavicle. Clavicles from the Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection (n = 354), McKern and Stewart Korean War males (n = 341), Forensic Anthropology Data Bank (n = 1,239), and the McCormick Clavicle Collection (n = 1,137) were used in the analysis...
January 2016: Human Biology
William G R Crampton, Carlos David de Santana, Joseph C Waddell, Nathan R Lovejoy
A species-level phylogenetic reconstruction of the Neotropical bluntnose knifefish genus Brachyhypopomus (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) is presented, based on 60 morphological characters, approximately 1100 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytb gene, and approximately 1000 base pairs of the nuclear rag2 gene. The phylogeny includes 28 species of Brachyhypopomus and nine outgroup species from nine other gymnotiform genera, including seven in the superfamily Rhamphichthyoidea (Hypopomidae and Rhamphichthyidae). Parsimony and Bayesian total evidence phylogenetic analyses confirm the monophyly of the genus, and identify nine robust species groups...
2016: PloS One
Kamila L N Bandeira, Felipe Medeiros Simbras, Elaine Batista Machado, Diogenes de Almeida Campos, Gustavo R Oliveira, Alexander W A Kellner
Titanosaurian dinosaurs include some of the largest land-living animals that ever existed, and most were discovered in Cretaceous deposits of Argentina. Here we describe the first Brazilian gigantic titanosaur, Austroposeidon magnificus gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous Presidente Prudente Formation (Bauru Group, Paraná Basin), São Paulo State, southeast Brazil. The size of this animal is estimated around 25 meters. It consists of a partial vertebral column composed by the last two cervical and the first dorsal vertebrae, all fairly complete and incomplete portions of at least one sacral and seven dorsal elements...
2016: PloS One
José A Jamangapé O, Ernesto Velázquez-Velázquez, Emilio Martínez-Ramirez, Manuel J Anzueto-Calvo, Eyda L Gomez, Sara E Dominguez-Cisneros, Caleb D Mcmahan, Wilfredo A Matamoros
Profundulus balsanus was described by Ahl in 1935 and later placed in synonymy with P. punctatus. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that specimens identified as P. balsanus belong to a distinct taxon. Herein we used a combination of morphometric, meristic, coloration and osteological data in order to demonstrate the distinctiveness of P. balsanus. Additionally, we used molecular data to reconstruct a phylogeny to place P. balsanus in a systematic context. Profundulus balsanus belongs to the punctatus clade within the genus Profundulus...
October 2, 2016: Zootaxa
Tanya R Peckmann, Susan Meek, Natasha Dilkie, Andrew Rozendaal
The skull and pelvis have been used for the determination of sex for unknown human remains. However, in forensic cases where skeletal remains often exhibit postmortem damage and taphonomic changes the patella may be used for the determination of sex as it is a preservationally favoured bone. The goal of the present research was to derive discriminant function equations from the patella for estimation of sex from a contemporary Spanish population. Six parameters were measured on 106 individuals (55 males and 51 females), ranging in age from 22 to 85 years old, from the Granada Osteological Collection...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
R Paul Scofield, Kieren J Mitchell, Jamie R Wood, Vanesa L De Pietri, Scott Jarvie, Bastien Llamas, Alan Cooper
The relationships of the extinct New Zealand ravens (Corvus spp.) are poorly understood. We sequenced the mitogenomes of the two currently recognised species and found they were sister-taxa to a clade comprising the Australian raven, little raven, and forest raven (C.coronoides, C. mellori and C. tasmanicus respectively). The divergence between the New Zealand ravens and Australian raven clade occurred in the latest Pliocene, which coincides with the onset of glacial deforestation. We also found that the divergence between the two putative New Zealand species C...
September 24, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Marcelo C Andrade, Leandro M Sousa, Rafaela P Ota, Michel Jégu, Tommaso Giarrizzo
The monotypic species Ossubtus xinguense was originally described based on scarce material putatively divided into juveniles and adults. Ossubtus xinguense has a restricted distribution and was previously known only from a few rapids downstream of the city of Altamira, in the Volta Grande stretch of the Middle Xingu River. Until recently, the species was rare in museums because its habitat (large rapids) is difficult to sample. Large-scale collecting efforts targeting rapids throughout the Xingu River basin have yielded an abundance of new material...
2016: PloS One
Jong Youn Park, Kyeong Ho Han, Jae Kwon Cho, Jeong In Myeong, Jae Min Park
We observed the osteological development of larval and juvenile red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) in order to generate data for the assessment of skeletal deformities and to inform phylogenetic systematics research. Larvae and juveniles were obtained from a aquafarm in Muan-gun, Jeolla-namdo Province, Korea. The average water temperature at the time of breeding was 23.0°C and average water salinity was 33.0 psu. Freshly hatched fish larvae had not undergone any ossification, but ossification of the parasphenoid bone, which forms the base of the cranium, occurred as the juveniles reached an average body length (BL) of 2...
June 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
William G Parker
Aetosaurians are some of the most common fossils collected from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of Arizona, especially at the Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO). Aetosaurians collected from lower levels of the park include Desmatosuchus spurensis, Paratypothorax, Adamanasuchus eisenhardtae, Calyptosuchus wellesi, and Scutarx deltatylus. Four partial skeletons collected from the park between 2002 and 2009 represent the holotype and referred specimens of Scutarx deltatylus. These specimens include much of the carapace, as well as the vertebral column, and shoulder and pelvic girdles, and a new naming convention proposed for osteoderms descriptions better differentiates portions of the carapace and ventral armor...
2016: PeerJ
Chiara Villa, Jo Buckberry, Niels Lynnerup
Age at death estimation of human skeletal remains is one of the key issues in constructing a biological profile both in forensic and archaeological contexts. The traditional adult osteological methods evaluate macroscopically the morphological changes that occur with increasing age of specific skeletal indicators, such as the cranial sutures, the pubic bone, the auricular surface of the ilium and the sternal end of the ribs. Technologies such as computed tomography and laser scanning are becoming more widely used in anthropology, and several new methods have been developed...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Tomokazu Kawashima, Richard W Thorington, Paula W Bohaska, Fumi Sato
A long-standing issue in squirrel evolution and development is the origin of the styliform cartilage of flying squirrels, which extends laterally from the carpus to support the gliding membrane (patagium). Because the styliform cartilage is one of the uniquely specialized structures permitting gliding locomotion, the knowledge of its origin and surrounding transformation is key for understanding their aerodynamic evolution. The developmental study that would definitely answer this question would be difficult due to the rarity of embryological material...
September 9, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
L S Alves, M Midon, A L Filadelpho, L C Vulcano
This study used 20 nine-banded armadillo, four in vivo and 16 cadavers, to describe the osteoarticular anatomy of the axial skeleton by means of digital radiography and computed tomography. Vertebral formula obtained in this sample specimens was seven cervical, 10 thoracic, five lumbar, nine vertebrae related to the synsacrum and 20-27 free caudal vertebrae. Peculiar features of this species were noted as the presence of xenarthrous processes in the caudal thoracic vertebra to the last lumbar vertebra, with prominent mammillary processes in the thoracolumbar segment, fused cervical vertebra from the second to fourth vertebra and the presence of synsacrum related to sacral and caudal vertebra fused to the pelvis...
September 9, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Steven Heritage, David Fernández, Hesham M Sallam, Drew T Cronin, José Manuel Esara Echube, Erik R Seiffert
The "scaly-tailed squirrels" of the rodent family Anomaluridae have a long evolutionary history in Africa, and are now represented by two gliding genera (Anomalurus and Idiurus) and a rare and obscure genus (Zenkerella) that has never been observed alive by mammalogists. Zenkerella shows no anatomical adaptations for gliding, but has traditionally been grouped with the glider Idiurus on the basis of craniodental similarities, implying that either the Zenkerella lineage lost its gliding adaptations, or that Anomalurus and Idiurus evolved theirs independently...
2016: PeerJ
Douglas S Weinberg, Drew F K Williamson, Jeremy J Gebhart, Derrick M Knapik, James E Voos
BACKGROUND: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common, and a number of knee morphological variables have been identified as risk factors for an ACL injury, including the posterior tibial slope (TS). However, limited data exist regarding innate population differences in the TS. PURPOSE: To (1) establish normative values for the medial and lateral posterior TS; (2) determine what differences exist between ages, sexes, and races; and (3) determine how internal or external tibial rotation (as occurs during sagittal knee motion) influences the stereotactic perception of the TS...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
David Ezra, Youssef Masharawi, Khalil Salame, Viviane Slon, Deborah Alperovitch-Najenson, Israel Hershkovitz
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the skeletal remains of individuals of known sex, age, and ethnic origin. The vertebral bodies of levels C3-C7 were measured and analyzed. Whereas many studies were performed on the size and shape of the vertebral bodies in the thoracic and lumbar spines, few have focused on the cervical vertebral bodies. Thus, there is insufficient data in the literature on the anatomy of the cervical spine, especially based on large study populations...
August 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Tim Rolvien, Till Koehne, Uwe Kornak, Wolfgang Lehmann, Michael Amling, Thorsten Schinke, Ralf Oheim
Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD) is a rare skeletal syndrome that involves an osteopetrosis-like sclerosis of the long bones and fibrous dysplasia-like cemento-osseous lesions of the jawbone. Although the genetic analysis of the respective patients has revealed mutations in the ANO5 gene as an underlying cause, there is still no established consensus regarding the bone status of GDD patients. We report a new case of GDD in a 13-year-old boy with recurrent diaphyseal fractures of the femur, in whom we identified a novel de novo missense mutation in the ANO5 gene, causing a p...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Milap P Mehta, Rao V Chundury, Eric S Ahn, Dipesh Mehta, Lyman M Jellema, Julian D Perry
PURPOSE: To determine how accurately a ray through the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina predicts the location of the optic foramen. METHODS: Dried, well-preserved, complete human skulls without bony defects belonging to the Hamann-Todd osteological collection of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History were examined. Photography was performed and a ray was drawn on orbit photographs extending through the center of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina toward the optic canal...
August 16, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Douglas S Weinberg, Heather A Vallier, Gregory A Gaumer, Daniel R Cooperman, Raymond W Liu
OBJECTIVES: Recent data has challenged the historical precedent of non-operative care for many clavicle fractures; clinical and biomechanical studies have shown altered joint-contact forces occur in the glenohumeral joint (GHJ) following fracture and shortening of the clavicle. However, to date, there have been no analyses documenting the long-term effects of these altered shoulder-girdle mechanics on the GHJ. METHODS: The clavicles of 2899 cadaveric skeletons were manually inspected for evidence of fracture...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
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