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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044522/an-automated-two-dimensional-form-registration-method-for-osteological-pair-matching
#1
Jeffrey James Lynch
This study introduces an automated method for osteological pair-matching using two-dimensional outline form data extracted from photographs. A procedure for acquiring photographs that improve the differentiation of specimens from the background is presented along with an extraction procedure that allows the capture of form data from photographs. The raw form data are used in a two-dimensional registration procedure, which combines iterative closest point, K-nearest neighbor search, and iterations around an estimated mean...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043096/sex-determination-using-humeral-dimensions-in-a-sample-from-kwazulu-natal-an-osteometric-study
#2
Oluwatosin Olalekan Ogedengbe, Sunday Adelaja Ajayi, Omobola Aderibigbe Komolafe, Aung Khaing Zaw, Edwin Coleridge Stephen Naidu, Onyemaechi Okpara Azu
The morphological characteristics of the humeral bone has been investigated in recent times with studies showing varying degrees of sexual dimorphism. Osteologists and forensic scientists have shown that sex determination methods based on skeletal measurements are population specific, and these population-specific variations are present in many body dimensions. The present study aims to establish sex identification using osteometric standards for the humerus in a contemporary KwaZulu-Natal population. A total of 11 parameters were measured in a sample of n=211 humeri (males, 113; females, 98) from the osteological collection in the Discipline of Clinical Anatomy, Nelson R...
September 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036194/micromeryx-eiselei-a-new-moschid-species-from-steinheim-am-albuch-germany-and-the-first-comprehensive-description-of-moschid-cranial-material-from-the-miocene-of-central-europe
#3
Manuela Aiglstorfer, Loïc Costeur, Bastien Mennecart, Elmar P J Heizmann
Moschids are enigmatic pecoran ruminants whose phylogeny is still not fully understood. So far we know only little of the family's early evolutionary history and the origin of the modern genus, Moschus. Here we present a comprehensive description of cranial material, including the ear region and the dentition, of fossil moschid material from the Middle Miocene locality Steinheim am Albuch (13.5 Ma; Germany). This study provides the first exhaustive dataset for the cranial osteology of Micromeryx flourensianus, the most likely oldest true moschid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026610/selective-blood-sampling-for-fgf-23-in-tumor-induced-osteomalacia
#4
Hans-Christof Schober, Christian Kneitz, Franziska Fieber, Kathrin Hesse, Henry Schroeder
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is caused by the hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). It is mainly produced in the tissue of mesenchymal tumors. Patients with TIO frequently suffer from a chronic decompensated pain syndrome and/or muscle weakness with postural deformity. Despite the severity of the disease, the diagnosis is frequently established late. In some cases, it takes several years to establish the condition. This case report concerning a 68-year old woman demonstrates the selective blood sampling for FGF-23 as path-breaking diagnostics to confirm the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024511/the-relationship-between-linear-osteological-and-radiographic-measurements-of-the-human-calcaneus-and-talus
#5
David Agoada
Plain radiographs of the foot are a common form of examination in individuals when medical evaluation is indicated. Their availability makes them useful for studying human variation where large sample sizes are crucial. Calcaneal and talar morphology are critical in the understanding of human foot form and function, but few studies have examined the accuracy of linear measurements of these bones taken from radiographs. If linear measurements are to be used in quantitative analysis, their accuracy must first be demonstrated...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018903/clinical-significance-of-dxa-and-hr-pqct-in-autosomal-dominant-osteopetrosis-ado-ii
#6
Sebastian Butscheidt, Tim Rolvien, Uwe Kornak, Felix N Schmidt, Thorsten Schinke, Michael Amling, Ralf Oheim
The main hallmark of high bone mass (HBM) disorders is increased bone mineral density, potentially visible in conventional radiographs and quantifiable by other radiographic methods. While one of the most common forms of HBM is CLCN7-related autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADO II), there is no consensus on diagnostic thresholds. We therefore wanted to assess whether CLCN7-osteopetrosis patients differ from benign HBM cases in terms of (1) bone mineral density, (2) bone structure, and (3) microarchitectural abnormalities...
October 10, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989098/phenotypic-evolution-in-marmoset-and-tamarin-monkeys-cebidae-callitrichinae-and-a-revised-genus-level-classification
#7
Guilherme S T Garbino, Antonio M G Martins-Junior
Marmosets and tamarins (Cebidae, Callitrichinae) constitute the most species-rich subfamily of New World monkeys and one of the most diverse phenotypically. Despite the profusion of molecular phylogenies of the group, the evolution of phenotypic characters under the rapidly-emerging consensual phylogeny of the subfamily has been little studied, resulting in taxonomic proposals that have limited support from other datasets. We examined the evolution of 18 phenotypic traits (5 continuous and 13 discrete), including pelage, skull, dentition, postcrania, life-history and vocalization variables in a robust molecular phylogeny of marmoset and tamarin monkeys, quantifying their phylogenetic signal and correlations among some of the traits...
October 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988068/decapitation-in-reality-and-fine-art-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Valentina Nikolić, Slobodan Savić, Vaso Antunović, Slobodan Marinković, Charlotte Andrieux, Irina Tomić
The aim of our study was to examine all types of decapitation from forensic literature, including our own case, and to analyze the presentation of beheading in fine art, popular literature, and music. To do this, over 200 scientific articles in regard to decapitation were analyzed, as well as more than 10,000 artworks, and several hundreds of literary works and music pieces. In addition, a macroscopic examination of a decapitated victim was performed. Finally, a multislice computerized tomography (MSCT) examination of the cervical spine in two live volunteers was undertaken to present the osteological relationships...
September 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950013/the-toothless-pterosaur-jidapterus-edentus-pterodactyloidea-azhdarchoidea-from-the-early-cretaceous-jehol-biota-and-its-paleoecological-implications
#9
Wen-Hao Wu, Chang-Fu Zhou, Brian Andres
BACKGROUND: In the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota, the toothless pterosaurs flourished with the chaoyangopterids and tapejarids playing a key role in understanding the early diversity and evolution of the Azhdarchoidea. Unlike the more diverse tapejarids, the rarer chaoyangopterids are characterized by a long and low rostrum, supporting a close relationship with the huge azhdarchids. Unfortunately, our knowledge is still limited in the osteology, paleoecology, and taxonomy of the Chaoyangopteridae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945686/an-anatomic-study-on-whether-femoral-version-originates-in-the-neck-or-the-shaft
#10
Hunter D Archibald, Kathleen F Petro, Raymond W Liu
BACKGROUND: Femoral anteversion is generally asymptomatic but can result in lower extremity issues like patellofemoral instability and pain. Surgical correction of anteversion can be performed proximal, mid shaft or distal. A better understanding of the specific location of the rotational deformity can help guide the optimal location of the osteotomy. In this study we examine the contribution of the femoral neck and shaft to total femoral version. METHODS: We studied 590 pairs of well-preserved cadaveric femurs...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940671/osteology-and-radiology-of-the-maned-wolf-chrysocyon-brachyurus-pelvic-limb
#11
R C Siqueira, S C Rahal, L R Inamassu, M J Mamprim, M Felix, M S Castilho, L R Mesquita, V L Ribeiro, C R Teixeira, F B Rassy
This study describes the osteology and radiology of the pelvic limb in maned wolves. Ten (five live and five dead) maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), five males and five females, aged from 2 to 7 years old were used. Digital radiographs were taken and recorded for both pelvic limbs in all animals. Osteology was correlated with the radiographic images. The pelvis had a rectangular shape, and the obturator foramen (foramen obturatum) was oval. The femoral neck (collum femoris) was short and thick. The greater trochanter (trochanter major) extended proximally to near the dorsum of the femoral head (caput ossis femoris)...
September 20, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930556/osteoimmunology-the-nexus-between-bone-and-immune-system
#12
Hamid Y Dar, Zaffar Azam, Rajaneesh Anupam, Rajesh K Mondal, Rupesh K Srivastava
Osteoimmunology is an interdisciplinary research field which combines the existing fields of osteology (bone biology) and immunology under one umbrella. The observation that contributed enormously to the emergence of osteoimmunology as an independent field of investigation was the enhanced bone loss in various inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and periodontitis. T helper cells (Th1, Th2, Treg and Th17) along with various other immune cells (B cells, DC, macrophages etc.) are actively involved in bone homeostasis...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922726/chronic-arsenicosis-and-cadmium-exposure-in-wild-snowshoe-hares-lepus-americanus-breeding-near-yellowknife-northwest-territories-canada-part-2-manifestation-of-bone-abnormalities-and-osteoporosis
#13
S Amuno, A Al Kaissi, A Jamwal, S Niyogi, C E Quenneville
Various bone abnormalities, including osteoporosis, have been associated with chronic arsenic and cadmium exposure in experimental animal models, but information regarding the bone pathology of wild population of small mammals breeding in contaminated environment is limited. This present study was conducted to comparatively assess the prevalence and pattern of skeletal abnormalities in free ranging snowshoe hares inhabiting an area heavily contaminated by arsenic and other trace metals, near the vicinity of the abandoned Giant mine, and in a reference location approximately 20km from the city of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916840/a-novel-col1a2-c-propeptide-cleavage-site-mutation-causing-high-bone-mass-osteogenesis-imperfecta-with-a-regional-distribution-pattern
#14
T Rolvien, U Kornak, J Stürznickel, T Schinke, M Amling, S Mundlos, R Oheim
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is typically characterized by low bone mass and increased bone fragility caused by heterozygous mutations in the type I procollagen genes (COL1A1/COL1A2). We report two cases of a 56-year-old woman and her 80-year-old mother who suffered from multiple vertebral and non-vertebral fractures with onset in early childhood. A full osteologic assessment including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), and serum analyses pointed to a high bone mineral density (BMD) in the hip (DXA Z-score + 3...
September 15, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912044/sex-estimation-in-a-contemporary-turkish-population-based-on-ct-scans-of-the-calcaneus
#15
Oguzhan Ekizoglu, Ercan Inci, Figen Bakirtas Palabiyik, Ismail Ozgur Can, Ali Er, Mustafa Bozdag, Ismail Eralp Kacmaz, Elena F Kranioti
Building a reliable biological profile from decomposed remains depends heavily on the accurate estimation of sex. A variety of methods based on every single skeletal element have been developed over the years for different populations employing both osteological and virtual methods. The latter seem to be a reasonable alternative in countries lacking osteological reference collections. The current study used 3D virtual models of calcanei from CT scans of living adults to develop a sex estimation method for contemporary Turkish...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902864/comparative-skull-anatomy-of-terrestrial-and-crevice-dwelling-trachylepis-skinks-squamata-scincidae-with-a-survey-of-resources-in-scincid-cranial-osteology
#16
Daniel J Paluh, Aaron M Bauer
Skinks account for more than 25% of all lizard species; however, representatives of fewer than a quarter of all species have been characterized osteologically. All but a few of the available cranial descriptions concentrate solely on characters that can be seen externally on the intact skull. Mabuyid skinks of the genus Trachylepis are the dominant, fully limbed skinks in Sub-Saharan Africa, and nearly all species have the same generalized body plan. Although a few rock crevice-dwelling species possess slight body depression, extreme dorsoventral depression is observed only in Trachylepis laevis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884802/a-female-viking-warrior-confirmed-by-genomics
#17
Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, Anna Kjellström, Torun Zachrisson, Maja Krzewińska, Veronica Sobrado, Neil Price, Torsten Günther, Mattias Jakobsson, Anders Götherström, Jan Storå
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave (Bj 581) in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj 581. An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857250/morphology-of-the-thoracic-limb-of-goat-as-evidenced-by-gross-osteology-and-radiology
#18
M Makungu, B Merere
The objective of this study was to provide the detailed normal gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb in goats as a reference for clinical use and in biomedical research. Radiography of the thoracic limb was performed in five small East African goats. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from four adult small East African goats. The scapula was narrow. The major tubercle was large and extended proximally above the head of the humerus. The lateral supracondylar crest was less prominent...
August 31, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855323/rib-kinematics-during-lung-ventilation-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-an-xromm-analysis
#19
Robert J Brocklehurst, Sabine Moritz, Jonathan Codd, William I Sellers, Elizabeth L Brainerd
The current hypothesis regarding the mechanics of breathing in crocodylians is that the double-headed ribs, with both a capitulum and tuberculum, rotate about a constrained axis passing through the two articulations; moreover, this axis shifts in the caudal thoracic ribs, as the vertebral parapophysis moves from the centrum to the transverse process. Additionally, the ventral ribcage in crocodylians is thought to possess additional degrees of freedom through mobile intermediate ribs. In this study, X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM) was used to quantify rib rotation during breathing in American alligators...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854194/the-earliest-settlers-of-mesoamerica-date-back-to-the-late-pleistocene
#20
Wolfgang Stinnesbeck, Julia Becker, Fabio Hering, Eberhard Frey, Arturo González González, Jens Fohlmeister, Sarah Stinnesbeck, Norbert Frank, Alejandro Terrazas Mata, Martha Elena Benavente, Jerónimo Avilés Olguín, Eugenio Aceves Núñez, Patrick Zell, Michael Deininger
Preceramic human skeletal remains preserved in submerged caves near Tulum in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, reveal conflicting results regarding 14C dating. Here we use U-series techniques for dating a stalagmite overgrowing the pelvis of a human skeleton discovered in the submerged Chan Hol cave. The oldest closed system U/Th age comes from around 21 mm above the pelvis defining the terminus ante quem for the pelvis to 11311±370 y BP. However, the skeleton might be considerable older, probably as old as 13 ky BP as indicated by the speleothem stable isotope data...
2017: PloS One
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