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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232500/developmental-osteology-of-the-parafrontal-bones-of-the-sphaerodactylidae
#1
Aaron H Griffing, Juan D Daza, Jonathan C DeBoer, Aaron M Bauer
Well-resolved phylogenetic hypotheses and ontogenetic data are often necessary for investigating the evolution of structural novelty. The Sphaerodactylidae comprises 12 genera of predominantly miniaturized geckos. The genera Aristelliger and Teratoscincus are exceptions, with taxa reaching snout-to-vent lengths far exceeding those of other sphaerodactylids. These two genera possess enigmatic, supraorbital ossifications - parafrontal bones - which are encountered nowhere else among squamates. At the time of their discovery, these structures were believed to be the result of evolutionary convergence...
December 12, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193820/osteology-and-radiological-anatomy-of-the-thoracic-limbs-of-temminck-s-ground-pangolin-smutsia-temminckii
#2
Christine Steyn, John T Soley, Martina R Crole
Temminck's ground pangolin is the only pangolin present in South Africa. It is a myrmecophagous mammal with a bipedal gait. The thoracic limbs are used to break open ant nests, dig for food and expand previously occupied burrows. This study describes the osteology and radiological anatomy of the thoracic limbs of this threatened species. Thoracic limbs from four Temminck's ground pangolins, which succumbed from electrocution or natural causes, were digitally radiographed in situ. The individual bones were then cleaned, described and digitally radiographed...
November 28, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167014/the-effect-of-age-and-body-composition-on-body-mass-estimation-of-males-using-the-stature-bi-iliac-method
#3
Juho-Antti Junno, Markku Niskanen, Heli Maijanen, Brigitte Holt, Vladimir Sladek, Sirpa Niinimäki, Margit Berner
The stature/bi-iliac breadth method provides reasonably precise, skeletal frame size (SFS) based body mass (BM) estimations across adults as a whole. In this study, we examine the potential effects of age changes in anthropometric dimensions on the estimation accuracy of SFS-based body mass estimation. We use anthropometric data from the literature and our own skeletal data from two osteological collections to study effects of age on stature, bi-iliac breadth, body mass, and body composition, as they are major components behind body size and body size estimations...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152642/variability-of-characteristics-of-cranial-projectile-trauma-in-skeletal-material
#4
Caitlin Humphrey, Jaliya Kumaratilake, Maciej Henneberg
In cranial firearm trauma, where soft tissues have decomposed, determining the manner of death can pose difficultly for a forensic anthropologist. Detailed analysis of skeletal wounds may lead to reconstruction of the events surrounding death, however considerable research has been conducted on soft tissue details and less has focused on skeletal wounds alone. Macroscopic descriptive observations were carried out on thirteen skulls from the Hamman-Todd Human Osteological Collection at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Ohio which had documented cranial projectile trauma to analyse wound location, shape, size, beveling and projectile paths...
November 14, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134065/a-bird-like-skull-in-a-triassic-diapsid-reptile-increases-heterogeneity-of-the-morphological-and-phylogenetic-radiation-of-diapsida
#5
Adam C Pritchard, Sterling J Nesbitt
The Triassic Period saw the first appearance of numerous amniote lineages (e.g. Lepidosauria, Archosauria, Mammalia) that defined Mesozoic ecosystems following the end Permian Mass Extinction, as well as the first major morphological diversification of crown-group reptiles. Unfortunately, much of our understanding of this event comes from the record of large-bodied reptiles (total body length > 1 m). Here we present a new species of drepanosaurid (small-bodied, chameleon-like diapsids) from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of New Mexico...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125205/reconstructing-pectoral-appendicular-muscle-anatomy-in-fossil-fish-and-tetrapods-over-the-fins-to-limbs-transition
#6
Julia L Molnar, Rui Diogo, John R Hutchinson, Stephanie E Pierce
The question of how tetrapod limbs evolved from fins is one of the great puzzles of evolutionary biology. While palaeontologists, developmental biologists, and geneticists have made great strides in explaining the origin and early evolution of limb skeletal structures, that of the muscles remains largely unknown. The main reason is the lack of consensus about appendicular muscle homology between the closest living relatives of early tetrapods: lobe-finned fish and crown tetrapods. In the light of a recent study of these homologies, we re-examined osteological correlates of muscle attachment in the pectoral girdle, humerus, radius, and ulna of early tetrapods and their close relatives...
November 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104410/human-aided-movement-of-viral-disease-and-the-archaeology-of-avian-osteopetrosis
#7
B Tyr Fothergill
The term avian osteopetrosis is used to describe alterations to the skeletal elements of several species of domestic bird, most typically the chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus (L. 1758). Such lesions are routinely identified in animal bones from archaeological sites due to their distinctive appearance, which is characterised by proliferative diaphyseal thickening. These lesions are relatively uncomplicated for specialists to differentially diagnose and are caused by a range of avian leucosis viruses in a series of subgroups...
September 2017: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099867/evaluating-causes-of-error-in-landmark-based-data-collection-using-scanners
#8
Brian M Shearer, Siobhán B Cooke, Lauren B Halenar, Samantha L Reber, Jeannette E Plummer, Eric Delson, Melissa Tallman
In this study, we assess the precision, accuracy, and repeatability of craniodental landmarks (Types I, II, and III, plus curves of semilandmarks) on a single macaque cranium digitally reconstructed with three different surface scanners and a microCT scanner. Nine researchers with varying degrees of osteological and geometric morphometric knowledge landmarked ten iterations of each scan (40 total) to test the effects of scan quality, researcher experience, and landmark type on levels of intra- and interobserver error...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057913/heterochronic-evolution-explains-novel-body-shape-in-a-triassic-coelacanth-from-switzerland
#9
Lionel Cavin, Bastien Mennecart, Christian Obrist, Loïc Costeur, Heinz Furrer
A bizarre latimeriid coelacanth fish from the Middle Triassic of Switzerland shows skeletal features deviating from the uniform anatomy of coelacanths. The new form is closely related to a modern-looking coelacanth found in the same locality and differences between both are attributed to heterochronic evolution. Most of the modified osteological structures in the new coelacanth have their developmental origin in the skull/trunk interface region in the embryo. Change in the expression of developmental patterning genes, specifically the Pax1/9 genes, may explain a rapid evolution at the origin of the new coelacanth...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044522/an-automated-two-dimensional-form-registration-method-for-osteological-pair-matching
#10
Jeffrey James Lynch
This study introduces an automated method for osteological pair-matching using two-dimensional outline form data extracted from photographs. A procedure for acquiring photographs that improve the differentiation of specimens from the background is presented along with an extraction procedure that allows the capture of form data from photographs. The raw form data are used in a two-dimensional registration procedure, which combines iterative closest point, K-nearest neighbor search, and iterations around an estimated mean...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043096/sex-determination-using-humeral-dimensions-in-a-sample-from-kwazulu-natal-an-osteometric-study
#11
Oluwatosin Olalekan Ogedengbe, Sunday Adelaja Ajayi, Omobola Aderibigbe Komolafe, Aung Khaing Zaw, Edwin Coleridge Stephen Naidu, Onyemaechi Okpara Azu
The morphological characteristics of the humeral bone has been investigated in recent times with studies showing varying degrees of sexual dimorphism. Osteologists and forensic scientists have shown that sex determination methods based on skeletal measurements are population specific, and these population-specific variations are present in many body dimensions. The present study aims to establish sex identification using osteometric standards for the humerus in a contemporary KwaZulu-Natal population. A total of 11 parameters were measured in a sample of n=211 humeri (males, 113; females, 98) from the osteological collection in the Discipline of Clinical Anatomy, Nelson R...
September 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036194/micromeryx-eiselei-a-new-moschid-species-from-steinheim-am-albuch-germany-and-the-first-comprehensive-description-of-moschid-cranial-material-from-the-miocene-of-central-europe
#12
Manuela Aiglstorfer, Loïc Costeur, Bastien Mennecart, Elmar P J Heizmann
Moschids are enigmatic pecoran ruminants whose phylogeny is still not fully understood. So far we know only little of the family's early evolutionary history and the origin of the modern genus, Moschus. Here we present a comprehensive description of cranial material, including the ear region and the dentition, of fossil moschid material from the Middle Miocene locality Steinheim am Albuch (13.5 Ma; Germany). This study provides the first exhaustive dataset for the cranial osteology of Micromeryx flourensianus, the most likely oldest true moschid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026610/selective-blood-sampling-for-fgf-23-in-tumor-induced-osteomalacia
#13
Hans-Christof Schober, Christian Kneitz, Franziska Fieber, Kathrin Hesse, Henry Schroeder
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is caused by the hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). It is mainly produced in the tissue of mesenchymal tumors. Patients with TIO frequently suffer from a chronic decompensated pain syndrome and/or muscle weakness with postural deformity. Despite the severity of the disease, the diagnosis is frequently established late. In some cases, it takes several years to establish the condition. This case report concerning a 68-year old woman demonstrates the selective blood sampling for FGF-23 as path-breaking diagnostics to confirm the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024511/the-relationship-between-linear-osteological-and-radiographic-measurements-of-the-human-calcaneus-and-talus
#14
David Agoada
Plain radiographs of the foot are a common form of examination in individuals when medical evaluation is indicated. Their availability makes them useful for studying human variation where large sample sizes are crucial. Calcaneal and talar morphology are critical in the understanding of human foot form and function, but few studies have examined the accuracy of linear measurements of these bones taken from radiographs. If linear measurements are to be used in quantitative analysis, their accuracy must first be demonstrated...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018903/clinical-significance-of-dxa-and-hr-pqct-in-autosomal-dominant-osteopetrosis-ado-ii
#15
Sebastian Butscheidt, Tim Rolvien, Uwe Kornak, Felix N Schmidt, Thorsten Schinke, Michael Amling, Ralf Oheim
The main hallmark of high bone mass (HBM) disorders is increased bone mineral density, potentially visible in conventional radiographs and quantifiable by other radiographic methods. While one of the most common forms of HBM is CLCN7-related autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADO II), there is no consensus on diagnostic thresholds. We therefore wanted to assess whether CLCN7-osteopetrosis patients differ from benign HBM cases in terms of (1) bone mineral density, (2) bone structure, and (3) microarchitectural abnormalities...
October 10, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989098/phenotypic-evolution-in-marmoset-and-tamarin-monkeys-cebidae-callitrichinae-and-a-revised-genus-level-classification
#16
Guilherme S T Garbino, Antonio M G Martins-Junior
Marmosets and tamarins (Cebidae, Callitrichinae) constitute the most species-rich subfamily of New World monkeys and one of the most diverse phenotypically. Despite the profusion of molecular phylogenies of the group, the evolution of phenotypic characters under the rapidly-emerging consensual phylogeny of the subfamily has been little studied, resulting in taxonomic proposals that have limited support from other datasets. We examined the evolution of 18 phenotypic traits (5 continuous and 13 discrete), including pelage, skull, dentition, postcrania, life-history and vocalization variables in a robust molecular phylogeny of marmoset and tamarin monkeys, quantifying their phylogenetic signal and correlations among some of the traits...
October 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988068/decapitation-in-reality-and-fine-art-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Valentina Nikolić, Slobodan Savić, Vaso Antunović, Slobodan Marinković, Charlotte Andrieux, Irina Tomić
The aim of our study was to examine all types of decapitation from forensic literature, including our own case, and to analyze the presentation of beheading in fine art, popular literature, and music. To do this, over 200 scientific articles in regard to decapitation were analyzed, as well as more than 10,000 artworks, and several hundreds of literary works and music pieces. In addition, a macroscopic examination of a decapitated victim was performed. Finally, a multislice computerized tomography (MSCT) examination of the cervical spine in two live volunteers was undertaken to present the osteological relationships...
September 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950013/the-toothless-pterosaur-jidapterus-edentus-pterodactyloidea-azhdarchoidea-from-the-early-cretaceous-jehol-biota-and-its-paleoecological-implications
#18
Wen-Hao Wu, Chang-Fu Zhou, Brian Andres
BACKGROUND: In the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota, the toothless pterosaurs flourished with the chaoyangopterids and tapejarids playing a key role in understanding the early diversity and evolution of the Azhdarchoidea. Unlike the more diverse tapejarids, the rarer chaoyangopterids are characterized by a long and low rostrum, supporting a close relationship with the huge azhdarchids. Unfortunately, our knowledge is still limited in the osteology, paleoecology, and taxonomy of the Chaoyangopteridae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945686/an-anatomic-study-on-whether-femoral-version-originates-in-the-neck-or-the-shaft
#19
Hunter D Archibald, Kathleen F Petro, Raymond W Liu
BACKGROUND: Femoral anteversion is generally asymptomatic but can result in lower extremity issues like patellofemoral instability and pain. Surgical correction of anteversion can be performed proximal, mid shaft or distal. A better understanding of the specific location of the rotational deformity can help guide the optimal location of the osteotomy. In this study we examine the contribution of the femoral neck and shaft to total femoral version. METHODS: We studied 590 pairs of well-preserved cadaveric femurs...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940671/osteology-and-radiology-of-the-maned-wolf-chrysocyon-brachyurus-pelvic-limb
#20
R C Siqueira, S C Rahal, L R Inamassu, M J Mamprim, M Felix, M S Castilho, L R Mesquita, V L Ribeiro, C R Teixeira, F B Rassy
This study describes the osteology and radiology of the pelvic limb in maned wolves. Ten (five live and five dead) maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), five males and five females, aged from 2 to 7 years old were used. Digital radiographs were taken and recorded for both pelvic limbs in all animals. Osteology was correlated with the radiographic images. The pelvis had a rectangular shape, and the obturator foramen (foramen obturatum) was oval. The femoral neck (collum femoris) was short and thick. The greater trochanter (trochanter major) extended proximally to near the dorsum of the femoral head (caput ossis femoris)...
September 20, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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