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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319276/comparisons-of-statistical-techniques-to-assess-age-related-skeletal-markers-in-bioarchaeology
#1
Colleen M Cheverko, Mark Hubbe
OBJECTIVES: Many authors argue that inconsistencies between studies of skeletal markers are based on different data collection protocols, especially when comparing age-related markers such as osteoarthritis. Less attention is given to the choice of statistical techniques that are used to test the hypotheses associated with the data. This paper addresses how different statistical techniques compare the prevalence of age-related skeletal indicators, specifically osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteoarthritis prevalence was scored in eight postcranial joints in 243 adult individuals from seven prehistoric archaeological sites in Central California, and data was compared between three time periods [Early (4800-2800 BP), Middle (2800-1200 BP), and Late (1200-250 BP)] using commonly used statistical tests: chi-square, Fisher's exact, and odds ratios...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296166/bony-pits-in-the-ostrich-struthio-camelus-and-emu-dromaius-novaehollandiae-bill-tip
#2
Martina R Crole, John T Soley
A specialized region of the bill tip characterized by a complex arrangement of mechanoreceptors and referred to as a bill tip organ, has been identified in numerous avians. A bill tip organ was initially inferred in kiwi species by the presence of numerous, bony pits in the rostrum of the bill, and later confirmed histologically. This study enumerates and compares the number and distribution of pits present in the bill tip in the ostrich and emu. The heads from 10 ostrich and 5 emu were prepared for osteological examination...
March 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280592/growth-overshoot-and-seasonal-size-changes-in-the-skulls-of-two-weasel-species
#3
Scott LaPoint, Lara Keicher, Martin Wikelski, Karol Zub, Dina K N Dechmann
Ontogenetic changes in mammalian skulls are complex. For a very few species (i.e. some Sorex shrews), these also include seasonally driven, bidirectional size changes within individuals, presumably to reduce energy requirements during low resource availabilities. These patterns are poorly understood, but are likely most pronounced in high-metabolic species with limited means for energy conservation. We used generalized additive models to quantify the effect of location, Julian day, age and sex on the length and depth of 512 and 847 skulls of stoat (Mustela erminea) and weasel (M...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273959/morphometric-evaluation-of-adult-acromion-process-in-north-indian-population
#4
Susmita Saha, Neelam Vasudeva
INTRODUCTION: Dimensions of acromion process are important to show linkage to the shoulder girdle pathologies. Also morphometric analysis of acromion process would be helpful for surgeons while performing surgical procedures on the shoulder joint. AIM: The purpose of this present study was to observe the detailed morphometric evaluation of adult acromion processes in North Indian population because different morphometric dimensions play an important role in various disorders of the shoulder, particularly sub acromial impingement syndrome...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268153/convergence-characteristics-between-a-rodent-the-south-american-lowland-paca-and-a-ruminant-the-african-water-chevrotain-an-exemplary-case-study
#5
Gérard Dubost
The level of convergence between a rodent, the South American lowland paca Cuniculus paca, and a ruminant, the African water chevrotain Hyemoschus aquaticus, is analysed using 231 characteristics belonging to different biological sectors. A convergence index is established based on the degree of rarity of each characteristic in each species compared to other members of its zoological group. Although the divergent characteristics are as numerous as the convergent ones, the two species are globally similar. Convergent characteristics occur in all biological categories, but their rate varies a great deal among them...
March 3, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243531/molecular-and-morphological-data-reveal-three-new-cryptic-species-of-chiasmocleis-mehely-1904-anura-microhylidae-endemic-to-the-atlantic-forest-brazil
#6
Mauricio C Forlani, João F R Tonini, Carlos A G Cruz, Hussam Zaher, Rafael O de Sá
Three new cryptic species of Chiasmocleis from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil are described. Two of these species occur in the northeastern states of Sergipe and Bahia, whereas the third species is found in the southeastern state of São Paulo. The new species can be distinguished from other congeneric species by the molecular data, as evidenced in the phylogeny, and by a combination of morphological characters including: size, foot webbing, dermal spines, and coloration patterns. Chiasmocleis species differ in osteological traits, therefore we also provide an osteological description of each new species and comparsions with data reported for other species in the genus...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235419/a-rabbit-model-for-experimental-alveolar-cleft-grafting
#7
Mohammad Kamal, Lars Andersson, Rene Tolba, Alexander Bartella, Felix Gremse, Frank Hölzle, Peter Kessler, Bernd Lethaus
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to develop an animal model for creating alveolar cleft defects with properly simulated clinical defect environment for tissue-engineered bone-substitute materials testing without compromising the health of the animal. Cleft creation surgery was aimed at creating a complete alveolar cleft with a wide bone defect with an epithelial lining (oral mucosa) overlying the cleft defect. METHODS: A postmortem skull of a New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit skull (Oryctolagus cuniculus) underwent an osteological and imaging survey...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228667/three-new-species-of-the-killifish-genus-melanorivulus-from-the-central-brazilian-cerrado-savanna-cyprinodontiformes-aplocheilidae
#8
Wilson J E M Costa
Three new species are described from the Neotropical region comprising the Cerrado savannas of the central Brazilian plateaus, which is among the most important biodiversity centres in the world. These species are considered closely related to Melanorivulus dapazi from the same region, with which they share the presence of a rudimentary interarcual cartilage and a dark reddish brown distal margin on the male anal fin. The group comprising Melanorivulus dapazi and the three new species is here named as the Melanorivulus dapazi species group...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224053/understanding-morphological-variability-in-a-taxonomic-context-in-chilean-diplomystids-teleostei-siluriformes-including-the-description-of-a-new-species
#9
Gloria Arratia, Claudio Quezada-Romegialli
Following study of the external morphology and its unmatched variability throughout ontogeny and a re-examination of selected morphological characters based on many specimens of diplomystids from Central and South Chile, we revised and emended previous specific diagnoses and consider Diplomystes chilensis, D. nahuelbutaensis, D. camposensis, and Olivaichthys viedmensis (Baker River) to be valid species. Another group, previously identified as Diplomystes sp., D. spec., D. aff. chilensis, and D. cf. chilensis inhabiting rivers between Rapel and Itata Basins is given a new specific name (Diplomystes incognitus) and is diagnosed...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213868/elliptical-fourier-analysis-fundamentals-applications-and-value-for-forensic-anthropology
#10
REVIEW
Jodi Caple, John Byrd, Carl N Stephan
The numerical description of skeletal morphology enables forensic anthropologists to conduct objective, reproducible, and structured tests, with the added capability of verifying morphoscopic-based analyses. One technique that permits comprehensive quantification of outline shape is elliptical Fourier analysis. This curve fitting technique allows a form's outline to be approximated via the sum of multiple sine and cosine waves, permitting the profile perimeter of an object to be described in a dense (continuous) manner at a user-defined level of precision...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199316/knoetschkesuchus-langenbergensis-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-atoposaurid-crocodyliform-from-the-upper-jurassic-langenberg-quarry-lower-saxony-northwestern-germany-and-its-relationships-to-theriosuchus
#11
Daniela Schwarz, Maik Raddatz, Oliver Wings
We report a new, small-sized atoposaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Jurassic of Langenberg, Northeastern Germany. Atoposaurids are small-sized Mesozoic crocodyliforms of mainly European distribution, which are considered to be phylogenetically close to the origin of Eusuchia. Knoetschkesuchus langenbergensis gen. nov. sp. nov. is represented by two well-preserved skulls and additional cranial and postcranial remains representing different ontogenetic stages. 3D reconstructions of a juvenile skull based on micro-computed tomography allow the most detailed description of cranial remains of any atoposaurid hitherto presented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199011/the-osteology-lesson-of-sebastiaen-egbertszn-1619
#12
F F A IJpma, T M van Gulik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194313/off-the-scale-a-new-species-of-fish-scale-gecko-squamata-gekkonidae-geckolepis-with-exceptionally-large-scales
#13
Mark D Scherz, Juan D Daza, Jörn Köhler, Miguel Vences, Frank Glaw
The gecko genus Geckolepis, endemic to Madagascar and the Comoro archipelago, is taxonomically challenging. One reason is its members ability to autotomize a large portion of their scales when grasped or touched, most likely to escape predation. Based on an integrative taxonomic approach including external morphology, morphometrics, genetics, pholidosis, and osteology, we here describe the first new species from this genus in 75 years: Geckolepis megalepissp. nov. from the limestone karst of Ankarana in northern Madagascar...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187672/phylogenetic-relationships-and-a-new-classification-of-the-family-cyclopteridae-perciformes-cottoidei
#14
Kanami Oku, Hisashi Imamura, Mamoru Yabe
 Phylogenetic relationships of the family Cyclopteridae were reconstructed based on osteological and external characters.  The monophyly of the family was strongly supported by 47 commonly recognized synapomorphies, including six autapomorphies (plus one additional autapomorphy, presence of a dorsal process on the pelvis, recognized after the phylogenetic analysis) among the suborder Cottoidei.  As a result of the cladistic analysis, a single most parsimonious phylogeny was obtained, based on characters in 32 transformation series...
January 16, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187584/osteology-of-i-physalaemus-i-i-nattereri-i-anura-leptodactylidae-with-comments-on-intraspecific-variation
#15
Jéssica Fratani, Manoela Woitovicz-Cardoso, Ana Carolina Calijorne Lourenço
The cranium, postcranium, and osteological variation of Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner) are described. The main sources of variation involve the degree of mineralization of the nasal capsule and the lengths of dermal skull bones (e.g., vomer, sphenethmoid, and neopalatine). Osteologically, P. nattereri differs from its congeners by the anterior placement of the jaw articulation (which lies anterior to the intersection between the alae and cultriform process of parasphenoid), and by the separation of the frontoparietals from the anterior margins of exoccipitals...
February 2, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167429/the-relationship-between-the-distal-metatarsal-articular-angle-and-intersesamoidal-crista-an-osteological-study
#16
Megan Maddocks, Shahed Nalla, Bernhard Zipfel
BACKGROUND: As hallux valgus (HV) progresses, the first metatarsal drifts medially and the subsequent lateral drift of the sesamoids results in intersesamoidal crista erosion. This study aimed to provide a novel method of assessing crista erosion and determine if there is a relationship between that erosion and an increase in the distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). METHODS: The DMAA and size of the intersesamoidal crista was measured on the first metatarsals of 120 adult modern human individuals...
January 17, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165605/rotational-alignment-of-the-knee-is-different-in-osteological-specimens-with-and-without-a-large-cam-deformity-of-the-proximal-femur
#17
Jeremy J Gebhart, Jonathan J Streit, Avi Goodman, Jordan Etscheidt, Douglas S Weinberg, Asheesh Bedi, Shane J Nho, Michael J Salata
PURPOSE: We studied a large osteological collection for differences in knee rotation based upon the presence or absence of a large cam deformity of the proximal femur. METHODS: We obtained 357 matched tibiae and femora from the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection and measured: femoral head-neck alpha angle, anteroposterior axis (or Whiteside's line) at the distal femur relative to the posterior condylar axis, and position of the tibial tubercle with respect to the posterior condylar axis of the proximal tibia...
February 2, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127499/an-osteological-study-of-supratrochlear-foramen-of-humerus-of-south-indian-population-with-reference-to-anatomical-and-clinical-implications
#18
Shivaleela C, Khizer Hussain Afroze, Lakshmiprabha S
The supratrochlear foramen (STF) is an important and relatively common anatomic variation in the lower end of the humerus in humans. The present study on south Indian population is an attempt to highlight the incidence, morphological features and clinical importance of STF. The study was conducted on dried human humeri of unknown sex and free of pathological changes. The presence of a STF was noted for its shape and divided into three types (oval, round, and irregular). In bones where the foramen was absent the translucency of the septum between the coronoid and the radial fossa was noted by placing the lower end of the humerus against the X-ray view box...
December 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125649/investigation-of-a-medieval-pilgrim-burial-excavated-from-the-leprosarium-of-st-mary-magdalen-winchester-uk
#19
Simon Roffey, Katie Tucker, Kori Filipek-Ogden, Janet Montgomery, Jamie Cameron, Tamsin O'Connell, Jane Evans, Phil Marter, G Michael Taylor
We have examined the remains of a Pilgrim burial from St Mary Magdalen, Winchester. The individual was a young adult male, aged around 18-25 years at the time of death. Radiocarbon dating showed the remains dated to the late 11th-early 12th centuries, a time when pilgrimages were at their height in Europe. Several lines of evidence in connection with the burial suggested this was an individual of some means and prestige. Although buried within the leprosarium cemetery, the skeleton showed only minimal skeletal evidence for leprosy, which was confined to the bones of the feet and legs...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124205/development-of-short-snouted-seahorse-hippocampus-hippocampus-l-1758-osteological-and-morphological-aspects
#20
B Novelli, F Otero-Ferrer, J A Socorro, M J Caballero, A Segade-Botella, L Molina Domínguez
Information about early development after male release lags behind studies of juveniles and adult seahorses, and newborn seahorses, similar in shape to adults, are considered juveniles or fry. During early life, Hippocampus hippocampus present behavioural (shift in habitat, from planktonic to benthic) and morphological changes; for this reasons, the aims of this study are to define the stage of development of H. hippocampus after they are expelled from the male brood pouch and to establish direct or indirect development through an osteological analysis...
January 25, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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