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Osteology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652781/pelvic-incidence-is-associated-with-sacral-curvature-sacroiliac-joint-angulation-and-sacral-ala-width
#1
Matthew V Abola, Jason R Teplensky, Daniel R Cooperman, Jennifer M Bauer, Raymond W Liu
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional anatomical study in dry cadaveric specimens OBJECTIVE.: This study evaluates how the sacroiliac (SI) joint angulation, midsagittal sacral curvature, and sacral ala width relate to pelvic incidence (PI). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Numerous spinopelvic pathologies have been linked with pelvic incidence; however, the manner in which sacral morphology fits into this association is largely unknown. METHODS: A total of 120 cadaveric sacra and corresponding innominate bones were obtained from an osteological collection...
April 12, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614958/the-skeletal-ontogeny-of-astatotilapia-burtoni-a-direct-developing-model-system-for-the-evolution-and-development-of-the-teleost-body-plan
#2
Joost M Woltering, Michaela Holzem, Ralf F Schneider, Vasilios Nanos, Axel Meyer
BACKGROUND: The experimental approach to the evolution and development of the vertebrate skeleton has to a large extent relied on "direct-developing" amniote model organisms, such as the mouse and the chicken. These organisms can however only be partially informative where it concerns secondarily lost features or anatomical novelties not present in their lineages. The widely used anamniotes Xenopus and zebrafish are "indirect-developing" organisms that proceed through an extended time as free-living larvae, before adopting many aspects of their adult morphology, complicating experiments at these stages, and increasing the risk for lethal pleiotropic effects using genetic strategies...
April 3, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610705/osteology-of-batrachuperus-londongensis-urodela-hynobiidae-study-of-bony-anatomy-of-a-facultatively-neotenic-salamander-from-mount-emei-sichuan-province-china
#3
Jian-Ping Jiang, Jia Jia, Meihua Zhang, Ke-Qin Gao
The Longdong Stream Salamander Batrachuperus londongensis , living in a mountain stream environment at Mt. Emei in Sichuan Province, China, represents a rare species that is facultatively neotenic in the family Hynobiidae. Although the species has been known to science for some 40 years since its initial discovery in the late 1970s, anatomical details of its osteology remain poorly understood and developmental information is still lacking for the species. This study (1) provides a detailed osteological account of B...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607264/postcranial-skeletal-anatomy-of-the-holotype-and-referred-specimens-of-buitreraptor-gonzalezorum-makovicky-apestegu%C3%A3-a-and-agnol%C3%A3-n-2005-theropoda-dromaeosauridae-from-the-late-cretaceous-of-patagonia
#4
Federico A Gianechini, Peter J Makovicky, Sebastián Apesteguía, Ignacio Cerda
Here we provide a detailed description of the postcranial skeleton of the holotype and referred specimens of Buitreraptor gonzalezorum . This taxon was recovered as an unenlagiine dromaeosaurid in several recent phylogenetic studies and is the best represented Gondwanan dromaeosaurid discovered to date. It was preliminarily described in a brief article, but a detailed account of its osteology is emerging in recent works. The holotype is the most complete specimen yet found, so an exhaustive description of it provides much valuable anatomical information...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587219/specific-age-group-sex-estimation-of-infants-through-geometric-morphometrics-analysis-of-pubis-and-ischium
#5
Enrique José Estévez Campo, Sandra López-Lázaro, Claudia López-Morago Rodríguez, Inmaculada Alemán Aguilera, Miguel Cecilio Botella López
Sex determination of unknown individuals is one of the primary goals of Physical and Forensic Anthropology. The adult skeleton can be sexed using both morphological and metric traits on a large number of bones. The human pelvis is often used as an important element of adult sex determination. However, studies carried out about the pelvic bone in subadult individuals present several limitations due the absence of sexually dimorphic characteristics. In this study, we analyse the sexual dimorphism of the immature pubis and ischium bones, attending to their shape (Procrustes residuals) and size (centroid size), using an identified sample of subadult individuals composed of 58 individuals for the pubis and 83 for the ischium, aged between birth and 1year of life, from the Granada osteological collection of identified infants (Granada, Spain)...
March 16, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571819/reliability-evaluation-of-inter-eminence-line-akagi-and-dalury-lines-for-intraoperative-tibial-rotation-an-osteology-based-study
#6
Rhodri Williams, Amal Thomas, Stefan Bajada, Tony Antonios, Rhidian Morgan-Jones, Jelena Bekvalac, Philip Adds
BACKGROUND: This large osteology study examined the reliability, reproducibility and correlation between previously described tibial tray rotation alignment lines (including Akagi and Dalury lines). In addition, it described a novel inter-eminence line utilising the tibial plateau inter-condylar eminences as a landmark. METHODS: A total of 214 post-medieval (18-19th centuries) skeletal tibia were examined. The inter/intra-observer variation and correlation between reference lines were measured...
March 20, 2018: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551524/phylogenetic-analysis-shows-the-general-diversification-pattern-of-deep-sea-notacanthiforms-teleostei-elopomorpha
#7
David Barros-García, Elsa Froufe, Rafael Bañón, Juan Carlos Arronte, Alejandro De Carlos
The Notacanthiformes is an ancient group of deep-sea ray-finned fishes comprising 27 species in two families; Halosauridae and Notacanthidae. Although many studies have tried to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the major clades of Elopomorpha, little is known about the evolutionary history of notacanthiforms. Molecular and morphological data were used to test previous hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic relationships among notacanthiform taxa, and to unravel the origin and evolution of this group...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513709/delineating-modern-variation-from-extinct-morphology-in-the-fossil-record-using-shells-of-the-eastern-box-turtle-terrapene-carolina
#8
Natasha S Vitek
Characterization of morphological variation in the shells of extant Eastern Box Turtles, Terrapene carolina, provides a baseline for comparison to fossil populations. It also provides an example of the difficulties inherent to recognizing intraspecific diversity in the fossil record. The degree to which variation in fossils of T. carolina can be accommodated by extant variation in the species has been disagreed upon for over eighty years. Using morphometric analyses of the carapace, I address the relationship between modern and fossil T...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498132/about-the-osteology-foundation
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498131/evidence-based-knowledge-on-the-aesthetics-and-maintenance-of-peri-implant-soft-tissues-osteology-foundation-consensus-report-part-3-aesthetics-of-peri-implant-soft-tissues
#10
Ronald E Jung, Lisa Heitz-Mayfield, Frank Schwarz
OBJECTIVES: Working Group 2 at the 2nd Consensus Meeting of the Osteology Foundation had a focus on the influence of vertical implant placement on papilla height at single implants adjacent to teeth and on the inter-implant mucosa fill at two adjacent implants in the anterior maxilla. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two systematic reviews were prepared in advance of the consensus meeting. Due to the heterogeneity among the studies with regard to study design, study population, method of assessment, meta-analyses were not possible...
March 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498127/evidence-based-knowledge-on-the-aesthetics-and-maintenance-of-peri-implant-soft-tissues-osteology-foundation-consensus-report-part-1-effects-of-soft-tissue-augmentation-procedures-on-the-maintenance-of-peri-implant-soft-tissue-health
#11
William V Giannobile, Ronald E Jung, Frank Schwarz
OBJECTIVES: The goal of Working Group 1 at the 2nd Consensus Meeting of the Osteology Foundation was to comprehensively assess the effects of soft tissue augmentation procedures on peri-implant health or disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of soft tissue augmentation procedures included a total of 10 studies (mucosal thickness: n = 6; keratinized tissue: n = 4). Consensus statements, clinical recommendations, and implications for future research were based on structured group discussions and a plenary session approval...
March 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498125/evidence-based-knowledge-on-the-aesthetics-and-maintenance-of-peri-implant-soft-tissues-osteology-foundation-consensus-report-part-2-effects-of-hard-tissue-augmentation-procedures-on-the-maintenance-of-peri-implant-tissues
#12
Frank Schwarz, William V Giannobile, Ronald E Jung
OBJECTIVES: One task of Working Group 1 at the 2nd Consensus Meeting of the Osteology Foundation was to comprehensively assess the effects of hard tissue augmentation procedures on peri-implant health or disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of hard tissue augmentation procedures included a total of eight studies (n = 12 publications). Consensus statements, clinical recommendations, and implications for future research were based on structured group discussions and plenary session approval...
March 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497587/a-striking-new-genus-and-species-of-cave-dwelling-frog-amphibia-anura-microhylidae-asterophryinae-from-thailand
#13
Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Montri Sumontha, Jitthep Tunprasert, Thiti Ruangsuwan, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Dmitriy V Korost, Nikolay A Poyarkov
We report on a discovery of Siamophryne troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov., a new troglophilous genus and species of microhylid frog from a limestone cave in the tropical forests of western Thailand. To assess its phylogenetic relationships we studied the 12S rRNA-16S rRNA mtDNA fragment with final alignment comprising up to 2,591 bp for 56 microhylid species. Morphological characterization of the new genus is based on examination of external morphology and analysis of osteological characteristics using microCT-scanning...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496212/horse-riding-accidents-and-injuries-in-historical-records-of-joseon-dynasty-korea
#14
Ho Chul Ki, Eun-Kyoung Shin, Eun Jin Woo, Eunju Lee, Jong Ha Hong, Dong Hoon Shin
Only a few osteological reports describe bone injuries thought to have been caused by falls from horses. Nevertheless, anthropological study alone is insufficient for establishing the correlates of such equestrian accidents. We therefore reviewed the records in Seungjeongwon ilgi (Diaries of the Royal Secretariat) and Joseon wangjo silrok (Annals of the Joseon Dynasty) of the Korea's Joseon period (1392-1910 CE). Although the mechanisms of trauma were diverse, the Joseon documents recorded many injuries caused by horse-riding accidents...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492995/radiological-and-osteological-study-of-the-pelvic-limbs-in-free-ranging-capybaras-hydrochoerus-hydrochaeris
#15
G C Brombini, S C Rahal, B C Schimming, I F C Santos, M H Tsunemi, M J Mamprim, L S Alves, A L Filadelpho, C R Teixeira
This study aimed to describe the radiographic anatomy and osteology and to evaluate angular radiographic measurements-Norberg angle, inclination angle and anteversion angle-of the pelvic limbs in free-ranging capybaras. Twenty cadavers of free-ranging capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), including five adults and 15 subadults, were studied. Ventrodorsal, craniocaudal, dorsoplantar and mediolateral radiographic views of the pelvic limbs were obtained. The radiographic features were described together with bone samples...
March 1, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492962/neck-function-in-early-hominins-and-suspensory-primates-insights-from-the-uncinate-process
#16
Marc R Meyer, Charles Woodward, Amy Tims, Markus Bastir
OBJECTIVES: Uncinate processes are protuberances on the cranial surface of subaxial cervical vertebrae that assist in stabilizing and guiding spinal motion. Shallow uncinate processes reduce cervical stability but confer an increased range of motion in clinical studies. Here we assess uncinate processes among extant primates and model cervical kinematics in early fossil hominins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compare six fossil hominin vertebrae with 48 Homo sapiens and 99 nonhuman primates across 20 genera...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485635/skull-typology-and-morphometrics-of-the-nigerian-local-dog-canis-lupus-familiaris
#17
Olumayowa O Igado
Understanding skull anatomy and morphometry is crucial to the diagnosis and treatment of some osteology disorders. This study investigated the morphometry and skull typology of the skull of the Nigerian local dog as a skull prototype for the dolichocephalic breed of dogs. A total of sixteen adult dogs (7 males, 9 females), of about 2 years were used. A total of 20 parameters were measured on each skull, and two indices (cephalic and orbital) calculated. The males had higher values for nine parameters (two of which were calculated indices), including the maximum width of the skull, length of the mandibular symphysis, height of the tympanic bulla and height of the external auditory opening, although no statistically significant difference was observed (p > 0...
December 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473673/mississippian-subadults-from-the-middle-cumberland-and-eastern-regions-of-tennessee-biological-indicators-of-population-interaction
#18
Rebecca Scopa Kelso
OBJECTIVES: Human subadult skeletal remains can provide a unique perspective into biosocial aspects of Mississippian period population interactions within and between the Middle Cumberland (MCR) and Eastern Tennessee Regions (ETR). The majority of previous studies have concentrated on adult skeletal remains, leaving out a large and extremely important population segment. METHODS: Skeletal indicators of disease, growth, body proportions, and metabolic stress were collected from subadult remains from five archaeological sites over several temporal periods...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467995/transitional-female-sacrum-dimensions-alterations-in-dorsal-pelvic-structure-and-potential-obstetric-implications
#19
Niladri Kumar Mahato
Objectives: The space available within the female pelvis is determined by the morphology of all bony components constituting the pelvic skeleton. Although several studies have investigated the impact of hip-bone structural variations in on parturition, the potential effects of commonly occurring lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) variations have been underreported. This descriptive morphometric study reports dimensions of the female sacrum associated LSTV variations and suggests their probable mechanistic effects on normal labor...
January 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460709/ionic-liquid-as-a-potential-solvent-for-preparation-of-collagen-alginate-hydroxyapatite-beads-as-bone-filler
#20
Bushra Iqbal, Zenab Sarfaraz, Nawshad Muhammad, Pervaiz Ahmad, Jibran Iqbal, Zia Ul Haq Khan, Girma Gonfa, Farasat Iqbal, Arshad Jamal, Abdur Rahim
In this study, collagen/alginate/hydroxyapatite beads having different proportions were prepared as bone fillers for the restoration of osteological defects. Ionic liquid was used to dissolve the collagen and subsequently the solution was mixed with sodium alginate solution. Hydroxyapatite was added in different proportions, with the rationale to enhance mechanical as well as biological properties. The prepared solutions were given characteristic bead shapes by dropwise addition into calcium chloride solution...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
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