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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421456/development-of-a-risk-assessment-tool-for-osteoporotic-fracture-prevention-a-claims-data-approach
#1
Katrin C Reber, Hans-Helmut König, Clemens Becker, Kilian Rapp, Gisela Büchele, Sarah Mächler, Ivonne Lindlbauer
BACKGROUND: In aging societies osteoporotic fractures are a major health problem with high economic costs. Targeting prevention at individuals at high risk is important to reduce the future burden of fractures. Available risk assessment tools (e.g., FRAX®, QFracture, the algorithm provided by the German Osteology Society (DVO-Tool)) rely on self-reported patient information to predict fracture risk. Time and resource constraints, limited access to clinical data, and (un)willingness to participate may hamper the use of these tools...
February 5, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418123/why-do-knuckle-walking-african-apes-knuckle-walk
#2
Scott W Simpson, Bruce Latimer, C Owen Lovejoy
Among living mammals, only the African apes and some anteaters adopt knuckle-walking as their primary locomotor behavior. That Pan and Gorilla both knuckle-walk has been cited as evidence of their common ancestry and a primitive condition for a combined Homo, Pan, and Gorilla clade. Recent research on forelimb ontogeny and anatomy, in addition to recently described hominin fossils, indicate that knuckle-walking was independently acquired after divergence of the Pan and Gorilla lineages. Although the large-bodied, largely suspensory orangutan shares some aspects of the African ape bauplan, it does not regularly knuckle-walk when terrestrial...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418119/leg-muscle-architecture-in-primates-and-its-correlation-with-locomotion-patterns
#3
Damiano Marchi, Carissa L Leischner, Francisco Pastor, Adam Hartstone-Rose
Bone biomechanical studies indicate that leg bone structure can be related to different locomotor patterns. The osteological correlates of extant primates' locomotion patterns and substrate use are important to consider when estimating corresponding behaviors of extinct primates. Here, we test if these same patterns are seen in the differences in leg muscular architecture. Muscle mass, fascicle lengths (FL), physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), reduced PCSA (RPCSA) and tendon-to-muscle belly ratio were studied in 33 primate species (6 strepsirrhines, 14 platyrrhines and 13 catarrhines)...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418111/scaling-of-primate-forearm-muscle-architecture-as-it-relates-to-locomotion-and-posture
#4
Carissa L Leischner, Michael Crouch, Kari L Allen, Damiano Marchi, Francisco Pastor, Adam Hartstone-Rose
It has been previously proposed that distal humerus morphology may reflect the locomotor pattern and substrate preferred by different primates. However, relationships between these behaviors and the morphological capabilities of muscles originating on these osteological structures have not been fully explored. Here, we present data about forearm muscle architecture in a sample of 44 primate species (N = 55 specimens): 9 strepsirrhines, 15 platyrrhines, and 20 catarrhines. The sample includes all major locomotor and substrate use groups...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410871/the-evolution-and-anatomy-of-the-horse-manus-with-an-emphasis-on-digit-reduction
#5
Nikos Solounias, Melinda Danowitz, Elizabeth Stachtiaris, Abhilasha Khurana, Marwan Araim, Marc Sayegh, Jessica Natale
We revisit digit reduction in the horse and propose that all five digits are partially present in the modern adult forelimb. Osteological descriptions of selected tetradactyl, tridactyl and monodactyl equids demonstrate the evolution of the forelimb. Histological, osteological and palaeontological evidence suggest that the Equus distal forelimb is more complex than traditionally conceived. The current understanding is that the horse distal forelimb consists of one complete digit (III) and two reduced splint metacarpals (II and IV)...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407678/stimuli-responsive-nanocarriers-for-delivery-of-bone-therapeutics-barriers-and-progresses
#6
REVIEW
Pedro Lavrador, Vítor M Gaspar, João F Mano
The development of stimuli-responsive nanomedicines with tunable cargo release is gathering an increased applicability in bone regeneration and precision biomedicine. Yet, the formulation of nanocarriers that explore skeletal-specific stimuli remains remarkably challenging to materialize due to several endogenous and disease-specific barriers that must be considered during particle design stages. Such anatomo-physiological constrains ultimately hinder nanocarriers bioavailability in target bone tissues and impact the overall therapeutic outcome...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392730/three-dimensional-mobility-and-muscle-attachments-in-the-pectoral-limb-of-the-triassic-cynodont-massetognathus-pascuali-romer-1967
#7
Phil H Lai, Andrew A Biewener, Stephanie E Pierce
The musculoskeletal configuration of the mammalian pectoral limb has been heralded as a key anatomical feature leading to the adaptive radiation of mammals, but limb function in the non-mammaliaform cynodont outgroup remains unresolved. Conflicting reconstructions of abducted and adducted posture are based on mutually incompatible interpretations of ambiguous osteology. We reconstruct the pectoral limb of the Triassic non-mammaliaform cynodont Massetognathus pascuali in three dimensions, by combining skeletal morphology from micro-computed tomography with muscle anatomy from an extended extant phylogenetic bracket...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387868/eastern-baltic-region-vs-western-europe-modelling-age-related-changes-in-the-pubic-symphysis-and-the-auricular-surface
#8
Šarūnas Jatautis, Rimantas Jankauskas
Objectives. The present study addresses the following two main questions: a) Is the pattern of skeletal ageing observed in well-known western European reference collections applicable to modern eastern Baltic populations, or are population-specific standards needed? b) What are the consequences for estimating the age-at-death distribution in the target population when differences in the estimates from reference data are not taken into account? Materials and methods. The dataset consists of a modern Lithuanian osteological reference collection, which is the only collection of this type in the eastern Baltic countries (n = 381); and two major western European reference collections, Coimbra (n = 264) and Spitalfields (n = 239)...
January 31, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373774/-mitochondrial-dna-diversity-in-prehispanic-bone-remains-on-the-eastern-colombian-andes
#9
Andrea Casas-Vargas, Liza M Romero, William Usaquén, Sara Zea, Margarita Silva, Ignacio Briceño, Alberto Gómez, José Vicente Rodríguez
INTRODUCTION: DNA extracted from ancient human bones allows to analyze the genetic makeup of pre-Columbian populations and to determine the dynamics that gave rise to the diversity of contemporary populations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the genetic diversity of skeletal remains associated with the Templo del Sol (Sun Temple) and their relationship with other contemporary and ancient communities of America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 13 individuals belonging to the pre-Columbian Muisca Period (IX-XVI centuries AD) from the vicinities of the Templo del Sol (Sun Temple) (Sogamoso, Boyacá) in the eastern Colombian Andes...
December 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350669/an-osteological-museum-inside-the-varese-medical-school-a-proposal-from-the-medical-antropological-and-paleopatological-point-of-view
#10
Marta Licata, Ilaria Gorini, Silvia Iorio
Not available.
January 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349782/new-species-of-the-genus-spectracanthicus-loricariidae-hypostominae-ancistrini-from-the-rio-java%C3%A3-s-rio-araguaia-basin-with-a-description-of-gross-brain-morphology
#11
C C Chamon, T N A Pereira, M B Mendonça, A Akama
A new species of Spectracanthicus is described from the Rio Javaés, Rio Araguaia basin. The new species is distinguished from its congeners (except Spectracanthicus immaculatus) by colour pattern: body dark grey to dark brown without dots or blotches (v. body colour with yellowish small dots in Spectracanthicus murinus, Spectracanthicus punctatissimus and Spectracanthicus tocantinensis and large white dots in Spectracanthicus zuanoni). It can be further distinguished from S. immaculatus by having thicker and less numerous teeth, with up to eight premaxillary and 20 dentary teeth (v...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330991/diaphyseal-nutrient-foramina-in-dried-human-adult-long-bones-of-lower-limb-in-pakistan
#12
Ejaz Afzal, Fatima Sherin, Omair Khan, Noaman Hussain Siddiqui
BACKGROUND: osteogenesis needs circulation of blood in the bones. Bone growth, repair of fracture, maintenance of bone vitality and other injures also need blood circulation in proper way. Blood is allowed to flow via holes in the diaphysis, which are called as nutrient foramina. METHODS: The crosssectional study was done in the department of Anatomy, Ayub and Khyber Medical College (Osteology Sections). The aim was to observe diaphyseal nutrient foramina in the human long bones of the lower limb...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330957/behavioral-correlates-of-cranial-muscle-functional-morphology
#13
Adam Hartstone-Rose, Sharlene E Santana
This issue of the Anatomical Record is the first of a two-volume set that focuses on new investigations into behavioral correlates of muscle functional morphology. Much of the research on functional morphology and adaptation to specific functional niches focuses on the shapes of hard-tissues-bones and teeth. Investigations into soft-tissue anatomy tend to be predominantly descriptive with only brief allusion to ontogenetic or evolutionary origins of structures. When muscles are included in analyses of functional systems, their function tends to be oversimplified-usually considered a simple force vector connecting two osteological points, with the force treated as a constant derived from some simple calculation of muscle size...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330956/craniomandibular-variation-in-phalangeriform-marsupials-functional-comparisons-with-primates
#14
Elizabeth M St Clair, Nicholas Reback, Jonathan M G Perry
Phalangeriform marsupials have often been compared with primates because of similarity in the range of external morphology, ecological niches, and body size between the two radiations. We explore morphological convergence in the masticatory anatomy of strepsirrhine primates and phalangeriforms, through osteological measurements of the mandible and facial skeleton, and through dissection of the masticatory musculature, presenting new data on the arrangement and proportions of jaw adductors in phalangeriforms...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330948/inferring-the-diets-of-extinct-giant-lemurs-from-osteological-correlates-of-muscle-dimensions
#15
Jonathan M G Perry
The jaw adductor muscles of extinct mammals are often reconstructed to elucidate paleoecological relationships and to make broad comparisons among taxa. Muscle lever arms, bite load arms, muscle dimensions, and gape are often also reconstructed to better understand feeding. Several different approaches to these and related goals are discussed here. A protocol for reconstructing muscle dimensions and bite force using biomechanically informative skull measurements and osteological proxies of muscle dimensions is described and applied to a case study of subfossil Malagasy lemurs...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329954/comparative-myology-of-the-ankle-of-leopardus-wiedii-and-l-geoffroyi-carnivora-felidae-functional-consistency-with-osteology-locomotor-habits-and-hunting-in-captivity
#16
Miriam M Morales, S Rocío Moyano, Agustina M Ortiz, Marcos D Ercoli, Luis I Aguado, Sergio A Cardozo, Norberto P Giannini
Leopardus wiedii (margay) is the only arboreal Neotropical felid able to climb head-first down trees, due to its ability to rotate its tarsal joint 180°. A closely related, similar-sized species, L. geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat) exhibits more typical terrestrial habits and lacks the arboreal capabilities of L. wiedii. There is osteological evidence that supports a mechanical specialization of L. wiedii's tarsal joint for inversion, but there have been no studies on the myology of this specialization. Based on comparative gross-anatomy dissections of zeugo- and autopodial muscles related to the ankle joint of one margay specimen and two Geoffroýs cats, we identified myological specializations of L...
December 26, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323824/a-case-of-atypical-synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis-sapho-syndrome-presenting-with-osteomyelitis-of-the-clavicle
#17
Chetan Sharma, Brian Chow
Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is considered after exclusion of infection and arthritis; however, microbial infection may be present in osteoarticular lesions of these patients. Chronic osteomyelitis and associated bacterial infection were detected in a recurrent osteoarticular lesion in an adolescent patient with a history of clavicle pain, who complained of recurrent swelling in the left clavicle. Most pediatric case reports of SAPHO syndrome describe patients with associated skin conditions...
June 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298825/bone-histological-correlates-for-air-sacs-and-their-implications-for-understanding-the-origin-of-the-dinosaurian-respiratory-system
#18
Markus Lambertz, Filippo Bertozzo, P Martin Sander
Air sacs are an important component of the avian respiratory system, and corresponding structures also were crucial for the evolution of sauropod dinosaur gigantism. Inferring the presence of air sacs in fossils so far is restricted to bones preserving internal pneumatic cavities and foramina as osteological correlates. We here present bone histological correlates for air sacs as a new potential identification tool for these elements of the respiratory system. The analysis of several avian and non-avian dinosaur samples revealed delicate fibres in secondary trabecular and secondary endosteal bone that in the former case (birds) is known or in the latter (non-avian dinosaurs) assumed to have been in contact with air sacs, respectively...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278458/osteologic-analysis-of-ethnic-differences-in-supernumerary-ethmoidal-foramina-implications-for-endoscopic-sinus-and-orbit-surgery
#19
Sarina K Mueller, Benjamin S Bleier
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the position of the ethmoidal arteries is critical to enable safe endoscopic sinus and orbital surgery. The presence of a third or "middle" ethmoid variant has recently become more relevant as endoscopic intraconal surgery continues to advance. The purpose of this study was to quantify the presence of supernumerary (ie, over 2) ethmoid foramina in different ethnicities and genders. METHODS: Morphometric osteologic measurements were performed in 273 orbits...
December 26, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259962/serum-vitamin-d-level-related-to-coffee-consumption-in-korean-young-adults-using-the-5th-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#20
Hee-Sook Lim, Hae-Hyeog Lee, Dong-Won Byun, Bora Lee, Temuulee Enkhbold, Tae-Hee Kim
Background: Even young adults are highly interested in their osteological health, yet their calcium intake does not match the level of such interest. Increase in bone loss is known to be associated with higher intake of caffeine and coffee consumption among the young Korean is rising steadily. This study was conducted to reveal the relationship between coffee consumption and serum vitamin D level in Korean young adults. Methods: This study analyzed potential difference in lifestyle and concentration of vitamin D in blood in relation to coffee intake frequency of 2,523 subjects on the basis of data from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
November 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
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