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Osteology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065623/an-anatomic-investigation-into-the-relationship-between-posterior-condylar-offset-and-posterior-tibial-slope-of-one-thousand-one-hundred-thirty-eight-cadaveric-knees
#1
Douglas S Weinberg, Jeremy J Gebhart, Glenn D Wera
BACKGROUND: Posterior condylar offset (PCO) and posterior tibial slope (PTS) have critical consequences in total knee arthroplasty, especially with regards to sagittal plane balancing. However, there has only been limited investigation into the functional consequences of each, and there have only been anecdotal observations regarding any associations between PCO and PTS. METHODS: In a large osteological study of 1138 knees, standardized measurements of PCO and PTS were taken using previously described techniques on specimens of different age, race, and gender...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060923/comparative-postembryonic-skeletal-ontogeny-in-two-sister-lineages-of-old-world-tree-frogs-rhacophoridae-taruga-polypedates
#2
Gayani Senevirathne, Ryan Kerney, Madhava Meegaskumbura
Rhacophoridae, a family of morphologically cryptic frogs, with many genetically distinct evolutionary lineages, is understudied with respect to skeletal morphology, life history traits and skeletal ontogeny. Here we analyze two species each from two sister lineages, Taruga and Polypedates, and compare their postembryonic skeletal ontogeny, larval chondrocrania and adult osteology in the context of a well-resolved phylogeny. We further compare these ontogenetic traits with the direct-developing Pseudophilautus silus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050353/an-osteologic-study-of-cranial-opening-of-optic-canal-in-gujarat-region
#3
Binita Jigneshkumar Purohit, Praveen R Singh
INTRODUCTION: Optic canal is a bony canal situated in between the roots of lesser wings of sphenoid, lateral to body of sphenoid. It transmits optic nerve and ophthalmic artery, surrounded by meninges. Various authors have studied variations in skull foramina and correlated clinically, as variants in the body structures have been found to be associated with many inherited or acquired diseases. AIM: The present study aimed to examine morphologic and morphometric variations in cranial openings of optic canals...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028478/reappraisal-of-europe-s-most-complete-early-cretaceous-plesiosaurian-brancasaurus-brancai-wegner-1914-from-the-wealden-facies-of-germany
#4
Sven Sachs, Jahn J Hornung, Benjamin P Kear
The holotype of Brancasaurus brancai is one of the most historically famous and anatomically complete Early Cretaceous plesiosaurian fossils. It derived from the Gerdemann & Co. brickworks clay pit near Gronau (Westfalen) in North Rhine-Westphalia, northwestern Germany. Stratigraphically this locality formed part of the classic European "Wealden facies," but is now more formally attributed to the upper-most strata of the Bückeberg Group (upper Berriasian). Since its initial description in 1914, the type skeleton of B...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003534/dental-data-perform-relatively-poorly-in-reconstructing-mammal-phylogenies-morphological-partitions-evaluated-with-molecular-benchmarks
#5
Robert S Sansom, Matthew Albion Wills, Tamara Williams
Phylogenetic trees underpin reconstructions of evolutionary history and tests of evolutionary hypotheses. They are inferred from both molecular and morphological data, yet the relative value of morphology has been questioned in this context due to perceived homoplasy, developmental linkage, and non-independence of characters. Nevertheless, fossil data are limited to incomplete subsets of preserved morphology, and different regions are treated as equivalent. Through meta-analysis of 40 datasets, we show here that the dental and osteological characters of mammals convey significantly different phylogenetic signals, and that osteological characters are significantly more compatible with molecular trees...
December 20, 2016: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000400/biomechanical-evaluation-of-different-musculoskeletal-arrangements-in-psittacosaurus-and-implications-for-cranial-function
#6
Adam C Taylor, Stephan Lautenschlager, Zhao Qi, Emily J Rayfield
The masseter muscle complex is a unique feature of extant mammals and their advanced cynodont precursors, originating from the zygomatic arch and inserting onto the lateral surface of the dentary. This muscle complex is absent in sauropsids, with the exception of the neomorphic m. pseudomasseter complex that is unique to psittaciform birds (parrots and cockatiels). The anterior position and anterodorsally inclined line of action of both muscle groups increases leverage of the jaw and is thought to contribute to increased bite force, particularly in psittaciforms...
January 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998428/-mutation-analysis-for-two-hypophosphatasia-families-with-targeted-next-generation-sequencing
#7
Y Bai, N Liu, J Yang, Y Guo, X D Kong
Objective: To detect the mutations in alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) gene of two Chinese families with perinatal hypophosphatasia (HPP), in order to explore the mechanism of this condition. Methods: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of osteology system panel was carried out for exome sequencing in the mothers of 2 HPP fetuses, who visited Prenatal Diagnosis Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Further polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing validation was performed in the parents, affected fetuses and 200 unrelated healthy individuals to verify the mutation sites...
December 13, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965978/rebamipide-an-amino-acid-analog-of-2-1h-quinolinone-inhibits-the-formation-of-human-osteoclasts
#8
Yuki Nanke, Tsuyoshi Kobashigawa, Toru Yago, Manabu Kawamoto, Hisashi Yamanaka, Shigeru Kotake
Objectives. Drug repositioning or drug reprofiling (DR) has recently been growing in importance. DR has a significant advantage over traditional drug development because the repositioned drug has already passed toxicity tests; its safety is known, and the risk of adverse toxicology is reduced. In the current study, we investigated the role of rebamipide, a mucosa-protecting agent, with recently reported anti-inflammatory function, in human osteoclastogenesis. Methods. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in the presence of M-CSF and sRANKL...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921292/cranial-joint-histology-in-the-mallard-duck-anas-platyrhynchos-new-insights-on-avian-cranial-kinesis
#9
Alida M Bailleul, Lawrence M Witmer, Casey M Holliday
The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes)...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896029/biology-of-tiny-animals-three-new-species-of-minute-salamanders-plethodontidae-thorius-from-oaxaca-mexico
#10
Gabriela Parra-Olea, Sean M Rovito, Mario García-París, Jessica A Maisano, David B Wake, James Hanken
We describe three new species of minute salamanders, genus Thorius, from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico. Until now only a single species, T. minutissimus, has been reported from this region, although molecular data have long shown extensive genetic differentiation among geographically disjunct populations. Adult Thorius pinicola sp. nov., T. longicaudus sp. nov., and T. tlaxiacus sp. nov. are larger than T. minutissimus and possess elliptical rather than oval nostrils; T. pinicola and T. longicaudus also have longer tails...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891036/complete-morphometric-analysis-of-jugular-foramen-and-its-clinical-implications
#11
Sushant Swaroop Das, Sandeep Saluja, Neelam Vasudeva
INTRODUCTION: Tumors affecting structures in the vicinity of jugular foramen such as glomus jugulare require microsurgical approach to access this region. These tumors tend to alter the normal architecture of the jugular foramen by invading it. Therefore, it is not feasible to have correct anatomic visualization of the foramen in the presence of such pathologies. Hence, a comprehensive knowledge of the jugular foramen is needed by all the neurosurgeons while doing surgery in this region...
October 2016: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890208/-descriptive-radiographic-topographic-and-functional-anatomy-applied-to-distal-radius-fractures
#12
C Fontaine, R Bry, P Laronde, E Guerre, A Aumar
Extensive anatomical knowledge is needed in order to correctly treat distal radius fractures: normal and pathological osteology of the distal radius, distal radio-ulnar joint and radiocarpal joint-both on the descriptive and functional level-the neurovascular and muscular environments of the distal radius-which are essential to the surgical approaches-and the angles that need to be restored during the reduction. All of these concepts are broached in this article.
December 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889860/rich-but-poor-life-in-the-roman-period-with-extreme-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
REVIEW
Željana Bašić, Ivan Jerković, Ivana Kružić, Šimun Anđelinović
In a Sidonian sarcophagus, from the Late Antique/early Christian period, skeletal remains of two persons were found. One of them, male, 30-50 years old, was found almost completely ankylosed, with highly osteoporotic bones and prominent erosion of joint surfaces. We diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis based on the eroded odontoid process, mandibular condyles, distal humerus, proximal and distal ulna, as well ankylosed hand and foot bones. Despite the fact that ankyloses of vertebrae and sacroiliac joint could point towards ankylosing spondylitis, the lack of typical vertebral ankyloses and new bone formation led to exclusion...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878942/morphological-evolution-of-the-mammalian-jaw-adductor-complex
#14
Stephan Lautenschlager, Pamela Gill, Zhe-Xi Luo, Michael J Fagan, Emily J Rayfield
The evolution of the mammalian jaw during the transition from non-mammalian synapsids to crown mammals is a key event in vertebrate history and characterised by the gradual reduction of its individual bones into a single element and the concomitant transformation of the jaw joint and its incorporation into the middle ear complex. This osteological transformation is accompanied by a rearrangement and modification of the jaw adductor musculature, which is thought to have allowed the evolution of a more-efficient masticatory system in comparison to the plesiomorphic synapsid condition...
November 23, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852495/defining-the-differences-in-transverse-plane-trajectories-for-thoracic-pedicle-screw-insertion-anatomic-versus-medial
#15
William R Hotchkiss, Richard M Schwend, Patrick P Bosch, Heather J H Edgar, Bonnie N Young
STUDY DESIGN: Comparing thoracic pedicle screw trajectories, screw lengths, and starting points by examining osteologic specimens. OBJECTIVE: Describe a medial screw trajectory (MST) compared to a screw trajectory along the anatomic pedicle angle (APA) in terms of trajectory, screw length, and starting point. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although thoracic pedicle screw insertion is commonly used for posterior fusion and instrumentation, there is little data to quantify an MST that avoids the great vessels and allows for greater screw purchase...
January 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816095/editorial-commentary-the-hip-bone-s-connected-to-the-spine-bone-but-correlation-does-not-equal-causation
#16
EDITORIAL
Joshua D Harris
A significant correlation was observed between the degree of lumbar spine arthritis and 2 quantitative markers of cam morphology (alpha angle and anterior femoral head-neck offset) in a large osteological collection of cadaveric lumbar spine and femurs. Although this study does not prove causation, it does impart further insight into the "hip-spine syndrome" in nonarthritic hips with proximal femoral asphericity.
November 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766642/new-species-of-the-miniature-genus-gelanoglanis-siluriformes-auchenipteridae-from-the-tocantins-river-basin-brazil-and-osteological-description-of-g-nanonocticolus
#17
B B Calegari, R E Reis
A new species of Gelanoglanis is described based on specimens collected in the Tocantins River, a tributary of the Amazon Basin. The new species is distinguished from congeners by unusual features to the genus such as the pelvic fin falling short of the urogenital opening by a distance larger than the anal-fin length, the first unbranched dorsal and pectoral-fin rays not ossified as spines, the dorsal-fin spinelet absent and the adipose fin in adults preceded by a long fleshy ridge. The new species is further distinguished from congeners by its soft, sinuous snout tip and morphometric proportions of the body and head...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761303/ecomorphological-analysis-of-the-astragalo-calcaneal-complex-in-rodents-and-inferences-of-locomotor-behaviours-in-extinct-rodent-species
#18
Samuel Ginot, Lionel Hautier, Laurent Marivaux, Monique Vianey-Liaud
Studies linking postcranial morphology with locomotion in mammals are common. However, such studies are mostly restricted to caviomorphs in rodents. We present here data from various families, belonging to the three main groups of rodents (Sciuroidea, Myodonta, and Ctenohystrica). The aim of this study is to define morphological indicators for the astragalus and calcaneus, which allow for inferences to be made about the locomotor behaviours in rodents. Several specimens were dissected and described to bridge the myology of the leg with the morphology of the bones of interest...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741209/pterygopalatine-fossa-anatomy-for-a-surgical-approach-to-sphenopalatine-ganglion
#19
Russell S Frautschi, Brianna Halasa, Susan Orra, Karolina Mlynek, Charles P Steiner, Francis A Papay
The sphenopalatine ganglion is an extracranial neural structure within the pterygopalatine fossa. Modulation of this region via implantation of a neuromodulatory device presents a novel therapy for the treatment of facial and head pain. Yet sex, race, and genetic factors contribute to morphological variations between individuals. This study defines the standards and variations of the bony landmarks surrounding the pterygopalatine fossa. One hundred dry skulls were analyzed from the Hamann-Todd osteological collection...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739056/anal-fin-ray-morphology-indicates-sexual-maturity-in-brevimyrus-niger-teleostei-mormyridae
#20
S K Stell, P Moller
This osteological survey of 249 specimens of Brevimyrus niger ranging in size from 44 to 137 mm standard length (LS ) demonstrated that developmental changes in anal-fin morphology can serve as a predictor of sexual maturity in this species. Anal-fin ray bases begin to expand when fish reach c. 90 mm LS at which size and above there were roughly equal numbers of individuals observed with expanded and unmodified anal-fin bases, reflecting a 1:1 sex ratio.
October 14, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
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